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Process And Product


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The principles of writing process

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Process And Product

  2. 2. Calsamiglia and Tusón (1999) MSc. Ada Espinoza Research on Second Language Writing Oral Discourse Written Discourse Writing is a fairly static form of transfer. Speaking is a dynamic transfer of information. Higher level of immediacy , lower level of retention in the spoken word Speaker has more ability to engage the audience psychologically It uses complex forms of non-verbal communication. Paralinguistic resources as rhythm Tone, intensity, speed Word repetition Writing is differed and higher level of retention The writer doesn't have a face To face audience The writer can’t use those forms Absence of shared spatial and temporal context Paralinguistic resources the title, paragraph division, punctuation marks, indentation. A tendency of non repeated words
  3. 3. Research on Second Language Writing considers takes into account emphasizes MSc. Ada Espinoza Research on Second Language Writing Contrastive rhetoric Authenticity Teaching Writing Skills Different patterns of written discourse English written discourse described in a straight line <ul><li>Writing as a way </li></ul><ul><li>of life </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Real/ Display </li></ul>Writing: Real and Meaningful Process Vs. Product <ul><li>Focus on process </li></ul><ul><li>Student’s composing process </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Time to write </li></ul><ul><li>Process of revision </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>
  4. 4. Research on Second Language Writing MSc. Ada Espinoza Characteristics of Written Language Distance Production Time Orthography Vocabulary Complexity
  5. 5. can be can be can be Research on Second Language Writing MSc. Ada Espinoza Types of Classroom Writing Performance <ul><li>Intensive or controlled: </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled </li></ul><ul><li>Guided </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Writing: </li></ul><ul><li>Note-taking </li></ul><ul><li>Diary </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue Journal </li></ul><ul><li>Real Writing: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic </li></ul><ul><li>Vocational/ </li></ul><ul><li>technical </li></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul>
  6. 6. Research on Second Language Writing Cultural Background Reading and Writing <ul><li>Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Of The writing </li></ul><ul><li>Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Drafting </li></ul><ul><li>Composing </li></ul><ul><li>Editing and Revising </li></ul>Techniques: Interactive Organization Effectiveness Sequence Conclusion Length Discourse Paragraph Unity Transitions DM. Cohesion Fluency Syntax Vocabulary Mechanics Spelling Punctuation Citations Neatness Appearance <ul><li>Practices of Good </li></ul><ul><li>Writers </li></ul><ul><li>Main Idea </li></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><li>General Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Surface structure </li></ul><ul><li>Revise </li></ul><ul><li>Patience </li></ul>Content Topic Related ideas Experience Description Research on Second Language Writing MSc. Ada Espinoza Principles for Designing Writing Techniques Basis for Evaluation of Student Writing
  7. 7. WHERE DO ABORIGINES LIVE? Aborigines are country’s earliest inhabitants. The best known Aborigines are those of Australia. Australian Aborigines have dark – brown skin and wavy hair. Their ancestors may have migrated from South-East Asia about 40,000 years ago. Aborigines lived in small wandering bands and made simple shelters at resting places. They used weapons and tools made from wood and stone to hunt and gather food. One of their weapons was the boomerang. This is a throwing weapon made from wood. One type is clearly designed to return to the thrower. Australian Aborigines had their own music, art and religions. At times, they would gather for a corroboree, a festival of music and dancing. There about 300,000 Aborigines in Australia when Europeans first arrived there two hundred years ago. Many Aborigines were persecuted by European settlers, and now only about 110,000 remain MSc. Ada Espinoza Research on Second Language Writing Example…
  8. 8. <ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model text as resource for comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on ideas and idea development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple drafts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various audiences according to type of writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer feedback as valuable tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of conferencing and interactive feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global definition </li></ul></ul>Research on Second Language Writing MSc. Ada Espinoza A comparison of product and process approaches <ul><li>Product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model text to be imitated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on organization of ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One draft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on end product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher as audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher as authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of teacher-corrected papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local definition </li></ul></ul>