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  1. 1. An adaptation of J. Cenoz and D. Gorter’s “Linguistic Landscape and Minority Languages”
  2. 2. A Linguistic Landscape on: <ul><li>Two blocks in two bilingual cities that are part of the same village. </li></ul><ul><li>English as the primary language. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish, is spoken as a minority language. </li></ul>
  3. 3. An analysis of: <ul><li>39 Signs </li></ul><ul><li>The use and characteristics of languages used on each establishment and the relationship to its sociolinguistic context. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Village of Hempstead, NY <ul><li>Front Street, Uniondale </li></ul><ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>Fulton Street, Hempstead </li></ul><ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nassau County
  6. 6. Hempstead/Uniondale
  7. 7. Background Information
  8. 8. Hempstead <ul><li>Population in 2000: 56,554 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value:  14,036 Persons/Sq Mile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Projected Population in 2007: 754,613 </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 12.8% of the population can understand, speak or write Spanish </li></ul>
  9. 9. Hempstead <ul><li>Races: % value </li></ul><ul><li>Languages: % value </li></ul>
  10. 10. Uniondale <ul><li>Population in 2000: 23,011 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value: 8,427 Persons/Sq Mile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Projected Population in 2007: 25,294 </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 24.7 % of the population can understand, speak or write Spanish </li></ul>
  11. 11. Uniondale <ul><li>Races: % value </li></ul><ul><li>Languages: % value </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Which are the languages displayed in the linguistic landscape of Uniondale and Hempstead? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the characteristics of bilingual signs? </li></ul>Research Questions
  13. 13. Methodology <ul><li>Digital pictures of texts </li></ul><ul><li>Variables: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of languages on the sign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Languages on the sign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First language and type of font on bilingual signs </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Research question 1: Number of Languages displayed
  15. 15. Language on sign E: English S: Spanish
  16. 16. Hempstead Monolingual English
  17. 17. Hempstead Monolingual Spanish
  18. 18. Hempstead English/Spanish
  19. 19. Hempstead Spanish/English
  20. 20. Uniondale Monolingual English
  21. 21. Uniondale Monolingual Spanish
  22. 22. Uniondale English/Spanish
  23. 23. Uniondale Spanish/English
  24. 24. Research Question 2: The characteristics of bilingual signs
  25. 25. First language on bilingual signs E: English S: Spanish
  26. 26. Hempstead Bilingual Sign S/E
  27. 27. Uniondale Bilingual Sign E/S
  28. 28. Type of font on bilingual signs
  29. 29. Hempstead Bilingual sign with Different Fonts
  30. 30. Uniondale Bilingual sign with Different Fonts
  31. 31. Translation in bilingual signs
  32. 32. Hempstead Word to Word Translation
  33. 33. Hempstead Partial Translation
  34. 34. Uniondale Word to Word Translation
  35. 35. Uniondale Partial Translation
  36. 36. Conclusions <ul><li>The signs show that in both Hempstead and Uniondale, English is the prominent language. </li></ul><ul><li>There are more bilingual signs than monolingual signs in both cities. </li></ul><ul><li>English appears first in the majority of bilingual signs. </li></ul><ul><li>The type of font used in bilingual signs is bigger for English than for Spanish. </li></ul><ul><li>The study shows that both English and Spanish are used for communication in shops and other businesses around the area, which reflects the power and influence that the minority language has in both cities. </li></ul>