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Communicative approach


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Communicative approach

  1. 1. Communicative approach Techniques& activities for communicative language teaching
  2. 2. “It’s raining.” <ul><li>I’m surprised because the sun was shining ten minutes ago. </li></ul><ul><li>I’m upset because we were going to have a picnic. </li></ul><ul><li>Other…? </li></ul><ul><li>The clues are NOT necessarily the verbal ones </li></ul>
  3. 3. Grammatical competence & Communicative competence <ul><li>Would you open the door? </li></ul><ul><li>Please to opens door. </li></ul><ul><li>I want the door to be opened by you. </li></ul><ul><li>The opening of the door is what I request. </li></ul><ul><li>To opening the door for me. </li></ul><ul><li>Would you mind opening the door? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Communicative approach/competence <ul><li>“The ability not only to apply the grammatical rules of a language to form grammatically correct sentences, but also to know when and where to use these sentences and to whom.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Jack C. Richards) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>“ Although our vocal organs are enough for the mere production of speech sounds, it is hardly an exaggeration to say that we need our entire bodies when we converse.” (John Abercombie) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>How loud we speak </li></ul><ul><li>How fast we speak </li></ul><ul><li>How softly we speak </li></ul><ul><li>Whispered? strident? </li></ul><ul><li>Eye movement? </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Verbal and non-verbal aspects of communication should interrelate in a teaching programme </li></ul>
  8. 8. Attitudes conveyed by <ul><li>Words </li></ul><ul><li>Intonation </li></ul><ul><li>Gesture </li></ul><ul><li>Facial expression </li></ul><ul><li>Other non verbal means </li></ul>
  9. 9. Communicative competence includes knowing <ul><li>The rules of conversation (address forma, taking turns, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The vocabulary and grammar of the language </li></ul><ul><li>Howe to use and respond to SPEECH ACTS- language functions: apologize, request, thank, invite, etc. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Noam Chomsky’s distinction <ul><li>Between “COMPETENCE” </li></ul><ul><li>and “PEFORMANCE” </li></ul><ul><li>What can it mean? </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Teachers must do more than just supply learners with a number of language structures to manipulate </li></ul><ul><li>“Foreign language cripples with all the necessary muscles… but unable to walk alone.” (Rivers, 1972) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Difference between <ul><li>USE and </li></ul><ul><li>USAGE </li></ul><ul><li>Skill getting & Skill using (Rivers) </li></ul>
  13. 13. CLT means both <ul><li>Spoken </li></ul><ul><li>Written language </li></ul>
  14. 14. Functions of the language <ul><li>Instrumental function- to get things </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory function- to control others’ behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Interactional function </li></ul><ul><li>Personal function- to express feelings… </li></ul><ul><li>Heuristic function- to learn and discover </li></ul>
  15. 15. Functions of the language <ul><li>Imaginative function- to create a world of imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Representational function- to communicate information </li></ul>
  16. 16. 4 dimensions of communicational competence <ul><li>Grammatical </li></ul><ul><li>Sociolinguistic </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse- meaning between the lines </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic </li></ul>
  17. 17. video Youtube
  18. 18. Theory of learning Focus on… <ul><li>activities that involve real communication- these promote learning </li></ul><ul><li>activities which are used to carry out meaningful tasks </li></ul><ul><li>language that is meaningful to he learner </li></ul>
  19. 19. Activities should be selected if.. <ul><li>…they engage the learners in meaningful and authentic language use </li></ul>
  20. 20. The syllabus should concentrate on <ul><li>Notions an adult might use </li></ul><ul><li>Functions an adult might need </li></ul><ul><li>Situations an adult might face when using the foreign language </li></ul>
  21. 21. Syllabuses <ul><li>Skill based syllabus ( the 4 skills)- integrated skills! </li></ul><ul><li>Functional syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Notional syllabus (that you need, ESP) </li></ul><ul><li>Task syllabus </li></ul>
  22. 22. Activities are OK as long as they… <ul><li>Reach the communicative objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Engage learners in communication </li></ul><ul><li>Require the use of communicative processes </li></ul>
  23. 23. Learner centred activities& materials <ul><li>…which are AUTHENTIC </li></ul>
  24. 24. Teaching students <ul><li>…to TAKE RISKS </li></ul>
  25. 25. Accuracy vs. Fluency <ul><li>Teaching communicative competence means a reassessment of our attitude towards error </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing mistakes? To what extent? Of what kind? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Making mistakes… <ul><li>…is a necessary part of a learner’s progress towards mastery of the language </li></ul>
  27. 27. Roles of teacher <ul><li>Facilitator, enabler, involver </li></ul><ul><li>Independent participant </li></ul><ul><li>Organizer, source of resources </li></ul>
  28. 28. How to correct? <ul><li>“Hot correction” </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping a note </li></ul><ul><li>Repeating what they said </li></ul><ul><li>Recording the activity </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Which of the following statements characterize CLT? <ul><li>People learn language best when using it do things rather than studying how language works </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar is no longer important in language teaching </li></ul><ul><li>People learn a language through communicating in it </li></ul><ul><li>Errors are not important in speaking a language </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>CLT is only concerned with teaching speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom activities should be meaningful and involve real communication </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogues are not used in CLT </li></ul><ul><li>Both accuracy and fluency are important goals </li></ul>
  31. 31. The principles of CLT <ul><li>Make real communication the focus of language teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities to experiment and try out </li></ul><ul><li>Be tolerant to learners’ errors </li></ul><ul><li>Develop both fluency and accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Link the different skills </li></ul><ul><li>Let students discover grammar rules </li></ul>
  32. 32. Communicative language teaching is associated with Task- based teaching