ObjectiveTrainees are expected to be aware of: The processes involved in listening and  speaking. Types of materials des...
Teaching Listening and Speaking   Prepared and by: Mohammad Qassem                                       2
Skill-getting vs. Skill-using   *Skill-getting:1. Cognition( Knowledge) of categories &     functions and internalizing ru...
Skill-usingInteraction : Reception of a message            Expression of persona meaning           Real communication     ...
Functions of SpeakingInternational: maintain social Transactional: convey informationrelationship                      and...
Factors affecting EFI learner’s oral communication 1. Age or maturational constraints . Early  beginning of learning a sec...
Components underlying                 Speaking Effective1.   Grammatical     -Grammar ( morphology, syntax) vocabulary and...
3.      Sociolinguistic      What is expected socially and culturally      Rules and norms governing the appropriate    ...
Listening viewsBottom- up processing   Decoding sounds in a linear fashion   Phonemic units are decoded and linked to fo...
Top – down view   Discourse plan- selection of an appropriate overall    plan for their intended speaking activity: e.g.,...
Listening sub-skill Recognize and produce the segmental  phonemes and suprasegmental features of  English Repeat ,after ...
Speaking Sub skills :   Producing the basic English segmental    phonemes i.e., consonants, vowels, and    diphthongs.  ...
Format of listening lesson-  Pre –Listening  pre – teaching of all important new vocabulary in the   passage- Listening Ex...
Linguistic and extra linguistic cues to         understand spoken language1.    Schematic cues: Previous knowledge or expe...
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Listening & speaking

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Listening & speaking

  1. 1. ObjectiveTrainees are expected to be aware of: The processes involved in listening and speaking. Types of materials designed to develop listening and speaking kills Factors involved in effective listening and speaking Techniques of teaching listening and speaking 1
  2. 2. Teaching Listening and Speaking Prepared and by: Mohammad Qassem 2
  3. 3. Skill-getting vs. Skill-using *Skill-getting:1. Cognition( Knowledge) of categories & functions and internalizing rules relating categories to functions.2. Production : articulation of sounds and construction of communication. 3
  4. 4. Skill-usingInteraction : Reception of a message Expression of persona meaning Real communication 4
  5. 5. Functions of SpeakingInternational: maintain social Transactional: convey informationrelationship and idea1. Teachers provide learners with meaningful communicativebehaviors:2. Using learner-learner interaction.a. Small talk (talk of the weather, rush - hour traffic , vocations...b. Interactive activities :news reports on the radio taped dialogs,jigsaw listening (audiocassette tape)c. Visual activities (appropriate films, videotapes, anecdotes andnon verbal 5
  6. 6. Factors affecting EFI learner’s oral communication 1. Age or maturational constraints . Early beginning of learning a second language through natural exposure leads to higher proficiency.2. Aural medium - Role of listening comprehension. - Listening plays extremely important role. - Speaking feeds on listening.3. Sociocultural factors - how a language is used in a social context.4. Affective factors- Emotions, empathy, self-esteem, anxiety. 6
  7. 7. Components underlying Speaking Effective1. Grammatical -Grammar ( morphology, syntax) vocabulary and mechanics [basic sounds, of letters and syllables, pronunciation of words, intonation and stress] - [ G. competence enables speakers to use and understand English-Language structures accurately and unhesitatingly.2. Discourse : [ Intersentential relationship] * The rules of cohesion and coherence. * Discourse markers. 7
  8. 8. 3. Sociolinguistic What is expected socially and culturally Rules and norms governing the appropriate timing and realization of speech acts4. Srategic - Ability to know when and how to take the floor. Keep a conversation going. Terminate the conservation. Clear up communication breakdown and comprehension problems. 8
  9. 9. Listening viewsBottom- up processing Decoding sounds in a linear fashion Phonemic units are decoded and linked to form words Words phrases Phrases utterances Utterances textsTop- down Listener reconstructs the original meaning of speaker using incoming sounds and clues. Prior knowledge of context. 9
  10. 10. Top – down view Discourse plan- selection of an appropriate overall plan for their intended speaking activity: e.g., telling stories, describing, obtaining information). Sentence plans – choice of syntactic forms to realize the discourse plan. Constituent plan – individual constituents ( NPs,VPs, tone groups) are filled out with particular words. Articulatory plans (also in writing )- a running memory of the phonological shape of the utterance, with all the intended words, inflections, stresses and intonation. Articulatory – planned phonologically shape of utterance is translated into actual movements of the articulators . 10
  11. 11. Listening sub-skill Recognize and produce the segmental phonemes and suprasegmental features of English Repeat ,after listening to tape ,short and fairly longer sentences used in dialogues Recite with understanding a number of short rhymes and songs Understand spoken instructions, directions, short narrative and descriptive passages 11
  12. 12. Speaking Sub skills : Producing the basic English segmental phonemes i.e., consonants, vowels, and diphthongs. Repeat after tape short sentences used in dialogues. Act out dialogues already memorized. Give simple instructions and commands to each other. Describe a process for doing a certain task. 12
  13. 13. Format of listening lesson- Pre –Listening pre – teaching of all important new vocabulary in the passage- Listening Extensive listening (followed by general questions establishing context)Intensive listening (followed by detailed comprehension questions)- Post –ListeningAnalysis of the language in the text (why did the speaker use the present perfect)Listen and repeat: teacher pauses the tape, learners repeat 13
  14. 14. Linguistic and extra linguistic cues to understand spoken language1. Schematic cues: Previous knowledge or experience about the topic .2. Contextual cues : knowledge of the situation and the people involved in the conversation.3. Systemic cuesA. Lexical cues (identifying heard sounds as words…..)B. Syntactic cuesC. Phonological cuesD. Phonemic segmentsE. Acoustics shape 14

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