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Science of Learning Strategic Research
Theme
Meeting of Minds Series :
Interrogating Hong Kong students’
superior performa...
A multilevel analysis of PIRLS2011
data from Hong Kong:
Differential influences of affective
factors and contextual factor...
Differential influences of affective
factors and contextual factors on
high-proficiency readers and low-
proficiency reade...
 Prof. TSE Shek Kam
 Dr. LAM Wai Ip
 Dr. CHEUNG Wai Ming
 Dr. LOH Ka Yee
PIRLS Research Team Members
Progress in International Reading
Literacy Study (PIRLS)
 (PIRLS) is organized by the International Association
for Evalu...
PIRLS conducted in the last ten years
6
PIRLS
2001
PIRLS
2006
PIRLS
2011
PIRLS
2016
7
Countries 2001 2006 2011
Australia 
Azerbaijan 
Chinese Taipei  
Hong Kong SAR   
Indonesia  
Iran   
Israel...
PIRLS 2011 Participants
8
Countries 2001 2006 2011
Austria  
Belgium (French)  
Bulgaria   
Croatia 
Czech Republi...
9
Countries 2001 2006 2011
Canada 
Colombia  
Trinidad and
Tobago
 
United States   
Americas
Countries 2001 2006 ...
10
Major focuses of PIRLS
 Reading purposes and processes of reading
comprehension
 Student reading behaviors and attitu...
Contexts of Developing Children’s reading Literacy
11
(PIRLS 2011 Assessment Framework, Page 35)
Reading assessment framework
12
Purpose for Reading
Levels
of Reading
Comprehension
Acquire and Use
Information
Literary E...
13
Research design and methodology
 Instruments
 Test Booklet
 Questionnaires
 School
 Teacher
 Learn to Read (Paren...
14
School Questionnaire
School Questionnaire
 Completed by: School principal of participating
schools
 It investigates:
...
15
Teachers Questionnaire
Teacher Questionnaire
 Completed by: Chinese language or reading teacher of
the sampled P4 clas...
16
Parents Questionnaire
Learn to Read Survey (Parents)
 Completed by: parents or primary
caregivers of each student
 It...
17
Students Questionnaire
Student Questionnaire
 Completed by: student who takes the
PIRLS reading test.
 It investigate...
Ranking Country/Region Avg.ScaleScore
1 RussianFederation 565
2 HongKongSAR 564
4 Singapore 558
10 Sweden 549
18 UnitedSt...
Ranking Country/Region Avg.ScaleScore
1 HongKongSAR 571
2 RussianFederation 568
3 Singapore 567
5 UnitedStates 556
7 Chin...
Reading achievement of 45
participating countries in
PIRLS 2011
20
1. Our primary goal in conducting the current study was to examine
the relationship between affective factors, home enviro...
 In PIRLSs’ reports of 2001, 2006 and 2011, students’ reading attitudes,
motivations, and self-concepts were found to be ...
 Peer bullying at school and school safety and order are key factors
associated with academic achievement and progress (G...
Methods (1)
Measurements on Concepts
Methods (2)
Measurements on Concepts
Methods (3)
Measurements on Concepts
Methods (4)
Measurements on Concepts
Methods (5)
Measurements on Concepts
 Data from 3,875 Hong Kong SAR Grade 4 students participating
in an international comparative assessment were analyzed.
S...
Methods (7)
Methods (8)
Results & Conclusions (1)
Fixed Effects on Factors: Low Proficiency Readers
Fixed effects Coefficient SE t-ratio
Approxima...
Results & Conclusions (2)
Fixed Effects on Factors: High Proficiency Readers
Fixed effects Coefficient SE t-ratio
Approxim...
 The likelihood of being a reader with high proficiency was
found to be associated with:
1. reading attitude,
2. reading ...
 A particularly interesting finding in this study was the negative
relationship between reading motivation and the probab...
 Many researchers have found a positive association between
family SES and academic achievement in general. However, in
o...
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Differential influences of affective factors and contextual factors By Prof. Shek Kam Tse

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Differential influences of affective factors and contextual factors By Prof. Shek Kam Tse

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Differential influences of affective factors and contextual factors By Prof. Shek Kam Tse

  1. 1. Science of Learning Strategic Research Theme Meeting of Minds Series : Interrogating Hong Kong students’ superior performance in PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study)
  2. 2. A multilevel analysis of PIRLS2011 data from Hong Kong: Differential influences of affective factors and contextual factors on high- proficiency readers and low- proficiency readers Prof. Shek-kam Tse and Dr. Xiao-yun Xiao
  3. 3. Differential influences of affective factors and contextual factors on high-proficiency readers and low- proficiency readers: a multilevel analysis of PIRLS data from Hong Kong Prof. Shek-kam Tse and Dr. Xiao-yun Xiao
  4. 4.  Prof. TSE Shek Kam  Dr. LAM Wai Ip  Dr. CHEUNG Wai Ming  Dr. LOH Ka Yee PIRLS Research Team Members
  5. 5. Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS)  (PIRLS) is organized by the International Association for Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA)  Conducting regular international research on assessments of reading literacy and the factors associated with its acquisition globally.  Focuses on the achievement of fourth grade young children  PIRLS has been conducted on a regular 5-year cycle since 2001. 5 The Hong Kong PIRLS study was funded by the Education Bureau of Hong Kong Government
  6. 6. PIRLS conducted in the last ten years 6 PIRLS 2001 PIRLS 2006 PIRLS 2011 PIRLS 2016
  7. 7. 7 Countries 2001 2006 2011 Australia  Azerbaijan  Chinese Taipei   Hong Kong SAR    Indonesia   Iran    Israel  New Zealand    Oman  Qatar  Saudi Arabia  Singapore  United Arab Emirates  Asia & Oceania No. of Participants: 45 New comers: 17 Second time: 10 Third time: 18 45 countries or regions participating in PIRLS 2011
  8. 8. PIRLS 2011 Participants 8 Countries 2001 2006 2011 Austria   Belgium (French)   Bulgaria    Croatia  Czech Republic   Denmark   England    Finland  France    Georgia   Germany    Hungary    Ireland  Europe Countries 2001 2006 2011 Italy    Lithuania    Malta  Netherlands    Northern Ireland  Norway    Poland   Portugal  Romania    Russia    Slovak Republic    Slovenia    Spain   Sweden   
  9. 9. 9 Countries 2001 2006 2011 Canada  Colombia   Trinidad and Tobago   United States    Americas Countries 2001 2006 2011 Morocco  Africa PIRLS 2011 Participants
  10. 10. 10 Major focuses of PIRLS  Reading purposes and processes of reading comprehension  Student reading behaviors and attitudes  Factors affecting student reading achievement and behaviors (Home, teachers, schools, curriculum and community)
  11. 11. Contexts of Developing Children’s reading Literacy 11 (PIRLS 2011 Assessment Framework, Page 35)
  12. 12. Reading assessment framework 12 Purpose for Reading Levels of Reading Comprehension Acquire and Use Information Literary Experience Level 4: Examine and evaluate content, language, and textual elements Level 3: Interpret and integrate ideas and information Level 2: Make straightforward inferences Level 1: Focus on and retrieving explicitly stated information Retrieving and Straightforward Inferencing (Low level) Interpreting, Integrating, and Evaluating (High level)
  13. 13. 13 Research design and methodology  Instruments  Test Booklet  Questionnaires  School  Teacher  Learn to Read (Parents)  Students
  14. 14. 14 School Questionnaire School Questionnaire  Completed by: School principal of participating schools  It investigates:  school characteristics  Instructional time  resources and technology  parental involvement  school climate for learning  teaching staff  the role of the principal  students’ reading readiness
  15. 15. 15 Teachers Questionnaire Teacher Questionnaire  Completed by: Chinese language or reading teacher of the sampled P4 class  It investigates:  classroom contexts for developing reading literacy  characteristics of the class tested,  activities for teaching reading and promoting the development of students' reading literacy;  classroom resources assessment practices  and home-school connections  teachers collaboration with others  professional development  teacher education and training
  16. 16. 16 Parents Questionnaire Learn to Read Survey (Parents)  Completed by: parents or primary caregivers of each student  It investigates:  child-parent literacy interactions  home literacy resources  parents’ reading habits and attitudes  home-school connections  basic demographic and socioeconomic information of the students’ family
  17. 17. 17 Students Questionnaire Student Questionnaire  Completed by: student who takes the PIRLS reading test.  It investigates:  Student readiness to learn  Student motivation  Student self-concept  Student reading literacy behaviors  Home resources for learning  Language(s) spoken in the home
  18. 18. Ranking Country/Region Avg.ScaleScore 1 RussianFederation 565 2 HongKongSAR 564 4 Singapore 558 10 Sweden 549 18 UnitedStates 540 19 England 539 22 ChineseTaipei 535 500PIRLSScaleCenterpoint Ranking Country/Region Avg.ScaleScore 1 Sweden 561 3 England 553 9 UnitedStates 542 14 RussianFederation 528 14 HongKongSAR 528 14 Singapore 528 500PIRLSScaleCenterpoint PIRLS 2001, 2006 & 2011Trend Study 18 PIRLS 2001 PIRLS 2006 +36
  19. 19. Ranking Country/Region Avg.ScaleScore 1 HongKongSAR 571 2 RussianFederation 568 3 Singapore 567 5 UnitedStates 556 7 ChineseTaipei 553 8 England 552 12 Sweden 542 PIRLSScaleCenterpoint 500 Ranking Country/Region Avg.ScaleScore 1 RussianFederation 565 2 HongKongSAR 564 4 Singapore 558 10 Sweden 549 18 UnitedStates 540 19 England 539 22 ChineseTaipei 535 500PIRLSScaleCenterpoint PIRLS 2006 PIRLS 2011 PIRLS 2001, 2006 & 2011Trend Study 19 +7
  20. 20. Reading achievement of 45 participating countries in PIRLS 2011 20
  21. 21. 1. Our primary goal in conducting the current study was to examine the relationship between affective factors, home environment, school context, and reading attainment among Chinese good and poor readers in a subsample of the large-scale dataset gathered during the PIRLS 2011 survey. 2. Affective factors include student’s reading attitude, student’s reading motivation and student’s reading-concept. 3. We also particularly wanted to compare the strength of this relationship between good and poor readers directly by testing, through use of a multilevel logit regression model, the extent to which these variables predicted the likelihood of the students in the sample being good or poor readers. Aim of Study
  22. 22.  In PIRLSs’ reports of 2001, 2006 and 2011, students’ reading attitudes, motivations, and self-concepts were found to be associated with their reading attainment across countries globally (Mullis et al. 2012; Mullis et al. 2003; Mullis et al. 2007), and might be varied with cultures.  The socioeconomic status (SES) of the family is another strong predictor of academic achievement (Bradley & Corwyn, 2002; McCulloch & Joshi, 2001; Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000; Sirin, 2005).  School SES is another variable strongly associated with academic performance in many studies (Ogle et al. ,2003). Factors and Reading Attainment (1)
  23. 23.  Peer bullying at school and school safety and order are key factors associated with academic achievement and progress (Glew et al., 2005).  Factors for analysis: 1. Student’s reading attitude 2. Student’s reading motivation 3. Student’s reading-concept 4. Home SES 5. School SES 6. Peer bullying 7. School bullying 8. School Safety and order Factors and Reading Attainment (2)
  24. 24. Methods (1) Measurements on Concepts
  25. 25. Methods (2) Measurements on Concepts
  26. 26. Methods (3) Measurements on Concepts
  27. 27. Methods (4) Measurements on Concepts
  28. 28. Methods (5) Measurements on Concepts
  29. 29.  Data from 3,875 Hong Kong SAR Grade 4 students participating in an international comparative assessment were analyzed. Students are classified as:  High proficiency: at or above 550  Average: at or above 475 and below 550  Low proficiency: : below 475  (Defined by international benchmarks of PIRLS)  Multilevel logit regression analysis was used to model the relationship between affective factors (i.e., reading attitude, reading motivation, and reading self-concept) peer bullying, family context (i.e., home socioeconomic status/SES), and school context (i.e., school SES, school bullying, and school safety and order). Methods (6) Samples and analysis
  30. 30. Methods (7)
  31. 31. Methods (8)
  32. 32. Results & Conclusions (1) Fixed Effects on Factors: Low Proficiency Readers Fixed effects Coefficient SE t-ratio Approximate df For readers with low proficiency Intercept (γ00(1)) -1.93 0.12 -15.66 *** 128 School SES (γ01(1)) -1.22 0.77 -1.59 13 School bullying (γ02(1)) 0.06 0.09 0.67 64 School safety and order slope (γ03(1)) -0.06 0.05 -1.08 53 Students’ reading attitudes Intercept (γ10(1)) 0.01 0.02 0.36 102 Students’ reading motivation Intercept (γ20(1)) 0.02 0.03 0.81 59 Students’ reading self-concept Intercept (γ30(1)) -0.09 0.03 -2.96 ** 21 Home SES Intercept (γ40(1)) -0.17 0.26 -0.64 21 Peer bullying Intercept (γ50(1)) 0.06 0.02 3.03 ** 131
  33. 33. Results & Conclusions (2) Fixed Effects on Factors: High Proficiency Readers Fixed effects Coefficient SE t-ratio Approximate df For readers with high proficiency Intercept (γ00(1)) 0.91 0.08 11.02 *** 77 School SES (γ01(1)) 1.21 0.38 3.19 ** 28 School bullying (γ02(1)) -0.17 0.06 -2.84 ** 128 School safety and order slope (γ03(1)) 0.00 0.03 0.12 128 Students’ reading attitudes Intercept (γ10(1)) 0.05 0.02 2.44 * 84 Students’ reading motivation Intercept (γ20(1)) -0.05 0.02 -2.68 ** 99 Students’ reading self-concept Intercept (γ30(1)) 0.16 0.02 8.74 *** 53 Home SES Intercept (γ40(1)) -0.03 0.13 -0.23 90 Peer bullying Intercept (γ50(1)) -0.03 0.02 -1.96 * 68
  34. 34.  The likelihood of being a reader with high proficiency was found to be associated with: 1. reading attitude, 2. reading motivation, 3. reading self-concept, 4. peer bullying, 5. school bullying, and 6. school SES.  Whereas the likelihood of being a reader with low proficiency was associated with reading self-concept and peer bullying only. Results & Conclusions (3) Individual Effect School Effect
  35. 35.  A particularly interesting finding in this study was the negative relationship between reading motivation and the probability of students being high-proficiency readers.  In our study, school SES was a significant predictor of students being high-proficiency readers, but NOT low-proficiency readers.  Our findings suggest that peer bullying behaviors had a role to play in the reading development of readers with high proficiency and readers with low proficiency. Results & Conclusions (4)
  36. 36.  Many researchers have found a positive association between family SES and academic achievement in general. However, in our study neither the probability of readers with low proficiency nor the probability of readers with high proficiency was predicted by family SES when the effects of affective factors and school factors were taken into account.  These findings suggest that the influence of family context on reading attainment is not as strong as that of school context or student characteristics (such as reading-related attitude, motivation, and self-concept examined in this study). Results & Conclusions (5)
  37. 37. Thank you!

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