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A 'Simple View of Writing' in Chinese by Patcy Yeung

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A 'Simple View of Writing' in Chinese by Patcy Yeung

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A 'Simple View of Writing' in Chinese by Patcy Yeung

  1. 1. SoL-SRT - Meeting of Minds SeriesOctober 14, 2015 Meeting of Minds Series* A 'Simple View of Writing' in Chinese Patcy Yeung The University of Hong Kong
  2. 2. SoL-SRT - Meeting of Minds SeriesOctober 14, 2015 Background Research on learning to read Chinese in past decades: • Skills/abilities important for Chinese word reading (e.g., Shu, McBride-Chang, Wu, & Liu, 2006; Tong, McBride-Chang, Shu, & Wong, 2009; Yeung et al., 2011; Yeung et al., 2012) – Rapid naming – Orthographic knowledge – Morphological awareness • Skills/abilities important for Chinese reading comprehension (e.g., Chik et al., 2011; Leong, Tse, Loh, & Hau, 2008; Yeung et al., 2011, 2013) – Verbal working memory – Syntactic skills – Discourse skills
  3. 3. SoL-SRT - Meeting of Minds SeriesOctober 14, 2015 Yeung, P.-S., Ho, C. S.-H., Chik, P. P.-M., Lo, L.-Y., Luan, H., Chan, D. W.-O., & Chung, K. K.-H. (2011). Reading and spelling Chinese among beginning readers: What skills make a difference? Scientific Studies of Reading, 15, 285–313. Participants: 290 Chinese first graders in Hong Kong
  4. 4. SoL-SRT - Meeting of Minds SeriesOctober 14, 2015 Yeung, P.-S., Ho, C. S.-H., Wong, Y.-K., Chan, D. W.-O., Chung, K. K.-H., & Lo, L.-Y. (2013). Longitudinal predictors of Chinese word reading and spelling among elementary grade students. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34, 1245-1277. Participants: 251 Chinese children in Hong Kong (fr Grades 1 to 4)
  5. 5. SoL-SRT - Meeting of Minds SeriesOctober 14, 2015 Yeung, P.-S., Ho, C. S.-H., Chan, D. W.-O., Chung, K. K.-H., & Wong, Y.-K. (2013). A model of reading comprehension in Chinese elementary school children. Learning and Individual Differences, 25, 55-66. Participants: 248 Chinese children in Hong Kong (Grade 4)
  6. 6. SoL-SRT - Meeting of Minds SeriesOctober 14, 2015 Background Research on learning to read Chinese in past decades: • Skills/abilities important for Chinese word reading (e.g., Shu, McBride- Chang, Wu, & Liu, 2006; Tong, McBride-Chang, Shu, & Wong, 2009; Yeung et al., 2011; Yeung et al., 2012) – Rapid naming – Orthographic knowledge – Morphological awareness • Skills/abilities important for Chinese reading comprehension (e.g., Chik et al., 2011; Leong, Tse, Loh, & Hau, 2008; Yeung et al., 2011, 2013) – Verbal working memory – Syntactic skills – Discourse skills • What are the cognitive-linguistic skills important to Chinese written composition?
  7. 7. SoL-SRT - Meeting of Minds SeriesOctober 14, 2015 Simple view of writing(Berninger, 1996; Berninger, Cartwright, Yates, Swanson, & Abbot, 1994; Berninger et al., 1997, 2002): – Two core processes: Transcription & Text generation • Transcription skills (including handwriting and spelling) – tools for transcribing oral language into visible language (Berninger, 2000) • Text generation – translation of ideas into oral language representation (Berninger et al., 1994)  Importance of transcription skills and oral language skills in children’s writing development
  8. 8. SoL-SRT - Meeting of Minds SeriesOctober 14, 2015 Findings in alphabetic languages • English – transcription skills (handwriting and/or spelling) are robust cognitive processes in writing among both children (Berninger & Swanson, 1994; Bourdin & Fayol, 1994) and adults (Bourdin & Fayol, 2002; Hayes & Chenoweth, 2006) • Turkish – working memory and vocabulary were significant longitudinal predictors of writing quality, but not handwriting or spelling beyond grade 1 (Babayiğit & Stainthorp, 2010, 2011) • Finnish – Spelling only predicted later writing quality between grades 1 and 2 but not by grades 2 and 3 (Mäki, Voeten, Vauras, & Poskiparta, 2001) Transparency of the writing systems matters? How about Chinese? An opaque orthography? Less consistent orthography Consistent orthography Consistent orthography
  9. 9. SoL-SRT - Meeting of Minds SeriesOctober 14, 2015 Recent findings • A 4-year longitudinal study on Chinese text writing development • Significance of cognitive-linguistic skills in grade 1 in explaining individual differences in text writing in grades 1, 2 & 4 (Yeung, Ho, Chan, & Chung, 2012) • Participants: Grade 1 to Grade 4 (N=340) (173 girls & 167 boys) • Measures:Time 1 (Grade 1) Time 2 (Grade 2) Time 3 (Grade 4) •General reasoning ability •Orthographic knowledge •Morphological awareness •Oral language skills (oral sentence construction skills) •Syntactic skills (Word order knowledge) •Handwriting skills (Stroke order knowledge) •Word spelling (i.e., word writing to dictation) •Text writing •Word spelling •Text writing •Word spelling •Text writing
  10. 10. SoL-SRT - Meeting of Minds SeriesOctober 14, 2015 Yeung, P.-S., Ho, C. S.-H., Chan, D. W.-O., & Chung, K. K.-H. (2013). Modeling the relationships between cognitive-linguistic skills and writing in Chinese among elementary grades students. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 26, 1195-1221. Orthographic knowledge Morphological awareness Handwriting skills Ideation Syntactic skills Time 1 Spelling Time 1 Text writing .35*** .17** .45*** * .32*** .26*** .14** .25*** .47*** .49*** .15** .26*** .16** .33*** .36*** .05 .02 Time 2 Spelling Time 3 Spelling Time 2 Text writing Time 3 Text writing .15** .03 -.08 .04 .03 .11 .18** .11** .09** .14** .12* .12* .17*** .11* -.03 .06 .34*** .15*** .11* .51*** .41*** .24*** .15** .34*** .08 Figure 1. Model 1 of Text Writing in Chinese. *p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001. Participants: Grade 1 to Grade 4 (N=340) (173 girls & 167 boys)
  11. 11. SoL-SRT - Meeting of Minds SeriesOctober 14, 2015 2013 – 2015 (Early Career Scheme) “An investigation of the cognitive-linguistic factors contributing to Chinese writing development among typically developing children and children with developmental dyslexia in Hong Kong. (Co-I: Professor Ho Connie Suk-han; Professor Chan David Wai-ock; Professor Chung Kevin Kien-hoa)
  12. 12. SoL-SRT - Meeting of Minds SeriesOctober 14, 2015 Method Participants: a) 1-year longitudinal study – 300 typically developing participants, 100 from grade 1, 100 from grade 3 and 100 from grade 5 – Assessment time points: Time 1 – Jun/Jul 2014, Time 2 – Jan/Feb 2015, Time 3 – Jun/Jul 2015 b) Assessment for 1 grade – 66 children diagnosed with reading and writing difficulties, 33 from grade 2-3 and 33 from grade 4- 5 – 66 children typically developing students, 33 from grade 2-3 and 33 from grade 4- 5
  13. 13. SoL-SRT - Meeting of Minds SeriesOctober 14, 2015 Yeung, P.-S., Ho, C. S.-H., Chan, D. W.-O., & Chung, K. K.-H. (in preparation). A Simple view of writing in Chinese. Participants: 249 Chinese children in Grade 1, Grade 3 and Grade 5
  14. 14. SoL-SRT - Meeting of Minds SeriesOctober 14, 2015 Model of Writing (Hayes, 2012) (Hayes, 2012)
  15. 15. SoL-SRT - Meeting of Minds SeriesOctober 14, 2015 Other related projects “Affective-motivational factors important to Chinese writing development among students in primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong” (Seed Funding Programme for Basic Research)(PI) (2013-2015)  “Causal relationships between syntactic skills and Chinese literacy development among typically developing children and children with developmental dyslexia in Hong Kong.” (General Research Fund) (PI) (2016-2018)
  16. 16. SoL-SRT - Meeting of Minds SeriesOctober 14, 2015 Other on-going projects  “A core curriculum of writing instruction in Chinese within the framework of the Tiered Intervention Model”. (The Government Matching Grant)(PI) (2014- 2015)  “Catering for diversity: Tier Intervention Model (Tier 1) Writing Intervention Programme for Senior Primary School Students”. (QEF proposal, rejected)  “A Cognitive-linguistic Approach to Writing Instruction for Students with Diverse Learning Needs in Senior Primary Schools”. (SCOLAR proposal, funded) (2015- 2017)
  17. 17. SoL-SRT - Meeting of Minds SeriesOctober 14, 2015 “A Cognitive-linguistic Approach to Writing Instruction for Students with Diverse Learning Needs in Senior Primary Schools”. Project aim: • To develop a Chinese writing curriculum for senior primary schools within a tiered intervention framework. • To carry out a Tier 1 and Tier 2 intervention on Chinese writing among senior primary grade students. 3 critical elements: (1) a core writing curriculum based on scientific research findings; (2) continuous progress monitoring to evaluate effectiveness; (3) professional development for teachers.

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