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Opinion leadership

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Opinion leadership

  1. 1. Amity Business School Amity Business School MBA Class of 2014, Semester II Consumer Behavior Ms.Vandana Gupta
  2. 2. Amity Business School Opinion Leadership The process by which one person (the opinion leader) informally influences the consumption actions or attitudes of others who may be opinion seekers or opinion recipients.
  3. 3. Amity Business School What Is Opinion Leadership? Opinion Leader Opinion Receiver Opinion Seeker
  4. 4. Amity Business School Word of Mouth in Action Figure 15-1
  5. 5. Amity Business School Dynamics of the Opinion Leadership Process • Credibility • Positive and Negative Product Information • Information and Advice • Opinion Leadership Is Category-Specific • Opinion Leadership Is a Two-way Street
  6. 6. Amity Business School Many not-for- profit organizations that hope to change behavior, count on opinion leaders.
  7. 7. Amity Business School Motivations Behind Opinion Leadership • The Needs of Opinion Leaders • The Needs of Opinion Receivers • Purchase Pals • Surrogate Buyers versus Opinion Leaders • Self-involvement • Social involvement • Product involvement • Message involvement Issues
  8. 8. Amity Business School Motivations Behind Opinion Leadership • The Needs of Opinion Leaders • The Needs of Opinion Receivers • Purchase Pals • Surrogate Buyers versus Opinion Leaders • New product or new usage information • Reduction of perceived risk • Reduction of search time • Receiving the approval of the opinion leader Issues
  9. 9. Amity Business School Motivations Behind Opinion Leadership • The Needs of Opinion Leaders • The Needs of Opinion Receivers • Purchase Pals • Surrogate Buyers versus Opinion Leaders • Actually accompany consumers on shopping trips • Used 25 percent of the time for purchases of electronic equipment Issues
  10. 10. Amity Business School Motivations Behind Opinion Leadership • The Needs of Opinion Leaders • The Needs of Opinion Receivers • Purchase Pals • Surrogate Buyers versus Opinion Leaders • Surrogate buyers may replace opinion leaders • An example is a wardrobe consultant who helps in the purchase of business clothes Issues
  11. 11. Amity Business School Key Differences Between Opinion Leaders and Surrogate Buyers Part I: Opinion Leaders OPINION LEADER 1. Informal relationship with end users 2. Information exchange occurs in the context of a casual interaction 3. Homophilous (to a certain extent) to end users 4. Does not get paid for advice 5. Usually socially more active than end users 6. Accountability limited regarding the outcome of advice 7. As accountability limited, rigor in search and screening of alternatives low 8. Likely to have used the product personally 9. More than one can be consulted before making a final decision 10. Same person can be an opinion leader for a variety of related product categories
  12. 12. Amity Business School Key Differences Between Opinion Leaders and Surrogate Buyers Part II: Surrogate Buyers SURROGATE BUYER 1. Formal relationship; occupation-related status 2. Information exchange in the form of formal instructions/advice 3. Heterophilus to end users (that is, is the source of power) 4. Usually hired, therefore gets paid 5. Not necessarily socially more active than end-users 6. High level of accountability 7. Search and screening of alternatives more rigorous 8. May not have used the product for personal consumption 9. Second opinion taken on rare occasions 10. Usually specializes for a specific product/service category
  13. 13. Amity Business School Measurement of Opinion Leadership • Self-Designating Method • Sociometric Method • Key Informant Method • Objective Method
  14. 14. Amity Business School Measuring Opinion Leadership SELF-DESIGNATING METHOD “Do you influence other people in their selection of products?” Each respondent is asked a series of questions to determine the degree to which he or she perceives himself or herself to be an opinion leader. OPINION LEADERSHIPOPINION LEADERSHIP MEASUREMENTMEASUREMENT METHODMETHOD SAMPLESAMPLE QUESTIONS ASKEDQUESTIONS ASKED DESCRIPTION OF METHODDESCRIPTION OF METHOD SOCIOMETRIC METHOD Members of a social system are asked to identify to whom they give advice and to whom they go for advice. “Whom do you ask?”“Who asks you for info about that product category?”
  15. 15. Amity Business School OPINIONOPINION LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP MEASUREMENTMEASUREMENT METHODMETHOD SAMPLESAMPLE QUESTIONSQUESTIONS ASKEDASKED DESCRIPTION OF METHODDESCRIPTION OF METHOD KEY INFORMANT METHOD “Who are the most influential people in the group?” Carefully selected key informants in a social system are asked to designate opinion leaders. Artificially places individuals in a position to act as opinion leaders and measures results of their efforts. “Have you tried the product?” OBJECTIVE METHOD
  16. 16. Amity Business School Profile of Opinion Leaders GENERALIZED ATTRIBUTES ACROSS PRODUCT CATEGORIES CATEGORY-SPECIFIC ATTRIBUTES Innovativeness Willingness to talk Self-confidence Gregariousness Cognitive differentiation Interest Knowledge Special-interest media exposure Same age Same social status Social exposure outside group
  17. 17. Amity Business School Market Maven Individuals whose influence stems from a general knowledge or market expertise that leads to an early awareness of new products and services.
  18. 18. Amity Business School The Interpersonal Flow of Communication • Two-Step Flow – A communication model that portrays opinion leaders as direct receivers of information from mass media sources who, in turn, interpret and transmit this information • Multistep Flow – A revision of the traditional two-step theory that shows multiple communication flows
  19. 19. Amity Business School Two-Step Flow of Communication Theory
  20. 20. Amity Business School Multistep Flow of Communication Theory
  21. 21. Amity Business School Issues in Opinion Leadership and Marketing Strategy • Advertisements Stimulating Opinion Leadership • Word of Mouth May Be Uncontrollable
  22. 22. Amity Business School Marketers Seek to Take Control of the Opinion Leadership Process • Creating products with built-in buzz potential • Strategy designed to stimulate buzz • Viral marketing • Weblogs

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