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The Time Value of Money
Topic 03
GSB711 – Managerial Finance
Reading:
Chapter: The Time Value of Money (Pages 108 – 152)
Q...
Topics Covered
Future Values and Compound Interest
Present Values
Multiple Cash Flows
Level Cash Flows
 Perpetuities and A...
Future Values
Future Value - Amount to which an investment will grow after earning interest.
Compound Interest - Interest ...
Future Values
Example - Simple Interest
	Interest earned at a rate of 6% for five years on a principal balance of $100.
In...
Example - Simple Interest
	Interest earned at a rate of 6% for five years on a principal balance of $100.
			Today		Future...
Example - Compound Interest
	Interest earned at a rate of 6% for five years on the previous year’s balance.
Interest Earne...
Example - Compound Interest
	Interest earned at a rate of 6% for five years on the previous year’s balance.
			Today		Futu...
Future Values
Future Value of $100 = FV
Future Values
Example - FV
What is the future value of $100 if interest is compounded annually at a rate of 6% for five ye...
Future Values with Compounding
Interest Rates
Manhattan Island Sale
Peter Minuit bought Manhattan Island for $24 in 1626. Was this a good deal?
To answer, determine $24...
Present Values
Present Value
Value today of a future cash flow.
Discount Factor
Present value of a $1 future payment.
Disc...
Present Values
Present Values
Example
	You just bought a new computer for $3,000.  The payment terms are 2 years same as cash.  If you ca...
Present Values
Discount Factor = DF = PV of $1
Discount Factors can be used to compute the present value of any cash flow.
The PV formula has many applications.  Given any variables in the equation, you can solve for the remaining variable. 
Tim...
Present Values with Compounding
Interest Rates
Value of Free Credit
Implied Interest Rates
Internal Rate of Return
Time necessary to accumulate funds
Time Value of Money...
Example
Your auto dealer gives you the choice to pay $15,500 cash now, or make three payments: $8,000 now and $4,000 at th...
Present Values
$8,000
$4,000
$ 4,000
Present Value
Year 0
4000/1.08
4000/1.082
Total
= $3,703.70
= $3,429.36
= $15,133.06
...
Perpetuities & Annuities
PV of Multiple Cash Flows
PVs can be added together to evaluate multiple cash flows.
Perpetuity
   A stream of level cash payments that never ends.
Annuity
   Equally spaced level stream of cash flows for a ...
Perpetuities & Annuities
PV of Perpetuity Formula
C = cash payment
 r = interest rate
Perpetuities & Annuities
Example - Perpetuity
	In order to create an endowment, which pays $100,000 per year, forever,...
Perpetuities & Annuities
Example - continued
	If the first perpetuity payment will not be received until three years f...
Perpetuities & Annuities
PV of Annuity Formula
C = cash payment
 r = interest rate 
 t = Number of years cash payment ...
Perpetuities & Annuities
PV Annuity Factor (PVAF) - The present value of $1 a year for each of t years.
Perpetuities & Annuities
Example - Annuity
	You are purchasing a car.  You are scheduled to make 3 annual installments...
Perpetuities & Annuities
Applications
Value of payments
Implied interest rate for an annuity
Calculation of periodic p...
Perpetuities & Annuities
Example - Future Value of annual payments
You plan to save $4,000 every year for 20 years and...
Effective Interest Rates
Effective Annual Interest Rate - Interest rate that is annualized using compound interest.
Annual...
Effective Interest Rates
example
	Given a monthly rate of 1%, what is the Effective Annual Rate(EAR)? What is the Annual P...
Effective Interest Rates
example
	Given a monthly rate of 1%, what is the Effective Annual Rate(EAR)? What is the Annual P...
Inflation - Rate at which prices as a whole are increasing.
Nominal Interest Rate - Rate at which money invested grows.
Re...
Inflation
Annual U.S. Inflation Rates from 1900 - 2007
Annual Inflation, %
Inflation
approximation formula
Example
	If the interest rate on one year govt. bonds is 6.0% and the inflation rate is 2.0%, what is the real interest ra...
Inflation
Remember: Current dollar cash flows must be discounted by the nominal interest rate; real cash flows must be dis...
Summary	
Time has value
Future Value – Compounding
Present Value – Discounting
Multiple Cash Flows
Perpetuities
Annuities
...
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GSB711-Lecture-Note-03-The-Time-Value-of-Money

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This is the third presentation for the University of New England Graduate School of Business unit GSB711 - Managerial Finance. It explores the time value of money, using examples to help students clarify this concept.

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GSB711-Lecture-Note-03-The-Time-Value-of-Money

  1. 1. The Time Value of Money Topic 03 GSB711 – Managerial Finance Reading: Chapter: The Time Value of Money (Pages 108 – 152) Questions: 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 12 and 18 Problems: 22, 25, 27, 34, 35, 36, 40, 44, 46, 48, 50, 55, 59, 63, 68, 76, and 80.
  2. 2. Topics Covered Future Values and Compound Interest Present Values Multiple Cash Flows Level Cash Flows Perpetuities and Annuities Effective Annual Interest Rates Inflation & Time Value
  3. 3. Future Values Future Value - Amount to which an investment will grow after earning interest. Compound Interest - Interest earned on interest. Simple Interest - Interest earned only on the original investment.
  4. 4. Future Values Example - Simple Interest Interest earned at a rate of 6% for five years on a principal balance of $100. Interest Earned Per Year = 100 x .06 = $ 6
  5. 5. Example - Simple Interest Interest earned at a rate of 6% for five years on a principal balance of $100. Today Future Years 12345 Interest Earned Value 100 Future Values 6 106 6 112 6 118 6 124 6 130 Value at the end of Year 5 = $130
  6. 6. Example - Compound Interest Interest earned at a rate of 6% for five years on the previous year’s balance. Interest Earned Per Year =Prior Year Balance x .06 Future Values
  7. 7. Example - Compound Interest Interest earned at a rate of 6% for five years on the previous year’s balance. Today Future Years 12345 Interest Earned Value 100 Future Values 6 106 6.36 112.36 6.74 119.10 7.15 126.25 7.57 133.82 Value at the end of Year 5 = $133.82
  8. 8. Future Values Future Value of $100 = FV
  9. 9. Future Values Example - FV What is the future value of $100 if interest is compounded annually at a rate of 6% for five years?
  10. 10. Future Values with Compounding Interest Rates
  11. 11. Manhattan Island Sale Peter Minuit bought Manhattan Island for $24 in 1626. Was this a good deal? To answer, determine $24 is worth in the year 2008, compounded at 8%. FYI - The value of Manhattan Island land is well below this figure.
  12. 12. Present Values Present Value Value today of a future cash flow. Discount Factor Present value of a $1 future payment. Discount Rate Interest rate used to compute present values of future cash flows.
  13. 13. Present Values
  14. 14. Present Values Example You just bought a new computer for $3,000. The payment terms are 2 years same as cash. If you can earn 8% on your money, how much money should you set aside today in order to make the payment when due in two years?
  15. 15. Present Values Discount Factor = DF = PV of $1 Discount Factors can be used to compute the present value of any cash flow.
  16. 16. The PV formula has many applications. Given any variables in the equation, you can solve for the remaining variable. Time Value of Money(applications)
  17. 17. Present Values with Compounding Interest Rates
  18. 18. Value of Free Credit Implied Interest Rates Internal Rate of Return Time necessary to accumulate funds Time Value of Money(applications)
  19. 19. Example Your auto dealer gives you the choice to pay $15,500 cash now, or make three payments: $8,000 now and $4,000 at the end of the following two years. If your cost of money is 8%, which do you prefer? PV of Multiple Cash Flows
  20. 20. Present Values $8,000 $4,000 $ 4,000 Present Value Year 0 4000/1.08 4000/1.082 Total = $3,703.70 = $3,429.36 = $15,133.06 Year 0 1 2 $8,000
  21. 21. Perpetuities & Annuities
  22. 22. PV of Multiple Cash Flows PVs can be added together to evaluate multiple cash flows.
  23. 23. Perpetuity A stream of level cash payments that never ends. Annuity Equally spaced level stream of cash flows for a limited period of time. Perpetuities & Annuities
  24. 24. Perpetuities & Annuities PV of Perpetuity Formula C = cash payment r = interest rate
  25. 25. Perpetuities & Annuities Example - Perpetuity In order to create an endowment, which pays $100,000 per year, forever, how much money must be set aside today in the rate of interest is 10%?
  26. 26. Perpetuities & Annuities Example - continued If the first perpetuity payment will not be received until three years from today, how much money needs to be set aside today?
  27. 27. Perpetuities & Annuities PV of Annuity Formula C = cash payment r = interest rate t = Number of years cash payment is received
  28. 28. Perpetuities & Annuities PV Annuity Factor (PVAF) - The present value of $1 a year for each of t years.
  29. 29. Perpetuities & Annuities Example - Annuity You are purchasing a car. You are scheduled to make 3 annual installments of $4,000 per year. Given a rate of interest of 10%, what is the price you are paying for the car (i.e. what is the PV)?
  30. 30. Perpetuities & Annuities Applications Value of payments Implied interest rate for an annuity Calculation of periodic payments Mortgage payment Annual income from an investment payout Future Value of annual payments
  31. 31. Perpetuities & Annuities Example - Future Value of annual payments You plan to save $4,000 every year for 20 years and then retire. Given a 10% rate of interest, what will be the FV of your retirement account?
  32. 32. Effective Interest Rates Effective Annual Interest Rate - Interest rate that is annualized using compound interest. Annual Percentage Rate - Interest rate that is annualized using simple interest.
  33. 33. Effective Interest Rates example Given a monthly rate of 1%, what is the Effective Annual Rate(EAR)? What is the Annual Percentage Rate (APR)?
  34. 34. Effective Interest Rates example Given a monthly rate of 1%, what is the Effective Annual Rate(EAR)? What is the Annual Percentage Rate (APR)?
  35. 35. Inflation - Rate at which prices as a whole are increasing. Nominal Interest Rate - Rate at which money invested grows. Real Interest Rate - Rate at which the purchasing power of an investment increases. Inflation
  36. 36. Inflation Annual U.S. Inflation Rates from 1900 - 2007 Annual Inflation, %
  37. 37. Inflation approximation formula
  38. 38. Example If the interest rate on one year govt. bonds is 6.0% and the inflation rate is 2.0%, what is the real interest rate? Inflation
  39. 39. Inflation Remember: Current dollar cash flows must be discounted by the nominal interest rate; real cash flows must be discounted by the real interest rate.
  40. 40. Summary Time has value Future Value – Compounding Present Value – Discounting Multiple Cash Flows Perpetuities Annuities Effective Annual Rate and Annual Percentage Rate Inflation and time value - Consistency

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