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  • Figure: 03-05 Title: The effects of osmosis. Caption: Red blood cells are normally suspended in the fluid environment of the blood. (a) If red blood cells are immersed in an isotonic salt solution, which has the same concentration of dissolved substances as the blood cells do, there is no net movement of water across the plasma membrane. The red blood cells keep their characteristic dimpled disk shape. (b) A hypertonic solution, with too much salt, causes water to leave the cells, shriveling them up. (c) A hypotonic solution, with less salt than is in the cells, causes water to enter, and the cells swell.
  • Uphill movement of molcs allows cells to accumulate substances, above external concentration..’ Specific proteins required. Some transport pumps move different molcs in dift directions, in or out of cell. Ex. Sodium-potassium pump of neurons. Energy supplied by ATP - ADP or by downhill movement of another molc. Analogy to using water in river to supply energy to grind flour from wheat kernels.
  • Macrophage engulfs bacteria, surrounding them with membrane and ingesting them inside cell. Bact are then trapped inside vesicle. Can be fused with another vesicle containing digestive enzymes. Neutrophils and macrophages (both WBCs) can do this.
  • Transport

    1. 1. Today’s Bell Ringer <ul><li>Please turn in your cell analogy projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Work individually on the chart. Compare and contrast animal and plant cells, and eukaryotes and prokaryotes. </li></ul><ul><li>You may use you books and notes if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your chart, we will go over it when the chime rings. </li></ul><ul><li>Quietly check you folder if there is time! </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks! </li></ul>5:00 4:30 4:00 3:30 3:00 2:30 2:00 1:30 1:00 0:30 0:00
    2. 2. <ul><li>Time is Up! </li></ul>
    3. 3. Passive & Active Transport <ul><li>Chapter 4 </li></ul><ul><li>SOL 4 a, b, & d </li></ul>
    4. 4. Today’s Question: <ul><li>How do molecules cross the cell membrane? </li></ul>
    5. 5. I. Transport across the CM <ul><li>Passive transport </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitated diffusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Osmosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Active transport </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ion Pumps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exocytosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endocytosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pinocytosis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receptor-Mediated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>No Energy Required Require Energy
    6. 6. II. Passive Transport <ul><li>DIFFUSION (AKA “simple diffusion”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules move from an area of high concentration, to an area of low conc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moves DOWN the conc. Gradient </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules must be able to cross the cell membrane. </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Diffusion Animation
    8. 8. II. Passive Transport <ul><li>2. FACILITATED DIFFUSION: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substances that are not soluble in lipids need help to get across the Cell Memebrane. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Carrier” proteins help them to get. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules move from high concentration to low </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Still moving DOWN conc. gradient. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Facilated Diffusion
    10. 10. II. Passive Transport <ul><li>3. OSMOSIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special term applied to the diffusion of WATER molecules across the CM. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just like simple diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water molecules move from area of high water concentration to area of low water concentration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osmosis Animation </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Osmosis <ul><li>Osmosis happens in your body ALL THE TIME </li></ul><ul><li>Because of its importance, there are 3 special terms dealing with water solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isotonic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertonic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypotonic </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. III. Osmosis <ul><li>1. ISOTONIC SOLUTION: Same concentraion of “stuff” dissolved in surrounding solution as inside the cell. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No net movement of water across the membrane. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell stays the same size. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State of EQUILIBRIUM </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 14. III. Osmosis <ul><li>2. HYPOTONIC SOLUTION : A solution surrounding a cell that has less dissolved solute than in the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 O moves in. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell grows in size. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think of a Hippo (he’s round, plump, looks like he might burst…) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 15. III. Osmosis <ul><li>3. HYPERTONIC SOLUTION : A solution surrounding a cell that has more dissolved solute than the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>1. H 2 O Moves out of the cell. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To help you remember: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The “e” in hyp E rtonic = H 2 O E xits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell shrinks in size. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 16. isotonic solution hypertonic solution hypotonic solution 10 microns equal movement of water into and out of cells net water movement out of cells net water movement into cells
    16. 17. <ul><li>Mov’t of molecules AGAINST (up) a concentration gradient. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Requires ENERGY (ATP) </li></ul><ul><li>Like pushing a boulder up a hill. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Transport proteins are needed to move molecules across CM. </li></ul><ul><li>These proteins use up energy to work. </li></ul>IV. Active Transport
    17. 18. IV. Active Transport <ul><li>4. Ex. Of Active Transport: ION PUMPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Na + /K + pump </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein’s shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See video clip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium-Potassium Pump </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. V. Movement in Vesicles <ul><li>EXOCYTOSIS : mov’t of large molecules across the CM by a vesicle, OUT OF the cell. </li></ul>
    19. 20. V. Movement in Vesicles <ul><li>2. ENDOCYTOSIS : mov’t of large substances across the CM by a vesicle, INTO the cell. </li></ul>
    20. 21. 3. Three types of Endocytosis <ul><li>A. PHAGO CYTOSIS = ingestion or “eating” of molecules by the cell. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To help you remember: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PHAGO my EGO . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is how your immune cells destroy bacteria…they eat them!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch the phagocytosis animation </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. human immune system ingests whole bacteria
    22. 23. 3. Three types of Endocytosis <ul><li>B. PINO CYTOSIS = ingestion of liquid by a cell. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To help you remember: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PINO COLADA. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 24. 3. Three types of Endocytosis <ul><li>C. RECEPTOR-MEDIATED : cells ingest large molecules using receptor sites specific to the molecules being ingested. </li></ul>
    24. 25. Exocytosis and Endocytosis <ul><li>Phagocytosis and Exocytosis </li></ul>