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Organ system overview


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Organ system overview

  1. 1. Organ System Overview
  2. 2. Organ System <ul><li>The human organism consists of several organ systems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each includes a set of interrelated organs that work together to provide specialized functions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some organs function in multiple systems </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Body Covering <ul><li>The Integumentary System : protect underlying tissues, helps regulate body temperature, houses a variety of sensory receptors, keeps pathogens out, and synthesizes certain products. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: The skin and various accessory organs, such as hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Support & Movement <ul><li>The organs of the skeletal and muscular system support and move body parts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal System : bones, ligaments and cartilage that binds bones together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular System : muscles & tendons </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Integration & Coordination <ul><li>The nervous and endocrine systems control and adjust various organ functions, which maintains homeostasis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous System : brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocrine System : all the glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Nervous System <ul><li>Nerve cells (called neurons ) within the body use electrochemical signals called nerve impulses to communicate with one another and with muscles and glands. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each impulse produces a fast response and last a relatively short time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some neurons act as specialized receptors that detect changes inside and outside the body. (receptor) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some nerve cells receive the impulses transmitted form these sensory receptors and interpret and act on the information received. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some nerve cells carry impulses from the brain or spinal cord to muscles or glands, stimulating them to contract or to secrete products. (effectors) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Endocrine System <ul><li>All the glands in your body. </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete hormones that travel throughout body in the bloodstream or in interstitial fluid. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A particular hormone affects only a particular group of cells, called Target Cells . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The affect of a hormone is to alter the metabolism of the target cells. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hormonal effects take longer to occur and last a relatively long time period. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Endocrine System Cont. <ul><li>Hormones regulate metabolism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This system includes the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, as well as the pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, and thymus gland. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Transport <ul><li>2 organ systems transport substances throughout the internal environment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular System : the heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, and blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphatic System : lymphatic vessels, lymph fluid, lymph nodes, thymus gland, and spleen. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Cardiovascular System <ul><li>Blood transports gases, such as oxygen and CO 2 , </li></ul><ul><li>Transport of nutrients, such as sugars, and waste </li></ul><ul><li>Transport of hormones. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Lymphatic System <ul><li>Transports lymph fluid from tissues to the bloodstream. </li></ul><ul><li>Carries certain fatty substances away from the digestive organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Aids in defending the body against disease-causing agents. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Absorption & Excretion <ul><li>Organs in several systems absorb nutrients and oxygen and excrete various wastes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urinary System </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Digestive System <ul><li>The digestive system receives foods, breaks down food molecules into nutrients that can pass through cell membranes, and eliminates materials that are not absorbed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It includes the mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Respiratory System <ul><li>The respiratory system takes in oxygen and sends out carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It includes the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Urinary System <ul><li>The urinary system includes the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It filters waste from the blood and helps maintain water, acid-base, and electrolyte balance. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Reproduction <ul><li>The reproductive systems produce new organisms. </li></ul>