Nervous system intro


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Nervous system intro

  1. 1. Introduction to the Nervous System Chapter 9: Nervous System Unit 3: Integration and Coordination
  2. 2. Nervous System Function <ul><li>The nervous system performs three primary functions in the human body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. The most obvious is that it coordinates our movements using electrochemical signals to control muscle contraction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Also used to sense the internal & external environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Finally, it integrates senses to form emotions and sensations </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Nervous System Function <ul><li>Overall the Nervous system is one of two systems that helps to maintain that all important homeostasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses sensors and effectors to maintain important physiological set points. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*the other system that helps maintain homeostasis would be the endocrine system </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Nervous System Anatomy <ul><li>The structural basis of the nervous system is a special cell called the neuron </li></ul><ul><li>There are additional cells in the nervous system called neuroglial cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform support roles such as absorbing nutrients and phagocitizing pathogens in the nervous system </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Nervous System Anatomy <ul><li>Neurons are specialized cells that are capable of carrying electrochemical signals long distances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized ion channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized ion pumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of ATPase </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Nervous System Anatomy
  7. 7. Nervous System Anatomy <ul><li>Neurons have three distinct parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dendrites (many) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axon (single) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Nervous System Anatomy <ul><li>Nervous system uses nerves to communicate between body parts </li></ul><ul><li>Nerves are bundles of axons from multiple neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Act like telephone wires in the body </li></ul>
  9. 9. Divisions of the NS <ul><li>The nervous system and its organs can be divided into two major groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Nervous System ( CNS ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the brain & spinal cord </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System ( PNS ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the nerves and ganglia that connect the CNS to the rest of the body </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Divisions of the NS <ul><li>CNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for integration of senses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates movements </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Divisions of the NS <ul><li>PNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for sensory functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The five senses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can use free nerve ends such as those used to sense heat/cold OR… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be connected to specialized sense organs such as the cones/rods of the retina (eye), the taste buds, or the special organs that sense touch and pressure in the skin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Divisions of the NS <ul><li>PNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also responsible for motor functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telling muscles when to contract </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling heart rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling blood pressure by making vessels constrict/dilate (also controls temperature homeostasis) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling breathing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Divisions of the NS <ul><li>The motor part of the peripheral nervous system can be further divided into two categories based on responsiveness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Autonomic Nervous System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Somatic Nervous System </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Divisions of the NS <ul><li>Autonomic Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls and coordinates parts of the body that are not under voluntary control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Called involuntary actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood Pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digestion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Divisions of the NS <ul><li>Somatic Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for all actions that are preformed voluntarily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscle contractions </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Divisions of the NS <ul><li>The Autonomic Nervous System can be divided still farther into two groups that affect the human body in opposite ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic Nervous System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic Nervous System </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Divisions of the NS <ul><li>The Sympathetic Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the autonomic nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds involuntarily to danger/stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in the fight or flight response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rate??? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood pressure??? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pupils??? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digestion??? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Divisions of the NS <ul><li>The Parasympathetic Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds involuntarily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in a soothing/calming response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually responds once a stressful/fearful stimulus is removed </li></ul></ul>