Introduction to Human A&P


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Introduction to Human A&P

  1. 1. Introduction to Human Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1: Introduction to Human A&P Unit 1: Levels of Organization
  2. 2. Anatomy & Physiology <ul><li>The functional knowledge of anatomy and physiology can be used to solve problems concerning the healthy or diseased body. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomy : the branch of science that deals with the structure (morphology) of body parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Their forms and how they are organized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiology : concerns that functions of body parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What they do and how they do it </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Anatomy Continued <ul><li>Coined by Aristotle about 2300 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from the Greek words meaning to cut ( tomy ) apart ( ana ) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Anatomy’s Sub-Division <ul><li>Gross Anatomy : Study of structure and the interrelation of the parts of the body by dissection </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopic Anatomy/Histology : Study of the tissues of the body under the microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Regional/Topographical Anatomy : Study of the body, region by region </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroanatomy : Study of the structure and organization of the nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Anatomy : Study of projections of the arrangement of internal structures on the surface of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Radiography Anatomy : Study of structure and function of the body using radiographic techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Embryology/Developmental Anatomy : Study of growth and development inside the uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Sectional Anatomy : Study of relationship of structure as visible in sections cut in different planes </li></ul>
  5. 5. Histology Testicle Adrenal Gland
  6. 6. Surface Anatomy
  7. 7. Sectional Anatomy
  8. 8. Gross Anatomy
  9. 9. What’s the Difference b/n Anatomy & Physiology <ul><li>A&P are difficult to separate because the structures of body parts are so closely associated with their function. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A particular body part’s function depends on the way the part is constructed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example : Organization of parts in the human hand with its long, jointed fingers makes it easy to grasp objects; hollow chambers of the heart are adapted to pump blood through tubular blood vessels; Mouth? Teeth? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. What’s the Difference b/n Anatomy & Physiology <ul><li>Form begets function. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is another way of saying the same thing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A body part’s function (physiology) is a direct result of its form (morphology/anatomy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a major theme in organismal study </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. A&P: An Ongoing Ancient Field <ul><li>Researchers frequently discover new information about physiology on the molecular level. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human genome (biochemical instructions that run the human body): discovering the activities of out 35,000 genes is revealing new details of physiology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Although unusual, new parts of human anatomy are being discovered. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A small piece of connective tissue between the upper part of the spinal cord and a muscle at the back of the head was recently discovered. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Characteristics of Life Review <ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion </li></ul>
  13. 13. How are the Characteristics of Life Related to Metabolism? <ul><li>Metabolism - The acquisition of food and utilization of its energy, plus excretion, constitute metabolism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the chemical reactions that occur in your cells constitute metabolism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your Homework: Tell me how each of the 10 char. of life relate to metabolism! </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Maintenance of Life <ul><li>The structures and functions of almost all body parts help maintain the life of the organism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exception: an organism’s reproductive structures which only ensure that its species will continue into the future </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Requirements of Organisms/Life <ul><li>Water, Foods, Oxygen, Heat, and Pressure. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although organisms require all 5 of these factors, they alone are not enough to ensure survival. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both the quantities and the qualities of such factors are also very important </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Regulation for Survival <ul><li>Body parts function only when the concentrations of water, nutrients, and oxygen and the conditions of heat and ambient pressure remain within certain narrow limits. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This condition of a stable internal environment is called Homeostasis . </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Homeostasis <ul><li>This internal stability of the body is best described as a dynamic equilibrium or a balanced change in which there is a certain set point or an average value for a given variable, and conditions fluctuate slightly around this point. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Homeostasis Continued <ul><li>The functions of each body system aid in maintaining homeostasis or internal stability. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much of your physiology takes place in order to maintain homeostasis. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Homeostatic Mechanisms Maintain Homeostasis <ul><li>The body maintains homeostasis through a number of self-regulatory control systems or Homeostatic Mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Each homeostatic mechanism monitors an aspect of the internal environment and corrects any changes. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Components of Homeostatic Mechanisms <ul><li>1. Receptors : which provide information about specific conditions (stimuli) in the internal environment </li></ul><ul><li>2. Set-Point : tells what a particular value should be (i.e. body temperature) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Effectors : respond to altered conditions in the internal environment, attempting to correct them </li></ul>
  21. 22. How Does it Work? <ul><li>If the receptors detect deviation from the set point , effectors are activated that can return conditions toward normal </li></ul><ul><li>As conditions return toward normal, the deviation form the set point progressively lessens, and the effectors are gradually shut down </li></ul>
  22. 24. Negative Feedback <ul><li>Deviation from the set point is corrected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moves in the opposite or negative direction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The correction reduces the action of the effectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This prevents a correction from going too far </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Biological Examples <ul><li>Example 1 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example 2 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of blood sugar levels </li></ul></ul>
  24. 29. Blood sugar homeostasis <ul><li>The Pancreas acts as the receptor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detects blood sugar levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiates mechanisms that control levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The set point is 90mg/100mL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low blood sugar is called hypoglycemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High blood sugar is called hyperglycemia </li></ul></ul>
  25. 30. Blood sugar homeostasis <ul><li>Hyperglycemia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pancreas detects high blood glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces a hormone called insulin , which circulates in the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High levels of insulin make the liver absorb glucose and store it as glycogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperglycemia subsides </li></ul></ul>
  26. 31. Blood sugar homeostasis <ul><li>Hypoglycemia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pancreas detects low blood glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces a hormone called glucagon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High levels of glucagon make the liver convert stored glycogen back into glucose & release it into the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypoglycemia is corrected </li></ul></ul>
  27. 33. Positive Feedback <ul><li>Deviation from a set point is amplified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exponential growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rare in the human body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Blood clotting, childbirth, milk production </li></ul></ul>
  28. 34. Important Note! <ul><li>Homeostatic mechanisms maintain a relatively constant internal environment, yet physiological values may vary slightly in a person from time to time or form one individual to the next. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both normal values for an individual and the normal range for the general population are clinically important. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 35. Typical Homeostatic Values <ul><li>Body Temperature: 98.6 o F (37 o C) </li></ul><ul><li>Blood glucose: 90mg/100mL </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pressure: 120mmHg/80mmHg </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate: 70-80bpm </li></ul>