Vitamin Instructor Notes• Vitamins are complex organic compounds which are needed in the diet in very small quantities. They do not serve as a source of energy or provide material for building tissues, but instead participate in various essential chemical processes in the body.• Vitamins can be divided into fat-soluble and water-soluble.• The fat-soluble vitamins are stored in fat tissues in the body. Hence, you can build up a reserve of fat-soluble vitamins for later use. However, because they are stored for a long time, it is also possible to build up a toxic amount if you take too much. A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble.• Water-soluble vitamins, on the other hand, dissolve in body fluids. Since these fluids are constantly being recycled, water-soluble vitamins are not stored, and you need them in your diet every day. Extra doses of water-soluble are just excreted in your urine.• Cooking vegetables in water can cause these vitamins to migrate out of the food and into the water, so if you just throw this water away, you are losing some of the vitamins – one way to solve this problem is by cooking your vegetables in a soup. When I make my own baby food I use the water that is left over from steaming to blend the vegetables together.• Vitamin C and all of the B vitamins are water-soluble.• Good nutrition is essential to health. Poor nutrition leads to chronic disease. So the decisions you make about what to eat are very important! • Federal law requires that all food products contain nutritional labels. These labels give information about all of the macronutrients as well as vitamins and minerals. They are designed to help the public make informed decisions about what to include in their diet, and can help you compare one product to another. The numbers are helpful both in accessing the nutritional value of a single food item, or in comparing different ones.
o It contains the following information:• Serving size - this indicates what portion of food the nutritional label describes. In a packaged food, the label would also indicate how many servings were present in the package. Simple math will allow you to compare products.• Calories - the total calories in the serving are listed, along with how many of the calories come from fat. This shows how much total energy is available from this food, and helps you determine if this food will help you reach a goal of 30% of calories from fat.• Fat - total fat and saturated fat are listed. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated may also be listed. Remember that you want to limit the amount of bad saturated fats. (To be discussed further in the coconut lecture)• Carbohydrates - total carbohydrates, sugars, and dietary fiber are listed. You can figure out the amount of starch by subtracting the fiber and sugars from the total. Fiber is something you generally want more of, while sugars should usually be avoided.• Protein - This tells you how much protein is found in a serving. Notice that it does not indicate the proportion of amino acids present, so you cant tell if you are getting a complete protein or not. There are some foods in which are great for making sure you are getting enough amino acids. We will cover these in both the protein and coconut lecture as well.• Vitamins - Labels vary on how many vitamins are listed. On shorter labels, only vitamins A and C are listed. These are listed only as percentages of the Recommended Daily Allowances.• Minerals - Labels also vary on how many minerals are listed. On shorter labels, only calcium and iron are shown. These are listed also as percentages of the RDAs. If you are concerned about minerals, and you should be if you’re active or elderly, then drink mineralized water.• In addition to looking at the nutritional label, it is helpful to look at the ingredients list. This list must contain the ingredients in order of how much is present. Look for partially hydrogenated oils, whole wheat vs. enriched flour, and so on.
• Vitamin A History--The history of studying vision is interesting and is recorded as being studied as far back asAristotle. Thanks to the knowledge generated by countless generations of scholars and scientistsusing increasingly sophisticated tools in pursuit of scientific knowledge our understanding ofvision has come a very long way!During the early part of the 20th century research was aimed at understanding vision. It was alsoaround this time that the relationship between vision and proper nutrition began being studied atuniversities and agricultural schools. It had been shown during World War I that a vitamin Adeficiency caused night blindness. The link between vitamin A and night blindness, however, didnot become clear until George Wald and his coworkers isolated vitamin A from the retina in1933. Prior to this finding the importance of vitamins was poorly understood. Additionally, thecomplete role of vitamins in physiological processes was unknown.It is now understood that the human body makes retinal from vitamin A. To replenish thedestroyed retinal, it is important to have a source of vitamin A in your diet. Without a source ofvitamin A, night blindness can develop because the rods can’t function effectively withoutsufficient sources of vitamin A.Vitamin A comes from two sources plant (carotenes) or animal makes (retinol) from the veggiessources they have eaten.By eating 5-10 servings of fruits and veggies you are getting the recommended vitamin A in yourdiet. Just by eating one carrot you more than dbl the amount of vitamin A your body needs in aday. Try eating a variety of dark green leafy greens, broccoli (would be orange/yellow if itweren’t for cholorphyll) and bright orange veggies to get your vitamin A instead of taking asupplement. Additionally, if you do this then chances are if you suffer from Anemia (irondeficient) this will help.
Vitamin A, Vitamin A, Retinol,Food Serving Retinol, IU RAE IU mcgCod liver oil 1 teaspoon 1,350 mcg 4,500 IU 1,350 mcg 4,500 IUFortified 150-230 150-230breakfast 1 serving 500-767 IU 500-767 IU mcg mcgcerealsEgg 1 large 91 mcg 303 IU 89 mcg 296 IU 1Butter 97 mcg 323 IU 95 mcg 317 IU tablespoon 1 cup (8 flWhole milk 68 mcg 227 IU 68 mcg 227 IU oz.)2% fat milk 1 cup (8 fl(vitamin A 134 mcg 447 IU 134 mcg 447 IU oz)added)Nonfat milk 1 cup (8 fl(vitamin A 149 mcg 497 IU 149 mcg 497 IU oz.)added)Sweet 1/2 cup,potato, 555 mcg 1,848 IU 0 0 mashedcannedSweet pot. 1/2 cup 961 mcg 3,203 IU 0 0Pumpkin, 1/2 cup 953 mcg 3,177 IU 0 0canned 1/2 cup,Carrot (raw) 538 mcg 1,793 IU 0 0 chopped 1/2 mediumCantaloupe 467 mcg 1,555 IU 0 0 melonMango 1 fruit 79 mcg 263 IU 0 0 1/2 cup,Spinach 472 mcg 1,572 IU 0 0 cooked 1/2 cup,Broccoli 60 mcg 200 IU 0 0 cooked 1/2 cup,Kale 443 mcg 1,475 IU 0 0 cooked 1/2 cup,Collards 386 mcg 1,285 IU 0 0 cookedSquash, 1/2 cup, 572 mcg 1,907 IU 0 0butternut cooked
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Vitamin A as Preformed Vitamin A (Retinol Activity Equivalents) Males: mcg/day Females: mcg/dayLife Stage Age (IU/day) (IU/day)Infants (AI) 0-6 months 400 (1,333 IU) 400 (1,333 IU)Infants (AI) 7-12 months 500 (1,667 IU) 500 (1,667 IU)Children 1-3 years 300 (1,000 IU) 300 (1,000 IU)Children 4-8 years 400 (1,333 IU) 400 (1,333 IU)Children 9-13 years 600 (2,000 IU) 600 (2,000 IU)Adolescents 14-18 years 900 (3,000 IU) 700 (2,333 IU) 19 years andAdults 900 (3,000 IU) 700 (2,333 IU) older 18 years andPregnancy - 750 (2,500 IU) younger 19 years andPregnancy - 770 (2,567 IU) older 18 years andBreast-feeding - 1,200 (4,000 IU) younger 19 years andBreast-feeding - 1,300 (4,333 IU) older
Work CitedLinus Pauling Institute. Micronutrient Information Center. Retreived August 9, 2011http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminA/How we See: The First Steps of Human Vision. Retrieved August 9, 2011http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/CC/vision_background.php