Daniel Defoe

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Daniel Defoe

  1. 1. THE FOUNDER OF THE ENGLISH NOVEL Daniel DeFoe
  2. 2. DeFoe <ul><li>English writer, journalist, and pamphleteer </li></ul><ul><li>Best known for being the author of Robinson Crusoe </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote more than 500 books, pamphlets, and journals </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneer of economic journalism </li></ul>
  3. 3. Biography <ul><li>Born between 1659-1661 </li></ul><ul><li>Death was April 24, 1731 </li></ul><ul><li>Born in the parish of St. Giles Cripplegate in London </li></ul><ul><li>Father worked as a tallow chandler (candle maker) </li></ul><ul><li>Born as Daniel Foe, and added the de in front of his last name to make it sound aristocratic </li></ul>
  4. 4. How did he survive? <ul><li>In 1665, 70,000 were killed by The Great Plague of London </li></ul><ul><li>In 1666, The Great Fire of London hit DeFoe’s neighborhood hard, and left only three houses standing, one of them being DeFoe’s </li></ul><ul><li>In 1667, a Dutch fleet attacked Chatham via the River Thames </li></ul><ul><li>At the age of 13, his mother passed away </li></ul><ul><li>In 1703, he witnessed The Great Storm, the only hurricane to make it across the Atlantic. The Great Storm took lives of 8,000 people. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Unexpected <ul><li>DeFoe’s parents were Presbyterian dissenters (believed in separation of church and state) </li></ul><ul><li>He was educated in a Dissenting Academy at Newington Green, and also went to church there </li></ul><ul><li>It was expected that he would become a dissenting minister, but instead entered the world of business </li></ul><ul><li>As an salesman, he sold hosiery, general woolen goods, and wine </li></ul><ul><li>Even though he was very good at his job, he was always in debt </li></ul>
  6. 6. Marriages and Poor Decisions <ul><li>1n 1684, DeFoe married Mary Tuffley and received a dowry of £3700 </li></ul><ul><li>The couple had EIGHT children, but two died </li></ul><ul><li>DeFoe joined the ill-fated Monmouth rebellion, but gained a pardon </li></ul><ul><li>He was arrested in 1692 for a debt of £700, but was really in debt close to £17,000 </li></ul><ul><li>He left England upon release, and travelled to Europe and Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>When he came back to London, he served as a “commissioner of the glass duty” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pamphleteering and Prison <ul><li>“ An Essay upon Projects” – defended the right of King William III for his participation in ending the Nine Years War </li></ul><ul><li>“ The True-Born Englishman” – defended the king against the perceived xenophobia of his enemies </li></ul><ul><li>“ Legion’s Memorial” – it demanded the release of the Kentish petitioners, who asked the Parliament to support the king in an imminent war against France </li></ul>
  8. 8. More Pamphleteering and Prison <ul><li>“ The Shortest Way with the Dissenters” and “Or, Proposals for the Establishment of the Church” – asking for extermination of dissenters </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hymn to the Pillory” – caused audience to throw flowers instead of harmful objects, but caused him to be incarcerated for three days </li></ul>
  9. 9. It wasn’t all about politics… <ul><li>“ A True Relation of the Apparition of One Mrs. Veal the Next Day after her Death to One Mrs. Bargrave at Canterbury the 8 th of September, 1705” – deals with interaction between the spiritual realm and the physical realm </li></ul><ul><li>“ Appeal to Honour and Justice” – 1715 </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Family Instructor” - 1715 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Minutes of the Negotiations of Monsr. Mesnager” – 1717 </li></ul><ul><li>A Continuation of the Letters Writ by a Turkish Spy” - 1718 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Robinson Crusoe” – 1719 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Captain Singleton” – 1720 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Colonel Jack” – 1722 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Religious Courtship” – 1722 </li></ul><ul><li>The Complete English Tradesman – 1726 </li></ul><ul><li>The New Family Instructor - 1727 </li></ul>
  10. 10. More of his works <ul><li>The Great Law of Subordination Considered – 1724 </li></ul><ul><li>Everybody’s Business is Nobody’s Business – 1725 </li></ul><ul><li>The Politcal History of the Devil – 1726 </li></ul><ul><li>A System of Magick – 1726 </li></ul><ul><li>An Essay on the History and Reality of Appartions – 1727 </li></ul><ul><li>A General History of Discoveries and Improvements – 1727 </li></ul><ul><li>Atlas Maritimus and Commercialis – 1728 </li></ul><ul><li>A tour thro’ the Whole Island of Great Britain (1724-1727) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Death <ul><li>Died in April 24, 1731 while hiding from creditors </li></ul><ul><li>He was buried in Bunhill Fields, London, where his grave can still be visited </li></ul><ul><li>At his death, he used a minimum of 198 pseudonyms </li></ul>
  12. 12. Robinson Crusoe <ul><li>The story of Robinson Crusoe tells of a man’s shipwreck on a deserted island and his subsequent adventures </li></ul><ul><li>The story of Robinson Crusoe is based partly on the true story of Scottish castaway Alexander Selkirk and partly on a Muslim man’s fictitious story </li></ul><ul><li>The Crusoe’s friend, Friday, was based off a publicized case of a marooned Central American </li></ul>
  13. 13. DeFoe Inspires and Sequels <ul><li>Inspired a new genre called the “Robinsonade” </li></ul><ul><li>Wyss’s The Swiss Family Robinson – 1812 </li></ul><ul><li>J.M. Coetzee’s Foe – 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Tournier’s Vendredi ou les limbes du Pacifique – 1967 </li></ul><ul><li>DeFoe’s The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe and Serious Reflections of Robinson Crusoe </li></ul><ul><li>Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels </li></ul>
  14. 14. Quiz

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