CESS MAGAZINESumaryno 18 January - June 2009 For more information contact: E.mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Sport and Health Magazine c. Perill, 16-22 - 08012 Barcelona (Catalonia) Telephone: 0034 934 594 43003 PAE project04 Quality of life factors importance in woman08 Framework for a "Health enhancing physical activitiy (HEPA) strategy" of a sport association11 Social administration of sport infraestructure EDITOR: DESIGN: CESS Bernat Martí c. Venus, 8 DISTRIBUTION: 08012 Barcelona (Spain) Núria Gutiérrez VICE PRESIDENTS IMPRESSION: Mr Herbert Hartmann Impremta Barcelona, S.A Mrs Jeanine Faivre LEGAL NB.: Mr Rado Cvtek B-48058-98 GENERAL SECRETARY: Pino Bendandi NOTE: COMMUNICATION The opinions contained COMMISSION: within this magazine are not Jela Labudova necessarily those of the EDITOR: publisher. Lindsay Young
CESS MAGAZINE 03 PAE PROJECTPresentation: Physical Activity and Nutritionalhabits for families (Aquatic Educational Activity) Hugo Fernández Llort. School Sport Department, UbaeThis water activity program was designed for school childrento learn the different swimming techniques and improvetheir swimming skills. The program was taught by physicalactivity professionals and carried out in 2 public swimmingpools in Barcelona. 223 children joined the program andthere were 25 groups. This educational water activityprogram respects the curriculum set by the governmentsprimary education system. The course lasts 9 months andis for children between the ages of 6-12 yrs. Once a weekthe parents come to see their childrens progress and canuse the pool.During 5 weeks the aquatic team worked on the generalstructure of the program which was to be followed by themonitors. The children carried out physical assessmentsat the beginning and the end of the program.The program runs over 9 months with a total of 60sessions of physical activity in the water. Physis Sport(nutritional organization) designed 3 newsletters that weregiven to the children at the beginning of each trimester. The first consisted of nutritional information explaining the nutritional values of different food types, the second was an explanation of the characteristics and the products of a Mediterranean diet and the third consisted of how to understand food labelling. A questionnaire on nutritional and physical habits was given to the children by the monitors and filled out at the beginning and at the end of the program. During the program several indicators were listed: Occupancy rate Gender Assistance Technical assessment Questionnaires Activity with families Final valuation
04 CESS MAGAZINE QUALITY OF LIFE FACTORS IMPORTANCE IN WOMEN Jana Labudova - Dagmar Nemcek. Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Comenius University in Bratislava Key words: quality of life factors, women, of finding out the status of objective quality of life, indicators age, and participation in physical activity. from democracy and participation areas, from economical justice, health and education and security are asserted. Healthy life style, quality of life and well- Man is considering his/her life value when his/her being are the most frequent topics of expectations correspond with lifes reality. Among important nowadays society. Handling of everyday factors influencing quality of life Kuera (2004) categorizes working and family duties as well as staying also personal safeness, growth facility and individuals self- healthy and living ones own life fully are fulfilment. Quality of lifes main determinants include becoming significant life values. Women biological, psychological, socio-cultural, politics-law conditions. are equalizing with men in working positions, always-higher demands are made on them Aim and at the same time there is the need of The article presents the introduction into research of compensation and regeneration of physical qualitatively forming phenomenons in womens life. We and mental strengths. tried to enlarge and specify knowledge about different In general under the quality of life we quality of life factors importance (psychological, social and understand individually embedded and emotional characteristics) that we assessed in 149 women. subjectively experienced reality, but in spite Differences of importance of these factors were compared of this, past, present, and future of particular between different groups of women from different individuals are projected into it, his/her perspectives. relationships to other individuals, groups, culture, politics, ecosystem, etc. Hartl and Methods Hartlová (2000) define the quality of life as 149 women aged over 30 years old participated in our an expression of feeling life happiness, rate research. Samples were picked up from different localities of self-fulfilment and mental harmony, rate of Slovakia with different numbers of citizens in quest of of living satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The a more united overview of present quality of life level of quality of life is a phase, where living out Slovak women. The sample was assessed from two different life does satisfy individuals psychological perspectives: by age and by participation in physical activities and physical wishes and needs, it is the (table 1). All active women participated in different organised outcome of personal values and life style, physical activities (aqua fitness, exercise with fit balls, where the individual is trying to accomplish aerobics) at least two times per week. these personal values via his/her own way of living. Following Batecká and Goldman Table 1 Sample representation from different perspectives (2001) the quality of life should represent (in percentage) anything that he/she attaches of importance. Psychological quality of life By age (%) 30 - 44 45 - 59 + 65 perception, first of all, comes from humans years old years old years old subjectivity, like living out, thinking and 37 27 36 assessment of what she/he wants and By participation in Active Inactive physical activities (%) what she/he cannot get. Objective aspects 64 36 of quality of life is about social and cultural needs fulfilment in connection with material abundance, social acceptance of individual Empirical data was obtained by the first part of standardize and physical well-being. Within the bounce questionnaire SQUALA (assessment scale of importance).
CESS MAGAZINE 05It is quality of life general questionnaire meant for informationacquirement in intact population as well as in people withdifferent kind of disability, mostly mental. The questionnaireassesses subjective views of individuals life situation wherethe individual is assessing his/her satisfaction ordissatisfaction with different areas of their own life. SubjectiveQUAlity of Life Analysis - SQUALA (Zannotti, Pringuey,1992; Dragomirecká et al., 2006) includes 23 areasrelated to external and internal realities of everyday life.In each factor on grade five assessing scale respondentsevaluated subjective importance of each area and sospecified how they are satisfied / dissatisfied with particularlife factors. Value 1 meant the highest importance andvalue 5 meant absolute unimportance of particular factorin their life. We considered values 1 2 as positiveassessment, value 3 as neutral and values 4 5 asnegative assessment. For statistical evaluation of the dataachieved we used average value of responses and forstatistical significance of differences between groups weused Chi-square (evaluation of qualitative values) at 1%, noticed by comparison of second (45-595% and 10% level of statistical significance. years old) and third (over 60 years old) age group of women. Significance wasResults and discussion demonstrated also in QLF assessment ofOn the basis of obtained results we found out that women all age categories regarding to social andwithout reference to age and active life style in 83 % emotional areas at minimum 5% level ofconsidered health as the most important factor (value 1) significance (to have and to raise children,of quality of their life. On the other hand politics as factor take care to oneself, to love and to beof quality of life is for most women (39 %) less important loved). From presented results we can(value 4). Bigger amount of women assessed faith and presume, that factors connected withreligion (36 %), beauty and art (50%) and good food (54%) sphere of self-reliance, feel of love and withlike neutral factors in their life (value 3). Another quality raising children relation are changing itsof life factors (QLF) mean for many women very much, importance and value during different agebecause they marked it in average by value 2. Only some period. The most of all polarized answerspsychological social characteristics like politics interest were proved in first and third age group.(12 %), to have faith and religion (7 %) as well as few We suppose, that women by influence ofsocial emotional characteristics like beauty and art, empirical living experience are changingsexual life and good food (2 %) were assessed by insignificant partially their opinion to living values and bynumber of women, who marked it by scale value 5, what increasing age, when another QLF are moremeant total unimpor tance of par ticular QLF. dominant than in younger age. It comes with dynamical process of aging, with realIn responses comparison on QLF between women of first possibilities of regeneration and(30-44 years old) and second (45-59 years old) age compensation not only in physical, but alsocategory we found out statistically significant differences in intellectual, spiritual and social emotionalin three from 23 factors related to social emotional area. Aging process is bounded not onlycharacteristics (to have and to raise children, take care with decreasing level of performance, butto oneself, to love and to be loved) (table 2). Significance also with increasing amount of slow muscleof answers variability was demonstrated at 5% and 1% fibres in skeleton musculature. High individuallevel of statistical significance. By responses comparison displays of aging process are conditionedin observed QLF between first (30-44 years old) and third by different aging extent of cognisance,(over 60 years old) age category were showed statistically motor performance, by interest and internalsignificant differences at 10%, 5% and 1% level in 14 reality settlement. On current individualsfrom total number (23) of factors concerning to social, physical fitness par ticipate geneticpsychological and emotional characteristics. Furthermore, preconditions and partially completedstatistically significant differences in 11 from 23 QLF we physical training too.
06 CESS MAGAZINE Table 2 Comparison of QLF importance by age Age (years old) / QLF 30 - 44 v 45 - 59 30 - 44 v + 60 45 - 59 v + 60 Chi-kv. Sign. Chi-kv. Sign. Chi-kv. Sign. being healthy 0,963 20,53** p<0,01 12,31** p<0,01 being physically independent 1,682 7,241(*) p<0,10 3,789 feel physically well 0,167 6,908 6,268 pleasant living environment 0,080 7,601 5,609 good sleep 0,241 6,235 5,367 relationships in family 4,155 16,95** p<0,01 20,76** p<0,01 relationships with other people 1,304 6,176 5,913 to have and to raise children 7,769* p<0,05 10,32* p<0,05 16,17** p<0,01 take care of yourself 8,414* p<0,05 12,30** p<0,01 8,039* p<0,05 to love and to be loved 10,43** p<0,01 13,80** p<0,01 18,43** p<0,01 to have sexual life 5,561 15,59** p<0,01 6,719 to be interested in politics 6,880 23,86** p<0,01 13,19* p<0,05 to have faith (religion) 5,166 15,59** p<0,01 4,657 relaxation in leisure time 5,913 15,22** p<0,01 12,67** p<0,01 to have free time activities 3,331 0,749 2,473 being safe 0,280 5,228 2,658 work 1,590 20,61** p<0,01 13,33** p<0,01 justice 1,135 8,558(*) p<0,10 7,240 freedom 1,261 1,872 7,382* p<0,05 beauty and art 6,074 20,91** p<0,01 13,17** p<0,01 truth 6,166 11,35** p<0,01 14,44** p<0,01 money 2,557 7,494 5,169 good food 3,970 3,983 3,444 Differences of opinion in QLF assessment activity (PA) brought statistically significant differences only of first and second age categories we in three factors. Factors like to have hobbies in free time observe only in social emotional factors and work were significant at 5% level of statistical (love and to be loved, take care to oneself, significance, where active women considered these factors to have children and raising them). But more important in their life than inactive respondents. when we analyse answers differences of That is evident also in average evaluation of answers (figure second and third age category we see 1). Differences in answers by physical activity participation gradual increase of questions in which were in factor freedom statistically significant (p<0,10). answers we registered differences In average values of answers comparison for particular significance from three to eleven QLF, where factor we found out, those inactive respondents considered difference of quality of life assessment is this QLF more important than active women. projecting into psychological, social as well as emotional factors. The most significant By average values of answers evaluation we found out, differences in answers we observed between that 15 from 23 QLF considered active women like more first and third group of women where is important in their life than inactive respondents. Health, evident difference of living experience and family, work, interpersonal relationships and justice, safeness definite shift in going through and and living, good sleep, sexual life, ability to take care of assessment of quality of live. one self, feel physically well and also to have and relax in leisure time represented for active respondents more QLF importance by participation in physical important meaning than for women who dont participate
CESS MAGAZINE 07in regular PA. Those in comparison with active women Conclusionattached bigger importance to factors like politics interest, On the basis of questionnaire consistedfaith and religion, beauty and art, truth, money and good from questions related to different QLFfood. importance we found out significant differences in answers between investigatedAntoovská (2008) in her research-work investigated groups of women. Generally we can assess,influence of 3 months moving program with Feldenkrais that offered QLF concerning to external andmethod application in two experimental groups of middle internal realities of everyday life assumedage women. She confirmed positive effect of Feldenkrais more important meaning for the youngestmethod on changes perception from quality of life satisfaction group of women (30 44 years old) butand importance point of view as well as living satisfaction also for the oldest group (over 60 yearsand positive self-estimation. Changes in evaluation of QLF old) with regular PA participation as partimportance were demonstrated at 5% level of statistic of their life style. Women of the youngestsignificance (being healthy, being interested in politics and age category (up to 45 years) with regulargood food). Author monitored also significant changes in participation in PA considered moremotor demonstration (indicators of static and dynamic important QLF compare other groupsbalance, motor stereotypes improvement, spine flexibility following: health, physical independence, toimprovement and correction of muscular dysfunctions). have free time activities and feeling ofThese indicators confirmed possibility of different wellness safeness. Active women of the oldest agecomponents influence by moving program. category group met only in one factor relax in their leisure time, which considered Average value of answers more important in comparison with other 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 groups of women. We pronounce, that age Being healthy and regular participation in physical activity are positively influencing mental, social and Being physically indepentent emotional status as well as the quality of Feel physically well life in women. Pleasant living environment Good sleep References 1. Antoovská, D: Úinnos Feldenkraisovej Relationships in family metódy na zmenu vo vybraných komponentovRelationships with other people wellnes u ien. Dizertaná práca, FTV UK To have and to raise children v Bratislave, 2008, 121 s. Take care of yourself 2. Batecká, B., Goldman, P.: Základy klinické psychologie. Praha: Portál, 2001. To love and to be loves 3. Dragomirecká, E., et al.: SQUALA. To have sexual life Príruka pre pouívateov eskej verzie To be interested in politics Dotazníka subjektívnej kvality ivota SQUALA. Praha: Psychiatrické centrum Praha, 2006. To have faith (religion) 4. Hartl, P Hartlová, H.: Psychologický ., Relaxation in leislure time slovník. Praha: Portál, 2000. To have free time activities 5. Kuera, Z.: Podpora zdraví a kvalita Being secure ivota. In Kvalita ivota. Sborník píspvk z konference. Kostelec nad ernými lesy: Work IZPE, 2004. Justice 6. Zannotti, M., Pringuey, D.: A method Freedom for quality of life assessment in psychiatry: Beauty and art the S-QUA-L-A (Subjective QUAlity of Life Analysis). Quality of life News Letter, 4, 6, Truth 1992, 21 p. Money Good food e e tiv tiv ac ac in
08 CESS MAGAZINE FRAMEWORK FOR A "HEALTH ENHANCING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY (HEPA) STRATEGY" OF A SPORT ASSOCIATION Professor Dr. Herbert Hartmann Preliminary remarks: However this attitude is changing. The EU Physical Activity One of the central health issues of our time Guidelines assign even more organised sport a prominent is the growing lack of physical activity among position in regard to the improvement of health promoting many populations groups. Alarming figures activities: about increasing tendency for unhealthy populations because of physical inactivity Sport organisations contribute to the social well-being of has pushed national and international communities and can ease pressures on the public budget. programmes and campaigns counteracting Through their versatility and cost-effectiveness, clubs can inactivity on a top rank of the social-political help meet the need of the population for physical activity. agenda all over the world. A major future challenge for the organised sport sector should be to offer high-quality health related exercise Two recently published European documents programmes nationwide (p. 14) on physical activity for health can be recognized as pioneering for health Going to take up the challenge for adding a clear health enhancing physical activity concepts and related profile to the philosophy and policy of a sport programmes: Steps to health. A European association its recommended to develop a systematic framework to promote physical activity for approach with a conclusive and consistent strategy. The health (WHO. Europe, 2007) and EU following explanations will provide a framework, how to Physical Activity Guidelines. Recommended draft such a strategy. policy actions in support of health enhancing physical activity (European Commission, Its recommended to include following areas: 2008). Following recommendations of the EU White Book on Sport (2007) also some · Overall objectives. national governments have developed · Analysis of health promoting intervention approaches National Action Plans, to improve the level (theoretical framework) and election, which approaches of peoples physical activity. will be pursued. · Operating procedures: components of a holistic strategy Apart from programmes and actions · Principles for setting the strategy and its transformation undertaken by governments and public into operating procedures. health systems, the past few years have · Indication how to set up working plans and rough timelines also seen numerous national and Overall objectives: international sport organisations, particularly Every time a starting point for setting up a strategy is to in the area of <Sport for All>, which have become clear about the goals of the matter. taken up the social challenge and have Who does not know, where to go, should not be surprised offered to contribute to the keeping and if he arrives somewhere else (Robert Mager). furthering of health. But within the framework of political discussion regarding In our case such strategic objectives should be: health, the potential of organised sport has hardly been take seriously. Also health · To take a stand and create an image to become acknow- system professionals regard the possibilities ledged as a competent and powerful partner with regard sport offers with scepticism or even to health promotion inside and outside the sport system. dismissal. Even within the sport system · To profile member clubs for being able to contribute to itself, there is still resistance and barriers. the well-being of communities.
CESS MAGAZINE 09· To make fundraising for health enhancing products easier. · Organisational and working structure· To encourage and to qualify clubs to provide health development enhancing activities. · Lobbying and marketing· To monitoring approval, compliance and commitment from leaders inside the association on almost all The components need to become opera- subdivisions. tional through detailed working plans and respective timelines.Health promoting intervention approaches:Within the topical scientific discussion different categories Principles for setting the strategy:of interventions through health enhancing physical activities The development and implementation ofcan be distinguished (Appendix 1). The strategy should the health enhancing strategy needs to bereflect and decide which intervention approach(es) will be seen as a process following certainfollowed and if a priority will be set up. If an association principles:is already active with health promoting activities thoseactivities should be assigned to the intervention approach · Holistic: The strategy needs a multidimen-concerned. In our experience the easiest and usual way sional procedure. Different componentsfor a sport association is to start with the HEPA-Sport need to be co-ordinated.Plus approach, than to include the Fitness-Sport approach · Systematically: The concept must beand at least to go for the Health-Sport approach. We systematically developed. That means, aknow today that we can expect much better, more specific number of elements have to be put toge-and more stabilised health benefits if exercise programmes ther in an overall system by a recognizableare well structured and goal oriented towards particular logic.purpose. In this regard the Health-Sport approach should · On long term basis: The concept must bebe taken into consideration, if a sport association decides put on in the long term way and beto meet special needs of health endangered people. The orientated itself at the basic conditionsmost difficult and ambitious step is to establish a sport and resources of the organizationclub as a healthy setting within the healthy lifestyle approach. · Step by step: The concept is to be realized with reference to existing resources andComponents of a holistic strategy: the readiness for conversion step for stepA holistic and consistent strategy has to take different (strategy of the small steps). Too vigorouselements into consideration. The main components should procedures and too excessive demandsbe (fig.1): should be avoided. Balance between retaining and changing is demanded.· Policy development · Continuously: It requires constant impulses· Intervention approaches and regarded products to receive and to strengthen the readiness development for cooperation and communication.· Human resources qualification · Interactively: The organization must totally HEPA policy development: Health intervention approaches: · Strategic goals · HEPA-Sport approach · Clear name and programme message · Fitness-Sport approach · Process planning · Health-Sport approach · Internal implementation concept . Healthy-Club setting approach · Evaluation procedures Product development: · Exercise programmes Health Enhancing Human ressources qualification: · Campaigns/projects · Instructor qualification · Information and teaching material Physical Activity · Leadership qualification · Club consultation Strategy . Managing qualification . Quality marks... Organisational and working structure development: Lobbyism and marketing: · Internal working system · Political lobbyism (positions; functions) · Public relation · Communication system · Fundraising · External co-operation . Networking with other stakeholders...
10 CESS MAGAZINE feel addressed in their vertical and activity stimulating environment, influence on work routines, horizontal structures. The units are to be charging everyday routines with more physical activity. networked in an appropriate way. Top down and bottom up procedures are to b) HEPA-Sport Plus Approach: be interconnected. Participation is needed. · Is aimed to more effective physical activity through · Effective and evidence based: The strategy participation in sportive exercises. should take into account regular evaluation · Effectiveness is different in relation to the context of the procedures. Interim results should give activities. The context leisure and sport activities create reason for revision. better results than contexts like job, gardening, housekeeping. Working plans and timelines: · Encompasses every kind of sport activities going on more As the strategy is a multidimensional concept than 30 minutes daily or 3x1 hour weekly. with different fields of work each area has to develop its own tasks, based on the 2. Fitness-Sport Approach: common policy and goals of the strategy. · Is aimed to an overall improvement of fitness and an energy balance regarding a reduction/prevention of risk The total process of planning and imple- factors. menting should be organised as a separate · Accumulate at least 800 kcal/week with structured project/programme with different working physical activity- and sport-programmes (in 2-5 units). groups and a steering group as a co- Stimulate all relevant fitness factors (endurance, strength, ordinating and final decision making body. flexibility, coordination, relaxation ). Its recommended to equip the project with · Encompasses well structured physical activities (fitness- own financial resources. Even if the project programmes). Factors of structuring: duration or will be carried out mainly through volunteers, repetitions of exercises; intensity; goal (e.g. endurance, a permanent office support as perma-nent strength, flexibility). is recommended as well. 3. Health-Sport Approach: Appendix 1: · Is aimed to target groups with a sedentary lifestyle and/or Healthcare and health promotion connected risks/health problems. intervention strategies through physical · The activities are highly structured and explicitly directed activities and sports to particular health effects like fitness or psychological wellbeing. 1. HEPA Approaches: · Is based on the holistic WHO concept of healthcare with HEPA (health enhancing physical activities) the central aims strengthening of health resources, means any form of physical activity that reduction of health risks, setting of inclusive effects to benefits health and functional capacity health related behaviour, improvement of health enhancing without undue harm or risk. settings. · The exercises programmes follow certain quality criteria a) General HEPA Approach: such as specific qualification of the instructors, specific · Is aimed to more physical activity in every requirements of programme-planning and structuring, days life: at home, in the garden, on job, systematic use of evaluation instruments and organisational on the way/transport, leisure time. requirements (frequency per week; unit-length; limited · Follows different, scientifically justified number of participants). guidelines regarding the minimum of daily physical activities; e.g.: reduction of health 4. Healthy Lifestyle Approach: risks through additional calorie consumption · Is aimed to a reduction of health risks through a holistic of 600-800 kcal. through 20-45 minutes interpretation of health. moderate physical activities daily. · Encompasses all kinds of health enhancing physical · Encompasses normal and simple activities activities, nutrition habits, psycho-social and environmental such as manual labour, gardening, walking, aspects. cycling, swimming, dancing, recreational · Is aimed to include different settings such as schools, sports. worksite, communities, clubs, social organisations. · Interventions are mainly based on · Makes efforts for and needs cooperation and networking awareness campaigns, development of between different stakeholders.
CESS MAGAZINE 11 SOCIAL ADMINISTRATIONOF SPORT INFRASTRUCTURE Toni Llop. determining factors, not necessarily related to the distinctive of one class. In general, the cultural development of the citizenship, the experienced transformations in the model of organization of the State, the growing importance of leisure time, among others are prominent aspects to consider in this phenomenon. Consequently, we can consider that sport constitutes a system that at the same time, forms part of social reality and is affected by the relation with other systems, like education, culture, the labor environment, etc. Sport presents two prominent characteristics. In the first place, given its relationship with other social phenomena, it is dynamic; that is to say it is affected by the influence of other systems. In second place, it responds to a total social reality; which signifies that it is very related and submitted to the behavior and customs of the people and communities. The sport system is composed of a seriesThe concept sport, is interpreted nowadays in our society of elements like the sports confederacies,as a relatively new phenomenon. Despite the fact that the institutions, the clubs, the associationstraditional games and ways they are played have formed and sports businesses, the spaces ofpart of the cultural demonstrations of the different practice, the activities, the participants andcommunities through history, the modern sport plays a the spectators. Depending on the role ofnew role in our lives and is influenced in great measures each one of these elements, we canby all types of changes that affect the current society. determine that the sports system generates two types of demonstrations. One basicallyAs an example of this, in Spain the most read newspaper composed of the sport spectacle, oftenis of sports character, the broadcast of sports competitions linked to top competition; and the other inoccupy the first positions in the ranking of the most seen which people intervene directly developingtelevision programs, and the sports news occupies almost physical activity.a third of the time dedicated to the general news on themost important channels . In the first case, people (not participating) are related in a passive way with theWhile the appearance of the modern sport was influenced practice, they become spectators andby the concept of social class, at present and in a general followers of an activity executed by theway, the access to sports practice is governed by other sportsmen. Secondly and in a more or
12 CESS MAGAZINE less regular way, people carry out physical The link between fashion and physical activity, produces, exercise with different objectives, the especially among the younger ones, an abandonment of maintenance of health, the competition, or sports practice. Looking for personal pleasure through simply the occupation of free time. practice, influences in the detriment of training and the sports planning. The creation of social championships, To value the importance of the sport implies the occupation of leisure time, not necessarily phenomenon; the European Commission related to the physical preparation; but just for amusement. devised a specific survey (Eurobarometer) that was carried out in November of 2004. Management model The results show that 60% of the citizens Now the social impact of sport has been valued, to be of Europe of the 25; practice some sports presented in this chapter, is the impact and transformation activity in a regular way. Of these, 51% suffered by a territory, due to the organization of a great practise spontaneously, (15%) in places event like the Olympic Games. Barcelona harbored in other than fitness centers, (16%) in sports 1992 what, in its day was named the best Olympic Games clubs, (11%) in conventional sports centers, in history. (6%) in school or university. The same survey, indicates that 91% of the citizens interviewed, affirmed that practicing in sport helps to fight efficiently against obesity; while 78% of them recognized that health constitutes one of the most valued benefits of practicing sport. Sport in the current society presents some characteristic features. An increase of those practicing sport individually shows clear signs of hedonism and narcissism, this is why the tendency to obtain a determined body image needs to be highlighted, influenced often by fashions, esthetics, etc. They develop new types of practice and activities that at the same For a great city, the organization of an event of these cha- time become an economical activity. As an racteristics supposes a superb opportunity to transform, example, the evolution of the fitness and not only its urban structure; but provide the community the wellness sector, has materialized in the with a sports infrastructure. constitution of an economic sector that, according to a study of the year 2006 of The post Olympic imprint on Barcelona has exceeded a lot IHRSA (International, Health and Racquets beyond the memory of three weeks of competitions, during Sports Clubs Association), represents, only which the city became the center of the world. The in Europe, more than 39 million clients and construction of sports equipment, their location and the bill 20,000 million euros a year. Therefore search for their economic and social profit value, were the service economy concepts, customer three fundamental aspects that have determined the service and customer satisfaction are linked Olympic legacy. to the sports phenomenon. The construction of equipment was used to cover specific The phenomenon has meant the and real needs, so they were located in areas of the city professionalization of the activities and where a lack of sports infrastructure existed. It was services. From the area of sports facilities indispensable to have plans of economic and social profit design, to the technicians and specialists value that made possible the continuity of the activity of responsible for developing the activities, the infrastructure. The construction of sports facilities sport has created its own labor sector. among neighborhoods was distributed, this decentralization allowed the citizens to approach sports activity.
CESS MAGAZINE 13The economic and social profit value was characterized management interest, became managersby designing equipment that once the Olympics were over, of activities and of infrastructure. Theand consequently one of the objectives of its construction access to the sports facilities werewas to allow the location of leisure activities and unspecific guaranteed, and the introduction of ratespractice, therefore providing a certain multivalence. For for reduced use, as well as the developmentexample, some of the sports centers were remodeled of an offering of individual activity, favoredonce the Olympics finished with rooms for activities or more than 170,000 people, almost 10%recreation pools. In this manner a double objective was of the population of Barcelona joined aobtained, to have capable installations to hold the competition sports center of municipal property.of an Olympic sport, and at the same time, once the games Currently the percentage of registeredwere finished, to organize and offer activities to the public. people from Barcelona who are members of sports facilities of the city has grown, asJust as important was the need to respect and to develop well as the number of equipment.the sports weaving of each neighborhood; providing for The fast development of the sports practiceexample, to those communities that have an athletics club and the establishment of the model ofwith a regulative track to be able to practice in it. management interest; supposed for the municipality to offer physical activity for theIn parallel to the construction of equipment, they developed public, and at the same time obtain, inphysical activity promotion campaigns for schools, adults most cases, financial equilibrium to be ableand elderly people. The promotion of the sports practice, to maintain the exploitation of thealong with the quality equipment disposition, and the offering installations.of easily accessible activities for citizen, helped to obtainthe social profit value desired. With the intention to attract the attention of the citizens, the entities that manage atOnce they designed and built the sports equipment, the present some sports infrastructures ofcouncil of Barcelona, conscious of the volume of sports Barcelona have developed innovative physicalspace built and remodeled, and available for the citizen, activity programs, linked with health, andpresented a new way of management. This new at the same time, they hire qualifiedmanagement formula was established and it was called instructors, and they maintain the sportsinterest, which implied a new Municipal Legal Code, but centers under the criteria of comfort andthat permitted putting into operation an important volume quality of optimum service; even competingof sports centers without the need to increase the number with other initiatives in the privateof workers of the Public Administration (officials). environment with lower prices.The formula of " interest management " permitted the The municipal infrastructure, harbors alladministrative concession, by means of public contest, of kinds of sporting events, so that not onlythe management of sports equipment. This concession the citizens can individually become userswas governed by the strict monitoring of the evolution of of the installations but also the clubs andthe activity, users, etc; but maintaining the control on associations of the neighborhood, andfundamental themes like the rates of use, the budgets, traditional sport, have room in thesethe program of activities and the plans of maintenance. centers. Often these installations contain a pool for training and aquatic sportsIn this manner a good part of the Olympic sports infras- competition, a polyvalent room where theytructure went on to to be managed by companies, develop sports competitions, and spacesassociations, clubs or businesses that had the know how to develop physical education programs forrequired to develop a program of activities for the citizens, schools. In this manner, in the sportsand at the same time, to establish a budget control and center they converge all kinds of eventsmonitoring of a plan of specific maintenance of the building and interests of the citizens and sportsmen.and installations. Outside the the volume of users, the qualityThe offering of sports activities, directed to all the population of the activity programs developed and thedeveloped quickly, and with it an important part of the high level of comfort of the equipment, hascitizenship had access to the practice of physical activity. developed a labor sector that employs At the same time, private companies, thanks to the hundreds of people in the management and
14 CESS MAGAZINE exploitation of sports facilities. neighborhood, headed by parents and mothers of school children who decided to combine efforts to develop sport Nevertheless the economic and social profit programs for everyone in the city. In its origins UBAE value has not been possible in all the Olympic carried out its activity in educational centers as after school installations. Large settings like the Olympic activities. It counted on people who volunteered, or earned Stadium or the Velodrome, have not a scarce salary, who worked as monitors or sports obtained the social profit value, nor the animators and they were financed by the contribution of economic income expected. The charac- the parents of the participants in their activity programs. teristics of these installations, as well as The union of these associations facilitated the interlocution their specificity, condition their viability; and with the municipal authority, that would permit having to date they still havent obtained a viable better installations and spaces for practicing sport; as plan of use. Other enclosures like Palau well as promoting its sports programs. Sant Jordi, an enormous multipurpose building with capacity for 15,000 spectators, In 1989, once the construction of the first "Olympic reach their financial equilibrium, thanks to installations" were finalized, some of them were basically the organization of all kinds of events, like training centres during the games; UBAE assumed the musical concerts , events and special shows. management of which was the first in adopting the model of management interest. It was the Municipal sports center Group UBAE in the perill street. The center had pool of 20 x10 meters; In the middle of the 80s, the sports a sports room for competitive sports (basketball, volleyball, association UBAE (Barcelona union of sports rhythmic and artistic gymnastics) a studio for directed association) was born. It is a non-profit physical activity sessions as aeróbic, physical conditioning, association headed by voluntary people, etc; changing rooms and an outdoor football pitch. that organize activities to promote sports for children of the city. UBAE designed the program of activities to offer, hired to staff responsible for the exploitation of the center, Its foundation was carried out thanks to administration, monitors, maintenance and cleaning staff; the contribution of different entities of the and developed a business plan in which income and expenses of estimated exploitation were contemplated. At the end of two years, the center had more than 10,000 users, and had a waiting list of 2,000 more, more than 1,000 people use the center daily. The center does not only contemplate the subscribers use, it also accepts people who just want to pay for one day (the right of admission doesnt exist), it attends the demands of use of sports clubs in the neighborhood, schools, sports associations and other cultural entities that utilize the spaces of practice. The use of these collectives, is regulated by the council which contemplates, in some cases, the payment of a small rate, proportional to the budget of each entity. In other cases, the use of the spaces for these collectives is free, forming part of the budget of the actual center, known as sports promotion, which is supervised and approved yearly by the Municipality. Being a non-profit organization and whose objective is the promotion of sport for all, UBAE identifies itself as a company of the third sector, known as the sector of the social economy. It is interpreted as the social economy sector, all the activity is governed and regulated by business economy principles, that reinvests its benefits in services for the community or in the own organization; being differentiated from those privately owned entities, that look
CESS MAGAZINE 15for the financial gain of its shareholders and proprietors. The most utilized legal formula by these organizations arethe cooperatives, workers, unions, associations, etc. Atthe same time, it distances itself from the public sector,governed by general and political interest, property of theState and directly managed by the governmental structureand budget.Some authors have detailed the creation of a fourth sector;constituted by organizations originating from the sectorof the social economy that base their activity in theexploitation and management of assets and public resources.The same model of management is developed by UBAE inother installations of the city of Barcelona and itsmetropolitan area. Currently, twenty years after itsfoundation, UBAE manages 13 sports centers, has 60,000registered users, employs more than 500 people andregistered in 2008 more than 10 thousand users in itsinstallations. The volume of billing elevated to 26 millioneuros.The model of management interest has been applied toother municipalities of Catalonia and of Spain. The dispositionof entities and businesses interested in managing sports related to the construction of sportsfacilities of municipal property, has been on the rise up to facilities, but only with their exploitation,the beginning 2,000. At present the management interest doesnt surpass the 0.2% of the budget ofimplies, in many cases, investing directly into the construction the organization, basing the publicof the equipment, which on numerous occasions makes assistance on a series of specific activityit difficult to be able to opt for the management of these, programs.due to not having the economic resources or the necessaryfinancial leverage. Depending on the investment required, Despite being a non-profit company, it isand from time to time shared by the council, the period governed by a business criteria, reinvestingof management is more or less long, being able to reach the benefits in programs of interest for theforty or fifty years. community or in its own equipment. The availability of reduced rates that pursue theThe entities or businesses that, by bearing part of the social profit value of the infrastructure,investment, assume the management of an installation, obliges imposing a strict control of themust reflect their repayment and financial expenses in operating cost.their business plan that counts on its main income, beingthe entrance fees to the installations. At the same time the relation with the Council, owners of the infrastructure, needCharacteristic features of the model of management of to constantly have the disposition of datathe group UBAE on users, inscriptions, access,etc.. In thisThe characteristic features of the model of management way, they can identify if the needs andestablished by the group UBAE are shown by the four interests of each Municipality in the matterperspectives of any model of business management: the are covered. With the purpose of carryingfinancial perspective, the perspective of processes and out this task, UBAE has the necessaryactivities, the perspective of clients (users) and the technological support. The application ofperspective of human resources. software of users management, the access control systems installation; as well as theThe financial perspective is influenced by the need to count availability of business intelligence tools thaton its own financing to undertake the programs and permit obtaining the indicators of validactivities offered. The chapter of public subsidies not management to facilitate making decisions.
16 CESS MAGAZINE As for the processes and activities, the model established is characterized by guaranteeing the access to all the people, whether under the modality of payment, of punctual access or under the structure of a club or local company. To be able to make room for all kinds of particular interests, leisure, health, and welfare; an offering of innovative, attractive activities has been generated that includes specific equipment. The approach of individual practice activities offered is governed by criteria of health and recreation, and the formation of the instructors responds to that particularity. The design of the centers, permits any type of use; from recreational playful use to regular and regulated competition. The availability of different spaces of practice, polyvalent rooms, studies, pools, etc offers the citizen multiple possibilities and contemplates the most various sports use. center and the plans of maintenance of the infrastructure. Equally important is the need to be able to combine sports practice with family life As for the users, the model contemplates the possibility especially the care of smaller children. For of use for any type of person. From swimming programs that reason, they develop child activity for pregnant women, to programs for the elderly, the user programs, and programs of joint practice has a great number of activities that are adjusted to their for parents and children. needs. Apart from leisure and health, the sports school programs of different modalities and disciplines, intend to With the purpose of reaching quality service initiate the young in the practise of sport as a habit of and the optimization of resources, the group leisure and health. UBAE has developed and established in the centers that they manage, a system of The linking with the local clubs permits to continue developing quality that is certified by the regulatory the local associative weaving and the traditional sport. ISO 9001. Under the pretext of continual The integration of people with a psychic or physical hadicap improvement, they are identify and register reflects in the relation with organizations specialized in the service deficiencies aiming to improve the attention to these people, apart from looking after the attention to the user. elimination of architectural barriers and guaranteeing the accessibility to the spaces of practice. The concern for the environment, supposes adopting specific measures to reduce the At the same time, the establishment of reduced rates for energy consumption and to be able to have disadvantaged collectives makes the access to sports renewable ways of energy production, like practice easy for those people with a difficult economic solar plates for the production of sanitary situation or with scarce resources. hot water. The analysis of the clients, age, sex, origin , permits Apart from the use of the sports center, detecting users catchment opportunities. For this the the relation with the responsible of the establishment of the latest technologies help to identify municipalities, makes it necessary to the profiles of clients, habits of use, etc. With the objective establish monitoring channels to evaluate of being able to communicate successfully the development at all times the service quality given, as well of new activities or simply information related to the sports as the establishment of the sports center, UBAE has established a system of its own programs, the economic monitoring of the communication through the e-mail. This permits sending
CESS MAGAZINE 17different messages in function of the profile of users, as to other types of activities. At the samewell as of their habit of practice. time, the time dedicated to physical activity, as well as the frequency of duration ofRelating to the human resources, it needs to be emphasized practice have diminished.that the direction of the organization is voluntary and itsfunction is to determine and to head the strategy of the A scarce importance of the physicalcompany. At the same time, UBAE recognizes and education in the educational system ispromotes the voluntary work of its employees, based detected, and often schools present aamong other activities, in the participation of the promotion limited schedule of access to sports spaces.of sports events and acts of extensive participation. Considering childhood as a fundamental age to create the habit of physical exercise,The employees have benefits of a social character like the this effect is especially notable.free use of the sports infrastructure for themselves anda member of their family. They enjoy advantages like the In many occasions, the abandonment ofinscription of their children in childlike activities, as well as public spaces for playing limits physicalthe benefits of discounts and commercial offers in different exercise for children who then have tobusinesses like health insurances, shopping centers, etc. depend on their parents and relatives to accompany them to the sports centers.The selection process of new employees is carried out, In this sense, it would be interesting to bewhenever possible, among people that inhabit the able to present activities of active leisure,environment, which permits a better integration into the in which parents and children can practicelabor environment, allowing to combine their family and physical activity together. At the sameprofessional life, as well as facilitating the relation with the time, the access to the sports infrastructureusers of the sports center. of adults, responsible for their children is complex, especially for the parents, if theWith the purpose to improve the quality of the activities sports centers dont have nurseries oroffered, as well as the performance of the functions of spaces where they can leave the childrenthe employees, UBAE designs and applies a plan of while the adult does exercise.continuous formation that covers all areas, from customerservice, maintenance, instructors, hygiene, administration Often, the lack of professional elaborateand direction. At the same time, the performance of each practice guides, impede that people accessperson is evaluated, valuing the possibilities of promotion the sports infrastructure by not identifyingin the case of needing to occupy positions of responsibility. clearly with the characteristics and particularities of the physical activity theyPromotion of the sports practice: threats and strengths want to carry out. Professionals in theJust as it has been exposed in the first chapter, the environment of sport and health, shouldphenomenon sport is completely integrated in our society. be able to orient these people on how to The way in which people relate to this phenomenon goes practe because if exercise is not carriedfrom the practise, to the spectacle. Nobody doubts the out correctly it can lead to abandomenthealth benefits of practicing physical activity moderately. and and lack of motivation.Nevertheless, the access to sports activity is not easy formany people, there are many aspects that influence in The technical level of coaches andthis limitation. These aspects are not always external, but instructors linked to the activity, should bethey often relate to motives like habits of life, or cultural presented as a need to guarantee theaspects of the population. Subsequently some of these quality and continuity of the activityaspects that limit the access to the sports practice are programs. In this sense the professio-detailed, and they could be considered as threats to the nalization that the sport phenomenon hasgeneralization of this. experienced can help the disposition of good technicians; its training and professiona-In the first place, as a general rule, a trend is experienced, lization being a fundamental element in thegeneraly in all population piramids, which is the passive promotion of physical activity.leisure; characterized by the use of the technologies ofcommunication. This effect is especially worrying among The apparition of organizations andchildren and youths, who also prioritize nocturnal leisure businesses dedicated to the management
18 CESS MAGAZINE of sports infrastructure has contributed to The infrastructure should be available for the peoples use, a new offering of physical activity, especially reducing entrance barriers like the price of user rates, in the large cities, based on the individual the administrative procedures and the conditions of practice practice and the concept of members. A required. In this sense the offering of activities should be market has been generated and clear and the requirements of use should be public and consequently an economic sector of activity. affordable. Those who practice are now consumers. The index of abandonment of this new sports practice is very high ( 30% of the new members in an installation will abandon the practice 3 months after joining the center). The impulse consumption and the dictation of fashion appears, especially among younger children The importance of marketing in an environment of hard competition, especially in large cities, favours the need to form aggressive sales teams. The risk of avoiding the demands, capacities and particularities Finally it has to be emphasized that the efforts carried out of the people (clients) lowers the the risk by the of governments, local authorities, clubs, sports of defrauding them by not covering their associations and organizations linked to the environment expectations. of sport, has paid off. A great effort has been made in the construction of sports infrastructure, there is more The law of the market can damage the availability of practice spaces , although in many cases it access to the sports infrastructure for is still insufficient. disadvantaged collectives, by considering them as not being a profitable market. This The evidence that physical exercise is beneficial for the is why the work of the authorities in the health is a clear fact and accepted by the medical management of the public infrastructure is Community, the authorities and the people. The phenomenon fundamental, and it must guarantee at all sport is being professionalized, and the clubs and businesses times that this phenomenon doesnt happen. have improved its know how and are becoming endowed with specialists. The affect of fashion, the change of tendencies or the apparition of new activities, The businesses (employers) begin to understand that the constitute a threat for the economic and employees are physically active. Numerous studies show social profit value of those infrastructures practicing sports regularly reduces work absenteeism and that remain obsolete, or are not capable improves productivity in the development of functions and of adapting their spaces to the new demand tasks. of activities. In this sense the investment in sports infrastructure should be directed Alliances between the sports and educational sector, the towards obtaining polyvalent spaces able environment of health, public and private, governments to establish changes of design, size, etc. and clubs and sports associations, etc are constituted . The increase of the offering of equipment, public and The investment in the construction of sports private, facilitates the access for people to practice sports. infrastructure, is high, and their upkeep Even the natural environment has become a setting of and exploitation should be contemplated in practice. their business plan. For that reason, the promotion of sport for all, designs polyvalent The relation between the public general interest and the spaces that can harbor individual use, sports private initiative, favours the creation of an offering at an competitions, sessions of physical education, accessible price and with guarantees of continuity and etc. In this way it will manage to socially quality of service, if the public interest remains safeguarded profit the infrastructure. in the exploitation of the infrastructure.
For more information contact: E.mail: email@example.com. Perill, 16-22 - 08012 Barcelona (Catalonia) Telephone: 0034 934 594 430