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Quality criteria for architectural 3D data in usage and preservation processes


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Quality assessment of digital material has been just one of the new tasks the digital revolution brought into the library domain. With the first big print material digitization
efforts in the digital heritage domain dating back to the 1980ies, plenty of experience has been gathered and recommendations on best-practise published. Along the same line, libraries of today may often publish guidelines on formats or quality parameters for digital textual materials which enter their holdings.
While digital texts such as e-journals are in common use today, non-textual materials of various domains are just entering the holdings of cultural heritage institutions. An
example for this is architectural data, which is of interest to a variety of libraries and archives – ranging from special collection libraries, such as the RIBA Library of the
Royal Institute of British Architects, to national archives responsible for the archival of information about publically funded buildings. Architectural practise of today
commonly includes 3D object processing. The output of these processes is slowly reaching the aforementioned cultural heritage institutions which are now facing the task
of quality assessment of the material.
The presentation will present a first analysis of potential quality factors and compare architectural and cultural heritage domain expectations in 3D data quality. It will look at two forms of 3D data: modelled 3D objects and scanned 3D objects. The work presented in this presentation is based on work conducted in the ongoing EU FP-7 DURAARK project.

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Quality criteria for architectural 3D data in usage and preservation processes

  1. 1. Quality criteria for architectural 3D data in usage and 30 / 05 / 14 preservation processes QQML 2014 Istanbul, May 27th – 30th 2014 Michelle Lindlar (LUH / TIB) Martin Tamke, Morten Myrup Jensen, Henrik Leander Evers (CITA)
  2. 2. Brief introduction to DURAARK • to 3D scans • to 3D plans(BIM) Brief introduction to digital preservation Quality factors • A digital preservation view • A 3D plan / BIM view • A 3D scanview • A stakeholder view Conclusion and Outlook 30 / 05 / 14 Overview
  3. 3. 30 / 05 / 14
  4. 4. DURAARK (DURAble Architectural Knowledge) FP7 – ICT – Digital Preservation (STReP) February 2013 – January 2016 Goal Develop methods and tools for digital preservation and curation of 3D building data, metadata, related knowledge & web data Scope • interlinked curation and preservation workflows • focus on two open file formats: IFC and E57 • incorporate existing OAIS compliant digital preservation system Project overview 30 / 05 / 14
  5. 5. DURAARK – an interdisciplinary project 30 / 05 / 14
  6. 6. ScanCoptor by FaroLabs 3D building data – scans 30 / 05 / 14 Zebedee by CSIRO Point clouds (E57 – ASTM E2907-11 Standard) Point clouds are a set of points in a 3D (X, Y, Z) coordinate system which describe the external surfaces of a scanned object. They document a building or structure „as-is“ / „descriptive representations“ and are inevitably tied to temporal and spatial aspects.
  7. 7. 3D building data – models / plans 30 / 05 / 14 Building Information Modelling (BIM) (IFC – ISO16739:2013, based on STEP standards ISO 10303) Moves beyond CAD by covering the entire design-to-construction process (including: project planning, cost, part specifications, construction time, …). They traditionally document a building or structure „as-planned“ / „perscriptive representations“ which may deviate from the as-is state  move towards „as-is“ state for facility maintenance. 3D CAD Geometry along X-Y-Z axes 4D CAD Schedule time 5D CAD Cost-related information 6D CAD Energy and sustainability 7D CAD Facility management
  8. 8. 3D building data – models / plans 30 / 05 / 14
  9. 9. Design-to-Construction-to-Retrofit Model 30 / 05 / 14
  10. 10. Design-to-Construction-to-Retrofit Model 30 / 05 / 14
  11. 11. 3D scans and plans are the research output of respective departments and will be found in future legacy deposits of architects and engineers / current institutional repositories BIM is already mandatory in several countries for (some) publically funded buildings, including Denmark, Finland, Hong Kong, Netherlands, Norway, Singapore, UK, USA. Out of those countries all but Hong Kong require IFC for BIM Cultural heritage organizations are already scanning (and also planning) cultural heritage sites for documentation Why should libraries and archives care ? 30 / 05 / 14
  12. 12. The 3 [preservation] layers of a digital object 30 / 05 / 14
  13. 13. Digital Object Lifecycle Model 30 / 05 / 14 Based on DCC Digital Curation Lifecycle Model
  14. 14. What does „high quality“ of an object (typically) mean ? From a digital preservation point of view: To preserve an object at the quality needed to fulfill the future usage scenarios of the stakeholder(s) – i.e., renderability, accessibility, understandability and authenticity of the digital object. From a user point of view: To use an object in a way that all current needs are fulfilled. What does ”high quality” mean ? 30 / 05 / 14
  15. 15. Disclosure well documented and openly available specification, stable versioning Internal characteristics free from encryption and DRM, complexity adequate for intended use External characteristics independent of hardware, physical medium, specific software / OS, external information Format acceptance support through different vendors / available tools, used by several domains, standardized Patent free from patent / licensing costs Logical Strucuture / Transparency Self-documented format, standard or simple representation of data at logical structure, transparent to „simple“ tools Quality criteria for digital preservation: File format sustainability factors 30 / 05 / 14
  16. 16. Short defintion: 30 / 05 / 14 Characteristics which need to be preserved over the course of time / over preservation action. „Environments“ can be hw, sw, community, institutional/organisational characteristics – such as rendering, editing, storage cost. Farquhar, Dappert (2009): „Objects“ include bitstream, representation and intellectual entity levels – characterisitics can be page count, resolution, font. Quality criteria for digital preservation: Significant Characteristics
  17. 17. Level of detail / Level of Development: - indication how much detail is included in geometry / model element - how much each part of the geometry is developed - e.g. CCS Informationsniveuaer or BIMForum Level of Development Level of Accuracy: - indication whether plan (for existing building) is accurate representation of as-is - indication scale can reach from „created based on manual measurements taken from analogue 2D plan“ to „created based on 3D scan“ - best practise: DTU (Danmarks Tekniske Universitet) Level of self-containment: - indiciation of external sources the object is depending on (e.g., vendor databases) Level of development for plumbing fixtures 3D plans / BIM– possible quality descriptors 30 / 05 / 14 taken from BIMForumLevel of Development
  18. 18. 3D scans – possible quality descriptors 30 / 05 / 14
  19. 19. Scanning companies / land surveyors: - high level of detail and accuracy in scans - use detailed parameters to describe deviations (e.g. drift of registration, amount of noise, point to scanner distance, etc.) Architects and Engineers - focus on lean and uncomplicated collaboration/data to the benefit of the client - level of information should match the purpose Construction companies - exact and detailed information in plans necessary (highest degree for BIM amongst stakeholders) Faciliaty maintenance - mid-level of detail required (to lesser degree than construction companies) - high focus on correct models (long-term sustainability) Stakeholder factors 30 / 05 / 14
  20. 20. Findings - first quality factors which can serve as significant characteristics have been identified - quality expectations differ greatly between the stakeholder groups for architectural data - long-term archives need processes to assess the quality for the respective stakeholders - first tool for E57 quality assessment has been developed in DURAARK project Outlook - development of IFC quality assessment tool is currently underway - workshops to test tools and processes with stakeholders will take place in the fall Interested in further information? Deliverables are available on the website Conclusion and outlook 30 / 05 / 14
  21. 21. Thank you. Questions? Suggestions? 21 / 10 / 13 Do you have architectural 3D data? Contact us!