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Language Grid


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Language Grid

  1. 1. UMD Crowdsourcing and Translation Workshop, June 10-11<br />Language Grid: Service-OrientedInfrastructurefor Multilingual Society<br />Donghui Lin<br />National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Japan<br />
  2. 2. Introduction of the Language Grid<br /><br />2<br />
  3. 3. Language Grid Architecture<br />Education<br />Medical Care<br />Disaster Management<br />more<br />more<br />Sharing Multilingual Information<br />Translation Services at Hospital Receptions<br />Universal Playground<br />Language Support for Multicultural Societies<br />Sharing language resources such as dictionaries and machine translators around the world<br />German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence<br />Kookmin University<br />Stuttgart University<br />National Institute of Informatics<br />Princeton University<br />National Research Council, Italy<br />Chinese Academy of Sciences<br />Google Inc.<br />NICT<br />NTT Research Labs<br />Asian Disaster Reduction Center<br />NECTEC<br />Univ. of Indonesia<br />3<br />
  4. 4. From Language Resources to Language Services<br />Dictionary Service<br />避難場所<br />Wrapping<br />disaster shelter<br />Dictionary<br />Return translated word<br />Dictionary Service<br />Parallel Text Service<br />避難場所は、家から近い学校です。<br />Wrapping<br />In the case of disaster, people should be evacuated to a school nearby their house.<br />Return similar translated text<br />Parallel Text<br />Parallel Text Service<br />Machine Translation Service<br />避難場所は、家から近い学校です。<br />Wrapping<br />Disaster shelter is school close from a house.<br />Translate <br />by machine<br />Machine Translator<br />Machine Translation Service<br />Human Translation Service<br />避難場所は、家から近い学校です。<br />Wrapping<br />Your disaster shelter is the school closest to your house.<br />Translate with high quality<br />Human Translator<br />Human Translation Service<br />
  5. 5. From Atomic Services to Composite Services<br />授業料は無償ですが、教材費や給食費は必要です。<br />(Original Text in English:Tuition is free,but cost of textbooks and school meals is required)<br />Multilingual Service Infrastructure<br />Multilingual Communication Support System<br />Over60 language services are <br />available currently (April 2010)<br />AutoComplete Service<br />Multilingual Communication Support System for a middle school in Kawasaki City, Japan<br />School Guidance for Foreign Guardians<br />Mie Prefecture, JapanParallel Text<br />As aulas referentes ao ensino obrigatório são gratuitas. Porém, serão cobrados os valores referentes à refeição escolar e os materiais a serem usados.<br />(Translation Result in English: Tuition of compulsory education is free,but cost of textbooks and school meals is required)<br />If original text is registered <br />as parallel text item, perfect <br />translation can be acquired<br />Composite Translation Service<br />A taxa escolar é gratuita, mas a um custo de material educativo e um gasto de merenda escolar são necessários.<br />(Translation Result in English: Although tuition is free,cost of textbooks and waste of school meals is necessary.)<br />Display area for conversationlogs <br />J-Server, Kodensha<br />(Rule-based Translation)<br />Translation(ja-en)<br />Multi-hop Translation<br />Web-transer,<br />CrossLanguage<br />(Rule-based Translation)<br />Translation(en-pt)<br />Translation quality is similar to <br />that of free translation on the Web<br />・Multi-hop translation<br />・Composite translation <br /> with dictionary <br />・Best translation selection<br />A taxa escolar é gratuita, mas as taxas de materiais didáticos e merenda escolar são as taxas necessárias.<br />(Translation Result in English: Although tuition is free,the rate that learns materials and school meals is the necessary cost. )<br />Composite <br />Translation with Dictionary<br />Mecab, NTT<br />Morphological Analysis<br />Professional translation <br />can be realized by combining<br />dictionaries fortechnical terminology (jargon)<br />TreeTagger,<br />University of Stuttgart<br />Morphological Analysis<br />Education Dictionary, <br />The Toyota Foundation<br />Dictionary<br />Best translation result can <br />be selected from multiple <br />translation services<br />AutoComplete Service<br />Composite <br />Translation with Dictionary<br />Best Translation Selection Service<br />O ensino é livre, as taxas de materiais de aprendizagem taxas de merenda escolar e é necessário.<br />(Translation Result in English: Tuition is free,but cost of textbooks and school feeding is required.)<br />Translation quality is possible to be<br />further improved by learning from <br />examples (parallel texts).<br />(Under development by Kyoto Univ.)<br />GoogleTranslate, <br />Google<br />(Statistical Translation)<br />Translation(ja-pt)<br />Best Translation<br />Selection<br />
  6. 6. Participants and Language Resources<br />74% of participants are from Japan.<br /><ul><li>Participants (17 countries, 120+ groups)
  7. 7. University / Research Institute
  8. 8. Kyoto Univ. (Japan), Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China), Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany), IT Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark), Princeton Univ. (USA), DFKI (Germany), CNR (Italy), Chinese Academy of Sciences (China), NECTEC (Thailand), and more.
  9. 9. NPO/NGO/Public Sector
  10. 10. NGOs for disaster reduction, NGOs for Intercultural exchange, Public Junior-high schools, City Boards of Education, and more.
  11. 11. Corporate (CSR activities / language resource providers)
  12. 12. Google, NTT, Toshiba, Oki, Kodensha, Translution, and more.
  13. 13. Language Resources (60+ language resources)
  14. 14. Machine Translator
  15. 15. J-Server (ja/en/ko/zh), Web-Transer (ja/en/ko/zh/fr/de/it/es), Toshiba (en/zh), Parsit (en>th), Google Translate (40+ languages), and more.
  16. 16. Bilingual Dictionary, Concept Dictionary
  17. 17. EDR , Wordnet, Life Science Dictionary, Multi-language Glossary on Natural Disasters, and more.
  18. 18. Parallel Text
  19. 19. Morphological Analyzer, Dependency Parser
  20. 20. Voice Recognition</li></ul>6<br />
  21. 21. Participatory Design Approach<br />Users create and share their own language services, combine their services with services on the Language Grid to support their multilingual activities<br />Multilingual medical support system in a hospital<br />Multilingual chatting system in a middle school<br />Multilingual BBS for international staffs in an NPO <br />
  22. 22. Participatory Design Approach<br />Users customize how to use language services on the Language Grid to support their multilingual activities<br />User can customize translation services <br />and dictionary services<br />Multilingual BBS<br />
  23. 23. Using/Customizing Language Services<br /><ul><li>Language Grid Playground
  24. 24.
  25. 25. Try language services on the Language Grid
  26. 26. Machine Translation
  27. 27. Dictionary / Concept Dictionary
  28. 28. Parallel Text
  29. 29. Morphological Analysis
  30. 30.
  31. 31. Language Grid Toolbox
  32. 32.
  33. 33. Try customization of language services on the Language Grid
  34. 34. Text Translation (Back-translation, Composite translation)
  35. 35. Language Resource Creation (Dictionary, Parallel Text…)
  36. 36. Multilingual BBS
  37. 37. …</li></li></ul><li>Research on Using the Language Grid<br />10<br />
  38. 38. Open Smart Classroom (IEEE TKED 2009)<br />Language Grid<br />YueSuo, Naoki Miyata, Hiroki Morikawa, Toru Ishida and Yuanchun Shi. Open Smart Classroom: Extensible and Scalable Learning System in Smart Space using Web Service Technology. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, Vol.21, No.6, pp. 814-828, 2009.<br />Gold Prize (1st place) in "Microsoft Cup" IEEE China Student Paper Contest.<br />
  39. 39. Analysis of Multicultural Communication<br />(CSCW 2006, CHI 2009)<br />Problems of MT-mediated communication<br />Translation Asymmetry<br />Echoing for ratification does not work.<br />Naomi Yamashita, Reiko Inaba, Hideaki Kuzuoka and Toru Ishida. Difficulties in Establishing Common Ground in Multiparty Groups using Machine Translation. International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI-09), pp. 679-688, 2009.<br />Naomi Yamashita and Toru Ishida. Effects of Machine Translation on Collaborative Work. International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW-06), pp. 515-523, 2006.<br />
  40. 40. Cross Language News Analysis (ongoing)<br />Translation andDictionary Creation<br />バラク・オバマ<br />巴拉克·奥巴马<br />Japan<br />China<br />Korea<br />USA<br />World<br />News Analysis<br />Prof. Yoshioka, Hokkaido University, Japan<br />
  41. 41. Pictogram Selectionwith Semantic Interpretation (ESWC 2008)<br /><ul><li>Pictogram interpretation words are mapped to EDR’s conceptsto obtain the first-level classification.</li></ul>EDR first-level Concepts<br />CONCEPT<br />AGENT<br />MATTER<br />EVENT<br />LOCATION<br />TIME<br />Heeryon Cho, Toru Ishida, Toshiyuki Takasaki and Satoshi Oyama. Assisting Pictogram Selection with Semantic Interpretation. European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC-08), pp. 65–79, 2008.<br />
  42. 42. Wiki-to-Wiki Translation (just started)<br />Number of Wikipedia articles by language<br />Support Wikipedia communities to create multilingual articles.<br />Number of Wiktionary entries by language<br />15<br />
  43. 43. Research on Developing the Language Grid<br />
  44. 44. Context-aware Pivot Translation Services (IJCAI 2009)<br /><ul><li>The word sense drifts across cascaded translations.</li></ul>Schuld<br />ketten<br />fault<br />≠<br />Source sentence(Japanese)kanojono ketten ha ookinamondaida.<br /> (Her weakness is a big problem.)<br />Translation to English Her fault is a big problem.<br />Translation to German IhreSchuldisteingroßes Problem.<br /> (Her responsibility is a big problem.)<br />Rie Tanaka, Yohei Murakami and Toru Ishida. Context-Based Approach for Pivot Translation Services. International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-09), 2009.<br />
  45. 45. Morphological Analysis<br />Technical Term Extraction<br />Technical Term Bilingual Dictionary<br />Technical Term Bilingual Dictionary<br />Term Replacement<br />Machine <br />Translation<br />Term Replacement<br />+<br />Any <br />remaining terms<br />Any <br />remaining terms<br />Constraint-basedHorizontal Service Composition (ISWC 2006)<br />Original sentence<br />X1<br />Vertical service composition is to create a workflow.<br />Horizontal service composition is to select atomic services for a given workflow. <br />Satisfy hard constraints (required functions), while maximizing soft constraints (QoS for example).<br />Set of morphemes<br />X2<br />Set of technical terms included in the sentence<br />Set of technical terms included in the sentence<br />No<br />No<br />yes<br />yes<br />X3<br />Intermediate code of technical term<br />Translation of technical term<br />Original sentence<br />Set of technical terms<br />Set of intermediate code<br />X4<br />Sentence including intermediate code.<br />X5<br />Translated sentence<br />Set of intermediate code<br />Set of term translations<br />X6<br />Ahlem Ben Hassine, Matsubara Shigeo and Toru Ishida. Constraint-based Approach for Web Service Composition. International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC-06), pp. 130-143, 2006.<br />
  46. 46. Summary: Research Issues<br />Interaction analysis<br />Creating conversational common ground with inconsistent, asymmetric, and intransitive machine translations. (CSCW2006, CHI2009)<br />Service Composition<br />Horizontal service composition. (ISWC2006, ICWS2008)<br />Service supervision. (ICWS2009, SCC2010)<br />Context aware service composition for pivot translations. (IJCAI2009)<br />Provider-centered trust for autonomic service composition. <br />Pricing composite/atomic language services.<br />User-centered QoS for composite language services.<br />Customizing statistical translations with community dictionaries.<br />Extending the Language Grid<br />Emotions and pictograms in language services (ESWC2008)<br />e-learning grid (IEEE Transactions on KDE, 2009)<br />19<br />
  47. 47. International Conference Initiated by<br /> the Language Grid<br />
  48. 48.
  49. 49. Research Example 1:<br />MT-Mediated Communication,<br />Collaborative Translation<br />
  50. 50. 23<br />MT-Mediated Communication (CSCW06, CHI09)<br />To observe and analyze the effects of machine translation on communication among monolinguals<br />Participants:<br />5 Chinese-Japanesepairs, 3 Japanese-Korean pairs<br />They have never met before the experiments<br />Tasks:<br />Each pair of users try to indentify the same avatars by using their mother tongues and machine translations<br />Communication medias:<br />MT-based multilingual chatting systems<br />
  51. 51. 24<br />Experiment Design<br />Indentify the same avatars<br />< China Side><br />< Japan Side><br />Multilingual Chatting System<br />Based on the Language Grid<br />
  52. 52. Analysis of MT-Mediated Communication<br />Problem of MT-mediated communication (1)<br />Translation Asymmetry<br />Echoing for ratification does not work.<br />
  53. 53. Analysis of MT-Mediated Communication<br />Problem of MT-mediated communication (2)<br />Translation Inconsistency<br />Different expressions of a same sentence can get totally different translation results.<br />
  54. 54. MT-Mediated Collaborative Translation Protocols (IUI2009)<br />Language Grid<br />Basic concept of collaborative translation<br />DaisukeMorita and Toru Ishida. Collaborative Translation by Monolinguals with Machine Translators. International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI-09), pp. 361-365, 2009.<br />
  55. 55. Examples of Collaborative Translation Protocols<br />
  56. 56. Experiment Result<br />Result of Japanese-English Translation<br />Result of Japanese-Chinese Translation<br />
  57. 57. Research Example 2:<br />Multilingual Localization<br />
  58. 58. Language Grid for Multilingual Localization (ICSOC2009, LREC2010)<br />Machine translation VS Human translation <br />Human translations are of high costs with long durations<br />Machine translation have limited translation quality (in dimensions of fluency and adequacy)<br />Language Grid improves traditional machine translation service by combining community dictionaries, but still has limitation in translation quality<br />Language Grid for Localization Processes<br />Localization processes requires perfect translation quality that machine translation services cannot provide<br />31<br />Let’s try to combine machine translation services and human activities using the Language Grid!!<br />
  59. 59. Language Grid for Multilingual Localization<br />Composite machine translation service<br />32<br />A composite machine translation service combined with bilingual dictionary service provided by the Language Grid<br /><ul><li>Composing machine translation service and human service</li></ul>Modificable<br />Not Modificable<br />
  60. 60. Experiment Design<br />Localization Contents<br />Business, University, Temple…<br />Languages<br />JA, EN, ZH-CN, ZH-TW, KO, PT, ES, DE, FR…<br />Monolingual<br />Foreign students in Kyoto University <br />Bilingual<br />Professional bilingual translator in Translation Company<br />Machine Translation Services<br />Composite translation with bilingual dictionary<br />For each content, there is a dictionary covers 15%-25% of the total contents<br />Comparison<br />Localization Process by using Language Grid<br />Common Localization Process <br />
  61. 61. Contents for Experiment<br />
  62. 62. Monolingual Modification Rate and Length of Original Sentences<br />
  63. 63. Monolingual Modification Rate and Translation Time<br />Monolingual modification time keeps stable for different modification rate <br />Bilingual translation/confirmation time becomes less when monolingual modification rate increases <br />Bilingual Time <br />Monolingual Time <br />
  64. 64. Monolingual Modification Rate and Translation Time<br />Bilingual Time <br />Monolingual Time <br />
  65. 65. Monolingual Modification Rate and Bilingual Time Reduction Rate<br />The bilingual time reduction rate increases with the monolingual modification rate<br />
  66. 66. Challenging Issues<br />Requirements of composing machine translation and human<br />Methodologies of balancing the cost and quality<br />Control of human translation qualities and machine translation quality<br />Interaction design of human-human and human-machine translation<br />