Smart Grid: Technology,
Research Scientist, PSU
This presentation provides a technical introduction to Smart Grid; what are the
technologies in Smart Grid and their applications. This presentation will just
skim the surface. The most critical challenge for Smart Grid technology is the
development of a comprehensive set of standards to achieve interoperability.
Smart Grid Evolution
Centralized: 1 way flow of energy Decentralized: 2 way flow of
energy AND data
Vertically integrated, proprietary Horizontal, open standards
Rates/fixed pricing energy markets, real time pricing
~60% coal based 20 to 40% renewable energy
Faults and outages: physical Self healing
Enterprise applications: Silo‘d Service oriented architecture
Security: closed systems & Standards & cryptography
Limited usage information Secondary markets based on
Enernet = computing + comms + energy
The Smart Grid is a vision and will follow an evolutionary path. I first saw the
term Enernet used by Bob Metcalf in one of his presentations. It fits.
This slides shows the significant aspects of where we are today and some of
the evolutionary impact of the Smart Grid. 2030 is the year that DOE has
chosen in it reports and is somewhat arbitrary. An evolutionary path is
important, because preservation and integration of legacy assets into the new
technologies is vitally important. In fact, even today, there is a need for
applications/consultants to write middleware for integrating legacy technology.
There will be critical mass and inflection points along the way (for example,
AMI and the creation of FAN is creating one today). I have some thoughts on
that, and am working on presentation that will illuminate.
10/22/2009 Source: Report to NIST on the Interoperability
Standards Roadmap, 8/10/09
Conceptual model of the domains of the industry and their interaction points.
This is the model used by NIST in their standards efforts (more on that later).
IT Technologies in Smart Grid
l Smart equipment
l meters, embedded controllers, sensors, smart
appliances, smart chargers
l Communications (LAN, WAN, FAN, HAN)
l Enterprise applications
l asset management, data mining, demand/response
commands and control, web portals
l Overarching topics
l Security and privacy
IT definition: Used here to mean information technology in the broadest sense.
Covers hardware, software, networking and communications.
Communications are a big deal; Nothing really new in the LAN, WAN space.
FAN are emerging and solidifying; AMI meters today use mostly proprietary
networks, but WiMax and 3G players are jockeying for position. FANs are
called the last mile (from substation to home)….SilverSprings has done an
impressive job of becoming a player (especially since selling to utilities is
difficult for startups). HAN physical layers are also in the same state; 802.15.4
and BPL are competing (IMHO, 802.15.4 will emerge the winner). However,
for the HAN space standards for the networking and application layers of the
stack are still relatively immature.
Once we get the comms space settled, enterprise applications will be big. Not
only within the utility but across several domains (markets, service providers).
Googles power meter is just the tip of the iceberg.
Smart Grid Applications
l Demand Response
l Grid Optimization/Distribution Automation
l Distributed Generation and Storage
l Smart Charging of PHEVs and V2G
l Advanced Utility Control Systems, future
applications and services (portals, markets)
Across all of these are cyber security, market operations, and
AMI; physical meter as well as the communications network, and enterprise
applications. Today it is viewed as cost savings by utilities (remote
connect/disconnect, remote meter reading). Critical infrastructure for TOU
pricing. Demand/Response; Load shedding, moving peaks of demand and
critical enabler for renewables. Good rule of thumb; each $1 invested DR
capacity in saves $2 in capital investment for new plants (spinning reserves).
Today mostly for larger users (Intel is a good example). DR market will
quadruple over next 5 years. Optimization: Real time command and control of
grid level devices (i.e. sensors on substation equipment). Umbrella for system
reliability, operational efficiency, asset utilization. ROI of this makes
investment in these types of projects attractive for utilities.
The above have varying levels of deployment today. The following three are
more revolutionary.Distributed Generation and Storage; the most
revolutionary Renewable energy is currently centralized. In this years Solar
Decathlon, DOE required that they connect to the grid. Energy storage is the
missing link for renewable energy.PHEVs; Smart charging will be necessary to
smooth the load of the grid. Leveraging vehicle batteries are viewed as an
option for storage. PHEVs greener than petroleum based cars, even when
using coal plants for energy (MIT technology review) Utility control systems:
EMS, SCADA, DMS, advanced applications (energy trading and MDM).
Examples include incorporation GIS (geographic control systems) over DMS
will bring improvements in visibility and forecasting. Home energy
management systems and portals for the consumer. 5
l Interoperability standards
l Utility business models that promote efficiency
(policy, regulation, consumer behavior)
l Enterprise architectures
What IS interoperability?
l Examples: WiFi, USB devices, eCommerce
l Multiple manufacturers
l Branding: Certification, Testing
l Backwards compatibility
l Fosters innovation
l Lowers cost to consumer
Standards are KEY to success 7
The term plug and play has been used to describe the Smart Grid. In fact….
The Universal Plug and Play Forum has set up a smart grid task force
aiming to set standards for how home networked devices monitor and
manage electricity consumption. The group focused mainly on home
networking issues will also promote UPnP technology as a part of
emerging smart grid standards worldwide.
Source: NIST/EPRI Standards
Workshop May 2009 8
X2G: Home2Grid, Building2Grid, Vehicle2Grid
From NIST SG standards workshop; Blue is the network, yellow is electricity
This slide is a nice example of the consumers and usages of electricity and
interactions with electricity and communication networks. NIST is using this
approach to develop use cases for their standards framework effort. Examples
of where standards would apply:
•Plugging in an new appliance, it identifies itself to the meter in a standard
way. It DR capabilities can then be broadcast home EMS, Meter/Utility, etc.
•Pricing and power characteristics are defined in standard data formats. This
information can be broadcast across millions of meters and processed, even if
the meters come from different manufacturers.
•Information in a PHEV identifies the vehicle and owner preferences for smart
NIST Standards Activities
l EISA 2007
l Standards framework and roadmap
l Draft 1.0 published in September 09
l 31 identified standards
l Priority Action Plan (14)
l DRAFT Smart Grid Cyber Security and
Strategy Requirements, September 09
The development of standards has gotten a big boost from this effort. Some
standards and areas are more mature than others. For example, AMI
standards are more mature (millions of meters have been and will be
deployed). Lesser developed areas are in the area of future applications such
as pricing models and home based DR.
Besides relatively young standards in some areas, another problem is the fact
that there are multiple competing standards. This effort is going a long ways
for merging them (IEC 61850 and Multispeak, for example).
Complementing standards is a fledgling open user community (OpenADR is an
open standard, OpenSG is a users group)