De Mystifying Smart Grid Rankin


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A high level introduction to the Smart Grid Technologies and Applications along with standards efforts.

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De Mystifying Smart Grid Rankin

  1. 1. Smart Grid: Technology, Applications, Standards Linda Rankin Research Scientist, PSU Email: This presentation provides a technical introduction to Smart Grid; what are the technologies in Smart Grid and their applications. This presentation will just skim the surface. The most critical challenge for Smart Grid technology is the development of a comprehensive set of standards to achieve interoperability. 1
  2. 2. Smart Grid Evolution TODAY 2030 Centralized: 1 way flow of energy Decentralized: 2 way flow of energy AND data Vertically integrated, proprietary Horizontal, open standards Rates/fixed pricing energy markets, real time pricing ~60% coal based 20 to 40% renewable energy Faults and outages: physical Self healing repair Enterprise applications: Silo‘d Service oriented architecture Security: closed systems & Standards & cryptography obscurity Limited usage information Secondary markets based on data analytics 2 10/22/2009 Enernet = computing + comms + energy The Smart Grid is a vision and will follow an evolutionary path. I first saw the term Enernet used by Bob Metcalf in one of his presentations. It fits. This slides shows the significant aspects of where we are today and some of the evolutionary impact of the Smart Grid. 2030 is the year that DOE has chosen in it reports and is somewhat arbitrary. An evolutionary path is important, because preservation and integration of legacy assets into the new technologies is vitally important. In fact, even today, there is a need for applications/consultants to write middleware for integrating legacy technology. There will be critical mass and inflection points along the way (for example, AMI and the creation of FAN is creating one today). I have some thoughts on that, and am working on presentation that will illuminate. 2
  3. 3. 3 10/22/2009 Source: Report to NIST on the Interoperability Standards Roadmap, 8/10/09 Conceptual model of the domains of the industry and their interaction points. This is the model used by NIST in their standards efforts (more on that later). 3
  4. 4. IT Technologies in Smart Grid l Smart equipment l meters, embedded controllers, sensors, smart appliances, smart chargers l Communications (LAN, WAN, FAN, HAN) l Enterprise applications l asset management, data mining, demand/response commands and control, web portals l Overarching topics l Interoperability l Security and privacy l Diagnostics/Testing/Reliability/Quality 4 10/22/2009 IT definition: Used here to mean information technology in the broadest sense. Covers hardware, software, networking and communications. Communications are a big deal; Nothing really new in the LAN, WAN space. FAN are emerging and solidifying; AMI meters today use mostly proprietary networks, but WiMax and 3G players are jockeying for position. FANs are called the last mile (from substation to home)….SilverSprings has done an impressive job of becoming a player (especially since selling to utilities is difficult for startups). HAN physical layers are also in the same state; 802.15.4 and BPL are competing (IMHO, 802.15.4 will emerge the winner). However, for the HAN space standards for the networking and application layers of the stack are still relatively immature. Once we get the comms space settled, enterprise applications will be big. Not only within the utility but across several domains (markets, service providers). Googles power meter is just the tip of the iceberg. 4
  5. 5. Smart Grid Applications l AMI l Demand Response l Grid Optimization/Distribution Automation l Distributed Generation and Storage l Smart Charging of PHEVs and V2G l Advanced Utility Control Systems, future applications and services (portals, markets) 5 10/22/2009 Across all of these are cyber security, market operations, and communications. AMI; physical meter as well as the communications network, and enterprise applications. Today it is viewed as cost savings by utilities (remote connect/disconnect, remote meter reading). Critical infrastructure for TOU pricing. Demand/Response; Load shedding, moving peaks of demand and critical enabler for renewables. Good rule of thumb; each $1 invested DR capacity in saves $2 in capital investment for new plants (spinning reserves). Today mostly for larger users (Intel is a good example). DR market will quadruple over next 5 years. Optimization: Real time command and control of grid level devices (i.e. sensors on substation equipment). Umbrella for system reliability, operational efficiency, asset utilization. ROI of this makes investment in these types of projects attractive for utilities. The above have varying levels of deployment today. The following three are more revolutionary.Distributed Generation and Storage; the most revolutionary Renewable energy is currently centralized. In this years Solar Decathlon, DOE required that they connect to the grid. Energy storage is the missing link for renewable energy.PHEVs; Smart charging will be necessary to smooth the load of the grid. Leveraging vehicle batteries are viewed as an option for storage. PHEVs greener than petroleum based cars, even when using coal plants for energy (MIT technology review) Utility control systems: EMS, SCADA, DMS, advanced applications (energy trading and MDM). Examples include incorporation GIS (geographic control systems) over DMS will bring improvements in visibility and forecasting. Home energy management systems and portals for the consumer. 5
  6. 6. Key Challenges l Interoperability standards l Utility business models that promote efficiency (policy, regulation, consumer behavior) l Enterprise architectures 6 10/22/2009 6
  7. 7. What IS interoperability? l Examples: WiFi, USB devices, eCommerce l Ramifications l Multiple manufacturers l Branding: Certification, Testing l Backwards compatibility l Fosters innovation l Lowers cost to consumer Standards are KEY to success 7 10/22/2009 The term plug and play has been used to describe the Smart Grid. In fact…. Just announced…. The Universal Plug and Play Forum has set up a smart grid task force aiming to set standards for how home networked devices monitor and manage electricity consumption. The group focused mainly on home networking issues will also promote UPnP technology as a part of emerging smart grid standards worldwide. 7
  8. 8. Source: NIST/EPRI Standards 10/22/2009 Workshop May 2009 8 X2G: Home2Grid, Building2Grid, Vehicle2Grid From NIST SG standards workshop; Blue is the network, yellow is electricity This slide is a nice example of the consumers and usages of electricity and interactions with electricity and communication networks. NIST is using this approach to develop use cases for their standards framework effort. Examples of where standards would apply: •Plugging in an new appliance, it identifies itself to the meter in a standard way. It DR capabilities can then be broadcast home EMS, Meter/Utility, etc. •Pricing and power characteristics are defined in standard data formats. This information can be broadcast across millions of meters and processed, even if the meters come from different manufacturers. •Information in a PHEV identifies the vehicle and owner preferences for smart charging. 8
  9. 9. NIST Standards Activities l EISA 2007 l Standards framework and roadmap l Draft 1.0 published in September 09 l 31 identified standards l Priority Action Plan (14) l DRAFT Smart Grid Cyber Security and Strategy Requirements, September 09 l 9 10/22/2009 The development of standards has gotten a big boost from this effort. Some standards and areas are more mature than others. For example, AMI standards are more mature (millions of meters have been and will be deployed). Lesser developed areas are in the area of future applications such as pricing models and home based DR. Besides relatively young standards in some areas, another problem is the fact that there are multiple competing standards. This effort is going a long ways for merging them (IEC 61850 and Multispeak, for example). Complementing standards is a fledgling open user community (OpenADR is an open standard, OpenSG is a users group) 9