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3 Organisms And Environment

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3 Organisms And Environment

  1. 1. Organisms and Environment
  2. 2. What its all about!
  3. 3. Terms <ul><li>Habitat </li></ul><ul><li>The place in which an organism lives </li></ul>
  4. 4. Terms <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All factors in the surroundings that affect an organisms chances of survival and reproduction </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Terms <ul><li>Niche </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An organisms way of life or role in the community </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Terms <ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inherited characteristics that increase the chance of survival and reproduction </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Environment <ul><li>Biotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parasites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>competitors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Environment <ul><li>Abiotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical influences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light intensity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water supply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salinity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humidity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Temperature <ul><li>Affects activity of enzymes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homeothermic animals maintain body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold temperatures affect life styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dormancy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hibernation and aestivation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diapause </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Light <ul><li>For Photosynthesis (plants) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes competition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source of information (animals) </li></ul><ul><li>Indicates photoperiod </li></ul><ul><li>Indicates low relative humidity </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mineral ions <ul><li>Low concentrations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource for plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High conce ntrations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence water concentrations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key role in distribution of animals and plants </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sali nity <ul><li>Marine organisms need constant salt concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh water organi sms must remove excess water due t o low salt </li></ul>
  13. 13. Oxygen <ul><li>Terrestrial organisms above ground - not a limiting factor </li></ul><ul><li>Marine and freshwater organisms - little oxygen present </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic = oxygen present </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic = oxygen absent </li></ul>
  14. 14. pH <ul><li>Between 3 and 9 </li></ul><ul><li>High pH inhibits metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Affects solubility of certain ions </li></ul>
  15. 15. Relative Humidity <ul><li>Low humidity causes desiccation </li></ul><ul><li>Three factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower relative humidity means more rapid evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer body layer (exoskeleton, hair) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface area to volume ratio </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Water Flow <ul><li>Delivers oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Washes organisms away </li></ul>
  17. 17. Range of Tolerance <ul><li>Range of physical conditions in which an organism can survive </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological tolerance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms tolerance in lab. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecological tolerance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerance of biotic and abiotic factors </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Intensity of Condition Performance of Species Growth Reproduction Survival
  19. 19. Biotic Environment <ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Predation </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitism </li></ul><ul><li>Commensalism </li></ul><ul><li>Allelopathy </li></ul>
  20. 20. Competition <ul><li>When demand exceeds supply </li></ul><ul><li>Densit y dependant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decr eases reproductive rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redu ces population numbers </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Intraspecific Relationships <ul><li>Within species </li></ul><ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breeding territories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Competition for Mates <ul><li>By males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strong selective pressure for competitive ability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual dimorphism </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Competition for Territory <ul><li>Territory occupied and defended </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C.f. home range - area from which animal does not stray but is not defended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defended all year (NZ Robin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site to build nest (Pukeko) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For mating (gannet) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Avoiding Competition <ul><li>By dispersal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive (fungi & plants) - high mortality rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different stages of the life cycle occupy different niches </li></ul>
  25. 25. Interspecific Relationships <ul><li>Competition between species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutualism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commensalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibiosis </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Competitive Excl usion Principle <ul><li>Gauses Principle </li></ul><ul><li>Two species cannot share the same niche indefinitely in the same habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Niche - sum total of an organisms requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat - where an organisms lives </li></ul>
  27. 27. Niches <ul><li>Fundamental niche </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range of conditions in whi ch an organism can survive under protecte d conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Realised niche </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions required in the wild </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually a narrower r ange </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Exploitaiton <ul><li>One species benefits at the expense of another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predation - one organism kills another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grazing - one organism kills part of another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitism - one organism feeds off another (the host) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Predation <ul><li>Short term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence each others population numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence evolution because under selective pressure </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Parasitism <ul><li>Depends on host for food </li></ul><ul><li>Host not killed </li></ul><ul><li>Ectoparasites live outside host </li></ul><ul><li>Endoparasites live inside host </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitoids - one insect feeds off another </li></ul>
  31. 31. Mutualism <ul><li>Partnership with another species </li></ul><ul><li>Both benefit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lichens - fungus and alga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Root nodules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micorrhiza </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gut mutualists </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Commensalism <ul><li>One organism benefits, the other is not affected </li></ul>
  33. 33. Allelopathy or Antibiosis <ul><li>One organism produces a chemical that inhibits the gro wth of potential competitors </li></ul>
  34. 34. Summary of Interspecific Relationships - + Antibiosis 0 + Commensalism + + Mutualism - + Exploitation - - Competition Species B Species A
  35. 35. Explaining Niche <ul><li>Where it lives </li></ul><ul><li>What it eats </li></ul><ul><li>How it responds to stress </li></ul><ul><li>What limits its population growth </li></ul>
  36. 36. Pikau (Golden sand Sedge)
  37. 37. Harakeke (flax)
  38. 38. Kiwi
  39. 39. Tui
  40. 40. Weta
  41. 41. Adaptations <ul><li>Structural (morphological) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body shape, colour, apendages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nocturnal, diurnal, spitting, hiding, stinging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiological (metabolism) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerate high temperature, salinity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Life history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive strategies </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Kauri Snail
  43. 43. Kaki (Black Stilt)
  44. 44. Bat
  45. 45. Hector’s Dolphin
  46. 46. Shrubby Tororaro

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