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Philosophy of Open Source - SFO17-TR01

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Session ID: SFO17-TR01
Session Name: Philosophy of Open Source
- SFO17-TR01
Speaker: Daniel Lezcano
Track:


★ Session Summary ★
What is the history and culture of Open Source?
New to Open Source? Always wondered why certain tools and processes are in place? Our presenters have experienced the good, bad and ugly of working with Open Source software and will share their wisdom and hard won tips.
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★ Resources ★
Event Page: http://connect.linaro.org/resource/sfo17/sfo17-tr01/
Presentation:
Video:
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★ Event Details ★
Linaro Connect San Francisco 2017 (SFO17)
25-29 September 2017
Hyatt Regency San Francisco Airport

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Keyword:
http://www.linaro.org
http://connect.linaro.org
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Philosophy of Open Source - SFO17-TR01

  1. 1. Open Source Philosophy Daniel Lezcano
  2. 2. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER What is Open Source ? ● Open Source is not Free Software Richard Stallman : “Open source is a development methodology; free software is a social movement.” [1] ● Important to understand the difference, let’s do some history [1] https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/open-source-misses-the-point.en.html
  3. 3. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Open Source Origin 60’s Computer with their own OS Source code provided on request
  4. 4. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Open Source Origin 60’s 70’s OS contract law model Computer with their own OS Source code provided on request
  5. 5. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Open Source Origin 60’s 70’s 80’s Computer with their own OS Source code provided on request Access to source code restricted by vendors 1984: rise of the Free Software project GNU 1985: Free Software Foundation OS contract law model
  6. 6. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Open Source Origin 60’s 70’s 80’s 90’s 1990 : GNU project: most of the software are done but the kernel is missing 1991 : Linux kernel project started 1998 : Creation of the OSI Access to source code restricted by vendors 1984: rise of the Free Software project GNU 1985: Free Software Foundation Computer with their own OS Source code provided on request OS contract law model
  7. 7. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Open Source Origin 60’s 70’s 80’s 90’s 2000+ GNU/Linux Widely used Interest from the industry Access to source code restricted by vendors 1984: rise of the Free Software project GNU 1985: Free Software Foundation OS Licensing model Computer with their own OS Source code provided on request 1990 : GNU project: most of the software are done but the kernel is missing 1991 : Linux kernel project started 1998 : Creation of the OSI
  8. 8. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Open Source origin Market share Desktop / laptop 2.18 % Mobile + table 63.31 % Server 36.72 % Mainframe 28 % Super computer 99.79 % Embedded 29.44 % ● GNU/Linux widely used nowadays [1] [1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usage_share_of_operating_systems
  9. 9. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Open Source origin ● Free Software philosophy opposed to industry goals ● In 1998, creation of the OSI ● OSI : Open Source initiative ○ https://opensource.org
  10. 10. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Open Source Initiative ● Promotes Open Source in the industry ● Oriented to business cases ● Unification of the licenses based on Debian Free Software Guidelines ● OSI label for software when it fulfills 10 OSS criterias ● Open Source licences are approved by OSI
  11. 11. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Open Source Initiative ● OSI criterias[1] 1. Free Redistribution 2. Source Code 3. Derived Works 4. Integrity of The Author's Source Code 5. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups 6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor 7. Distribution of License 8. License Must Not Be Specific to a Product 9. License Must Not Restrict Other Software 10. License Must Be Technology-Neutral [1] https://opensource.org/osd-annotated
  12. 12. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER OSI and FSF ● OSI and FSF share a common culture ○ Open software and hacking ● Goals and philosophy differ ○ FSF : ‘free’ in every sense of the term ○ OSI: give the opportunity to industry to understand Open Source ● OSI helps to introduce Free Software for industry ○ evangelizes open-source principles
  13. 13. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Licenses ● Open Source projects have a license to share the code ○ GPL and LGPL ● GPL : GNU General Public License ○ If a software uses GPL code, it turns into a GPL licensed software ○ Protects the end-user letting him to access the source code ● LGPL : GNU Lesser General Public License ○ The same as GPL except for the headers. ○ Allows to use libraries, eg. libc ● Up to lawyers to explain what are these licenses in details
  14. 14. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Summary ● Open code exists since the earliest moments of computer programming: programmers wrote the code for their own use and often shared it with other programmers trying to solve the same problems ● Licensing business model and Close Source lead to a Free Software emerging movement in 1984 and the creation of the Free Software Foundation in 1985 ● The Open Source Initiative created in 1998 to evangelize Open Source in the industry
  15. 15. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Open Source and Free Software ● Open Source and Free Software co-exist together ● Open Source is a development process but strongly influenced by the Free Software spirit ● Working in Open Source implies to understand the development process and to have the right mindset
  16. 16. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER The development process
  17. 17. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER The cathedral and the bazaar ● A description of two open source development processes: ○ The cathedral model: source code is available with each software release ○ The bazaar model: in which the code is developed over the Internet in view of the public ○ Gives 19 “lessons” for good Open Source practices ○ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Cathedral_and_the_Bazaar ○ http://www.catb.org/esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/
  18. 18. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER The cathedral ● In the past, computers were very expensives and the network reserved for a very few ● A group of persons works on a project, privately ● A new release is delivered with the source code ● Hard to participate to the project ● No view on the current work
  19. 19. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER The bazaar ● Nowadays a large public have access to computers and to internet ● The source code is widely available, the changes are visible and the development is based on the review process ● Linus’s law [1] : "given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow" [1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linus%27s_Law
  20. 20. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER The fork ● When an Open Source project is cloned and diverges from the original project: it is a fork ● A community may be frustrated by a project: ○ Lack of communication or collaboration ○ Project is not very responsive or taking a direction that the bulk of the community does not like ● A community wants to have more control on the project ○ Skip the review process and commit what they want ● Forking can be bad if it is done for wrong reasons because it can scatter the resources
  21. 21. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER The community ● A group of persons working together on an Open Source project: the community ● A community is composed from: ○ Education (students, scientists, teachers) ○ Hobbyist ○ Workers (from companies or freelance) ● The community takes predominance over individuals ➔ Consensus ● The collaboration is the cornerstone of the Open Source
  22. 22. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER The collaboration ● The collaboration relies on tools ● Development: ○ Distributed version control system: git ○ Compilation tools : gcc, make ○ Debugging: gdb ○ Etc … ● Communication: ○ Emails and mailing lists ○ Instant messaging: IRC ○ Text sharing: pastebin ○ bugzilla
  23. 23. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER The contribution ● Any kind of help beneficial for the Open Source project is called a contribution ● A contribution increases the merit inside community ● The Open Source is karma based ● The more a contributor provides pertinent contributions, the more he has voice inside the community
  24. 24. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER The right mindset
  25. 25. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Don’t be scared ● Follow the presentations Upstreaming 101 and 201 ○ All the needed information and the pointers ● Take some time to train yourself and follow the advices given in the presentations above ● Understand the differents actors of the Open Source project ● Be prepared, then send your first patch
  26. 26. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Don’t be offended ● Comments are always a good thing, that means the change raised some interest ● Comments can be tough: stay factual, stick on technical aspect and give numbers to support your position ● Comments can spot an issue or a misdesign you missed ● The perennity of the Open Source is the priority, you may be asked to redesign everything
  27. 27. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Don’t be demanding ● Comments can take some time: be patient ● There is no schedule / no deadline ● The community may be busy ● There is no obligation to merge the change
  28. 28. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Don’t be selfish ● The changes must be designed as part of the community, not as an individual ● Changes for the purpose of one group of persons or a company have 100% chance to fail to be merged ● Working in the Open Source, is working as part of a community
  29. 29. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Comments ● The consensus is the key to merge a change ○ No consensus = No merge ● Always take into account the comments in order to reach the consensus
  30. 30. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Collaborate ! ● Collaborate in order to be part of the community ● Begin with simple things ○ Review code ○ Fix compilation warnings/error (often) ○ Help to test the proposed changes (functional and benchmark) ○ Answer questions being asked on the mailing list ● Do more complex things ○ Dead listing and spot potential issues ○ Propose ideas to improve the proposed changes
  31. 31. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Next presentations ● Upstreaming 101 : Linux kernel development process, DCO, writing a patch ● Upstreaming 201 : Send the changes for upstreaming, the review process, the comments
  32. 32. ENGINEERS AND DEVICES WORKING TOGETHER Conclusion ● Open Source is a development process ● Open Source projects are supported by a community ● A community mindset can be aligned to the Free Software philosophy ● The collaboration is the path, the consensus is the key
  33. 33. Special thanks to Jon “Maddog” Hall
  34. 34. Thank You #SFO17 For further information: www.linaro.org SFO17 keynotes and videos on: connect.linaro.org

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