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  1. 1. FISH
  2. 2. MILK
  3. 3. MEAT
  4. 4. EGG
  5. 5. PROTEIN
  6. 6. About two-thirds of the total dry mass of a cell is composed of proteins ELEMENT IN PROTEIN CARBONHYDROGEN OXYGEN NITROGE N
  7. 7. Amino acids are the subunits of all proteins There are 20 biological important amino acids
  8. 8. Each amino acid carries two functional group : • A carboxyl group ( - COOH) which is acidic • An amino group ( -NH2) which is basic
  9. 9. Two amino acids can combine to form a dipeptide by a condensation reaction between the carboxyl group of one and the amino group of the other The resulting a bond liking the two amino acids that is called peptide bond
  10. 10. Long chains of amino acids are called polypeptides
  11. 11. • The peptide bond can be broken by hydrolysis with heat, dilute acids or by enzymes • The loss of the three dimensional structure of a protein molecule is known as denaturation
  12. 12. The linear sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule. The first proteins to have its sequence of amino acids determined was the hormone insulin
  13. 13. Peptide chain becomes folded or twisted forming a helix or pleated sheet. The structure is maintained by hydrogen bonding.
  14. 14. Bending and twisting of the polypeptides helix into a compact structure. Structured is maintained by ionic, disulphide and hydrogen bonding Myoglobin, a protein found in muscles, has the tertiary structure. Enzymes antibodies and many hormones have this structure as well
  15. 15. Different polypeptide chains combine with associated non-protein groups forming a large complex protein molecule. Haemoglobin, an oxygen binding protein, has a quartenary structure
  16. 16. Human can synthesis 11 of the 20 different amino acids used in protein synthesis. These amino acids are known as non essential amino acids Examples of non essential amino acids are proline, glycine, and glutamic acids
  17. 17. The remaining nine amino acids cannot be synthesised in human. The must be included in the diet. They are known as essential amino acids Examples of essential amino acids are lysine, valine, leucine and tryptophan