"To Kill a Mockingbird" Chapters 1-16


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"To Kill a Mockingbird" Chapters 1-16

  1. 1. Chapter 1The Finch family – Simon Finchescaped religious persecution andstarted a farm that supported thefamily Atticus – lawyer, widower, successful,supports 2 children Jack – doctor Alexandra - farm
  2. 2. Maycomb (5) Atticus related by blood or marriage tomost families Great Depression “tired old town” “courthouse sagged” – law is in disrepair “there was no hurry, for there was nowhereto go, nothing to buy and no money to buy itwith, nothing to see…”
  3. 3.  Calpurnia, their cook, helps to raise thechildren. Jem four years older than Scout has memories of their deceased mother.Sometimes these memories make himunhappy. Dill: Does not discuss father Playmate of Jem and Scout Visits aunt in the summer
  4. 4. Radley Place (8-13) Arthur Boo Radley is a recluse and no one hasseen him outside in years Myth: Boo had gotten into trouble and his fatherimprisoned him in house as punishment. He was not heard from for fifteen years laterwhen he stabbed his father with a pair ofscissors. Dill dares Jem to touch the Radley house.
  5. 5. Radley Place (8-13) “inside the house lived a malevolent phantom” “he went out when the moon was down and peeped inwindows” “any stealthy, small crimes were committed by him” “people’s chickens and household pets were foundmutilated” “They did not go to church” “shutters and doors closed”– stand offish, misfits “he dined on raw squirrels and any cats he could catch,that’s why his hands were bloodstained – if you ate ananimal raw, you could never wash the blood off”
  6. 6. Chapter 2Scout is excited to go to schoolJem walks her (paid by Atticus) “during school hours I was not to botherhim, I was not to approach him withrequests to enact a chapter of Tarzanand the Ant Men, to embarrass him withreferences to his private life…” (16)
  7. 7. Judgment Miss Caroline is from Winston County,which make the children believe shecannot be completely trusted. Doesn’t understand society in Maycomb Miss Caroline concludes that Atticus hastaught Scout to read. She makes Scout feel guilty for beingeducated – insults her father “tell him I’ll take over from here and try toundo the damage…your father does not knowhow to teach…” (17) She learned on her own
  8. 8. The Cunninghams Walter has no lunch; Miss Caroline offers him aquarter to go downtown. He refuses - he will be unable to pay her back Proud and honest family “The Cunninghams never took anything they can’t pay back”(20) Scout tries to explain the C’s economic situation butis disciplined by Miss Caroline, who doesn’tunderstand The C family is hardened by the Great Depression,which make their farming unprofitable. Pay Atticusfor legal services with firewood, nuts and turnipgreens. Mr. C does not want to give up his land andwilling to go hungry to retain his voting rights.
  9. 9. Chapter 3 At lunch, Scout rubs Walter’s face in the dirt. Jem breaks up the fight and invites Walter to jointhem at the house for lunch - fairness Walter discusses farming conditions withAtticus; Jem and Scout do not understand. Different worlds: “Reason I can’t pass the first grade…is I’ve had tostay out ever’ spring an’ help Papa with the choppin’,but there’s another’n at the house now that’s fieldsize” – children have to work “he and Atticus talked together like two men” –Walter had no childhood, unlike Jem and Scout
  10. 10. Judgment Walter asks for molasses; Scout criticizes Calpurnia pulls Scout into the kitchen andtells her that Walter is a guest in the houseand should be treated with more respect. “’Don’t matter who they are, anybody sets footin this house’s yo’ comp’ny, and don’t‘ you letme catch you remarkin’ on their ways like youwas so high and mighty!” (24) – hospitality andequality regardless of social status
  11. 11. Burris Ewell The Ewell’s are much poorer than theCunningham’s and less respected by the community. Only comes to the first day of school “Been comin’ to the first day of o’ the first grade ferthree year now” (27) Lice – “cooties” “He was the filthiest human I had ever seen. His neckwas dark gray, the backs of his hands were rusty, and hisfingernails were black…” (27)Leaves cursing the teacher – pride (doesn’t want it to seemthat he is listening to her)
  12. 12. School Scout confesses that she does not want toreturn to school and that Atticus should teachher at home. “’You never went to school and you do all right,so I’ll just sat home too. You can teach me…’” “’No I can’t…I have to make a living” (29) Atticus: law requires her to attend school, buthe will continue to read to her as long as shedoes not tell her teacher. “You never really understand a person untilyou consider things from his point of view” (30)THEME
  13. 13. Bending the Law Scout wants to be treated like Burris and be allowedto stay home, but he’s from a disgraced family andshe’s not “None of them had done an honest day’s work” (30) “They were people, but they lived like animals” Laws are different for the Ewells – people pretendnot to notice their behavior “Mr. Bob Ewell…was permitted to hunt and trap out ofseason” “when a man spends his relief checks on green whiskeyhis children have a way of crying from hunger pains” “Are you going to take out your disapproval on hischildren?”
  14. 14. Chapter 4 Scout is disappointed in school “I could not help receiving the impression that I was beingcheated out of something…I did not believe that twelve yearsof unrelieved boredom was exactly what the state had inmind” (33) Hole in the tree Gum – Jem thinks it’s poisoned Indian head pennies “Finders were keepers unless title was proven” (35) “They’re real strong magic” - imagination
  15. 15. Children’s games Jem rolls Scout in a tire onto the Radley property Jem calls Scout a girl (offensive to her) since she’s beingemotional and imaginative; he wants to make her seemlike a coward so that he becomes the hero Imaginative role play “A Hot Steam’s somebody who can’t get to heaven, justwallows around on lonesome roads an’ if you walk throughhim, when you die you’ll be one to, an’ you’ll go around atnight suckin’ people’s breath” (37) Dill, Jem and Scout pretend to be the Radley family and makeup stories to re-enact
  16. 16. Chapter 5 Scout feels neglected by the boys – tries to beatup Dill to get his attention back Scout spends time with Miss Maudie “Miss Maudie hated her house; time spent indoors wastime wasted. She was a widow, a chameleon lady whoworked in her flower beds in an old straw hat andmen’s coveralls, but after her five o’clock bath shewould appear on the porch and reign over the street inmagisterial beauty. She loved everything that grew inGod’s earth…” (42) Baptist prejudice – “foot-washing Baptists” believethat anything that is a pleasure is a sin (even MissMaudie’s flowers) “The thoughts I spent too much time in God’s outdoors andnot enough time inside the house reading the Bible” (44)
  17. 17. Arthur/BooHe used to be a polite young man; MissMaudie suggests that Mr. Radley and hisstrict religion drove Arthur crazy“sometimes the Bible in the hand of one manis worse than whiskey bottle in the hand of –oh, your father” (45)“if Atticus Finch drank until he was drunk hewouldn’t be as hard as some men are at theirbest. There are just some kind of men who –who’re so busy worrying about the next worldthey’ve never learned to live in this one”
  18. 18.  Jem and Dill plan to give Boo a note invitinghim for ice cream, thinking some time outsidemight make him feel better Atticus catches him: “stop tormenting thatman” (49) – Warns them about being politeWhat Arthur does is his businessHe’s entitled to his privacyWhat might seem peculiar to children is notThe civil way to communicate is through the frontdoor, not the side windowStay away from the house until invitedStop the asinine imitations making fun of peopleand putting Boo’s history on display
  19. 19. Chapter 6 Children go peep into the Radley house and seea shadow of a man Shotgun sounds – Mr. Radley thought a blackman was stealing his greens “Says he’s got the other barrel waitin’ for the nextsound he hears in that patch, an’ next time he won’taim high, be it dog, nigger, or – Jem Finch” (54) As they crawl beneath the fence by theschoolyard, Jem’s pants get caught on the fence. To escape he has to leave his pants behind –goes back at night to retrieve them (trembling offear)
  20. 20. Chapter 7 Jem’s pants they were mended and neatly hungover the fence. Treasure in the tree: Twine – no one claims it, so they think it’s theirs. Soap carvings that resemble themselves. A pocket watch Spelling bee medal Scout is still unhappy in school, but Jemencourages her that it gets better the furthershe goes.
  21. 21.  The children see Mr. Nathan Radley fillingthe hole with cement. He tells Jem he plugged the knotholebecause the tree was dying; however,Atticus points out that the tree is stillgreen.
  22. 22. Chapter 8 Cold winter: “Mr. Avery said it was written on the Rosetta Stonethat when children disobeyed their parents, smokedcigarettes and made war on each other, the seasonswould change: Jem and I were burdened with theguilt of contributing to the aberrations of nature,thereby causing unhappiness to our neighbors anddiscomfort for ourselves” (63)
  23. 23.  Mrs. Radley’s death: “Old Mrs. Radley died that winter, but her deathcaused hardly a ripple – the neighborhoodseldom saw her” (63). Snowman (judgmental) – Atticus makesthem disguise the caricature: Snow and mud = dark snowman (racist comments fromScout) Fat snowman with a mean face = Mr. Avery Woman with small arms on her large hips = StephanieCrawford
  24. 24. Fire Neighbors help her save some furniture –neighborhood works together in times oftragedy Boo Radley puts a blanket around the chilledScout – she’s upset at being so close to him Despite losing her home, Miss Maudie is in goodspirits and plans to build a smaller house and alarger garden.
  25. 25. Chapter 9 Fight with Cecil Jacobs – “Scout Finch’s daddydefended niggers” (74) Atticus says fighting is childish and reprimands Scout forthe n-word “’Do you defend niggers, Atticus?’ ‘Of course I do. Don’t saynigger, Scout. That’s common’” (75) Tom Robinson Atticus thinks it’s the right thing to defend Tom – moralityand justice are important to him “If I didn’t I couldn’t hold my head up in town, I couldn’trepresent this county in the legislature, I couldn’t even tell youor Jem not to do something”
  26. 26. Tom Robinson Black man accused of raping a white woman “He lives in that little settlement beyond the town dump.He’s a member of Calpurnia’s church, and Cal knows hisfamily well. She says they’re clean-living folks…there’s beensome high talk around town to the effect that I shouldn’tdo much about defending this man…” The town is racist and judges Atticus Even though he cannot win the case, but Atticusexplains to Scout that it is the proper thing to doand that Tom deserves the best defense he canoffer.
  27. 27. Scout’s Reaction Compares the attitudes of the Maycomb neighbors tothe Civil War Atticus prepares Scout for the racism she mightencounter from neighbors “This time we aren’t fighting the Yankees, we’re fightingour friends. But remember this, no matter how bitterthings get, they’re still our friends and this is still ourhome” (76) She feels noble when she walks away from a fight withCecil – doesn’t want to disappoint Atticus
  28. 28. Christmas Uncle Jack comes to visit; a doctor who explains allprocedures he does; not terrifying Scout learns to swear hoping that if she says shelearned it in school Atticus won’t make her goanymore Francis – cousin; Scout can’t stand him; they are polaropposites
  29. 29. Aunt Alexandra Aunt Alexandra – Atticus’s and Jack’s sister that ownsthe farm; Scout thinks she was swapped at birth; acold lady that want Scout to be a lady Criticizes Atticus for letting Scout “run wild” and notdisciplining her, but Atticus likes her just the way sheis “Aunt Alexandra was fanatical on the subject of my attire. Icould not possibly hope to be a lady if I wore breeches; whenI said I could do nothing in a dress, she said I wasn’t supposedto be doing things that required pants. Aunt Alexandra’svision of my deportment involved playing with small stoves,tea sets, and wearing the Add-A-Pearl necklace she gaveme…I should be the ray of sunshine in my father’s lonely life”(81)
  30. 30. Racism and Ageism Scout has to eat at the small table – Aunt doesn’tthink she is civilized enough for the adult table News that Dill is homeless – “passed around fromrelative to relative” Fight with Francis Aunt A’s opinion through Francis’s mouth: “If Uncle Atticus lets yourun around with stray dogs [referring to Dill] that’s his ownbusiness…it ain’t your fault if Uncle Atticus is a nigger-lover besides,but I’m here to tell you it certainly does mortify the rest of thefamily…we’ll never be able to walk the streets of Maycomb again.He’s ruinin’ the family” (83)
  31. 31. Scout defends her family With fists… “I split my knuckle to the bone on his front teeth.My left impaired, I sailed in with my right” (84) …and gets a spanking from Uncle Jack, whichshe thinks is unfair because he never heard herside of the story (unfair).
  32. 32. Atticus on his family Mad at Jack for not telling Scout the meaning of a swear word–believes children should never be lied to Thinks all children go through a stage of bad language and she’lloutgrow it when she stops getting attention for using it However, Scout does have a temper and needs to learn tocontrol it soon, especially given the up-coming court case andwhat people will say Knows that Scout tries to obey him and loves her for it –doesn’t judge when she’s “bad” Wants to raise his kids not to be judgmental
  33. 33. Chapter 10 Atticus’s age; compared to other fathers in town, he’s“feeble” The children feel embarrassed because Atticus enjoysreading as opposed to hunting, fishing, drinking, pokeror smoking, which the other fathers enjoy He works in an office; is not visibly helping thecommunity like the sheriff, the dump-truck driver, thefarmer or the mechanic
  34. 34. Mockingbird (90) “Shoot all the bluejays you want…it’s a sin to kill amockingbird…Mockingbirds don’t do one thing butmake music for us to enjoy. They don’t eat uppeople’s gardens, don’t nest in corncribs, they don’tdo one thing but sing their hearts out.” INNOCENCE Atticus does not allow Jem and Scout to hurt the harmlessanimals in nature (unfair to destroy something that livespeacefully) Can’t point the air rifle at the neighbors either
  35. 35. Mad Dog (rabies) Scares the whole town because of it being February and itsstrange behavior “I thought mad dogs foamed at the mouth, galloped, leaped andlunged at throats, and I thought they did it in August. Had TimJohnson behaved thus, I would have been less frightened” (94). The town is deserted, behind locked doors, as they wait forsomeone to take care of the dog “Nothing is more deadly than a deserted, waiting street. The treeswere still, the mockingbirds were silent” (94) – loss of innocence;the kids witness their father shoot the animal.
  36. 36. Mad Dog (rabies) Scares the whole town because of it being Februaryand its strange behavior “I thought mad dogs foamed at the mouth, galloped, leapedand lunged at throats, and I thought they did it in August. HadTim Johnson behaved thus, I would have been less frightened”(94). The town is deserted, behind locked doors, as theywait for someone to take care of the dog “Nothing is more deadly than a deserted, waiting street. Thetrees were still, the mockingbirds were silent” (94) – loss ofinnocence; the kids witness their father shoot the animal. Atticus keeps his nickname of One-Shot Finch a secret fromhis kids, since he wants to appear civilized, not a killer.
  37. 37. Chapter 11 Mrs. Dubose: old, bed-ridden, ill kept a pistol concealed has a wrathful gaze interrogates the children about their behavior, sayingthey will amount to nothing; thinks the Finch kids arewild “You should be in a dress and camisole, young lady!You’ll grow up waiting on tables if somebody doesn’tchange your ways” (101)
  38. 38. Conflict (racism) Mrs. Dubose calls Atticus a “nigger lover” Jem, who normally controls his temper, reacts bydestroying Mrs. D’s flowers with Scout’s new batontoy Atticus makes him apologize; Scout is worried aboutJem’s safety given Mrs. D’s reputation – she thinksAtticus doesn’t care about his son “I did not understand how he could sit there in cold blood andread a newspaper when his only son stood an excellent chance ofbeing murdered with a Confederate Army relic. Of course Jemantagonized me sometimes until I could kill him, but when itcame down to it he was all I had” (104)
  39. 39. Punishment and Lesson Learned Atticus defends the black community becauseotherwise he would not be able to live with himself Jem has to go to Mrs. Dubose’s house on Saturdaysto read to her as payment; by spending time with Mrs. D the kids learn to ignoreinsults, since she still calls Atticus names – lesson(words don’t hurt) each session she has fits that seem to last longer and longeruntil finally the punishment is over – she’s a morphine (painkiller) addict and is trying to kick the habit before she dies soshe’s not dependent on a substance; each session, she is ableto last longer before needing the drug
  40. 40. Freedom from Outside ForcesLive for Yourself “She said she was going to leave this world beholden to nothing and nobody. Jem,when you’re as sick as she was, it’s all right to take anything to make it easier, butit wasn’t all right for her. She said she meant to break herself of it before she died,and that’s what she did” (111) – FREEDOM, PRIDE, COURAGE to facepain She had her views and Atticus respects that According to Atticus, Mrs. Dubose had more courage than a manwith a gun – he wanted to show his kids what real strength ofcharacter was, so they would stop worshiping him over the dogincident Atticus does not respect violence and guns, but strength and freedom andbravery to fight against the odds The lesson mirrors what Atticus is trying to do by defending Tom Robinson – afight against the odds
  41. 41. Chapter 12 Jem reaches 12 and wants Scout to stop pesteringhim He’s difficult, inconsistent, and moody, acquired an air ofwisdom; yells at Scout for not being a girl; Calpurnia callshim Mister as a sign of adulthood – PUBERTY “Mister Jem’s growin’ up. He’s gonna want to be off tohimself a lot now, doin’ whatever boys do, so you justcome right on in the kitchen when you feel lonely” (115) Calpurnia and Scout become a bit closer due toJem’s absence - LONELY
  42. 42. Church Dill has a new family and is not coming to visit Atticus has work Calpurnia decides that the children should attendchurch, so she takes the children to the “colored”church. She takes time to make sure they look their best (newclothes, checks on them in baths)– concerned aboutappearances; proud of the kids and family she works for Maycomb’s only black church is called First Purchasebecause it was bought with the earnings from thefirst freed slaves.
  43. 43. Church Lula criticized Cal for bringing the children to theirchurch, but the congregation is friendly and ReverendSykes welcomes them. No hymn books or decorations - poor Rev. Sykes takes up an offering to help support TomRobinson’s wife. Forces everyone to donate more – locks the doors until thereis $10 – GUILT – the community has to help those in trouble;Helen can’t find work since Tom has been accused of rape Calls specific people out for their sins; especially women, whoare “worse than bootleggers” Scout discovers that Tom is being charged by Bob Ewell.She cannot believe that anyone would believe a Ewell.
  44. 44. Calpurnia Most of the blacks in the community can’t read –Calpurnia is proud of the fact that she can Taught by a friendly neighbor, since she couldn’t go toschool being black and a woman Taught Zeebo, her oldest son, who leads the hymns inchurch – everyone follows what he says Cal speaks proper English, unless she is in her owncommunity; she doesn’t want to seem stuck up “folks don’t like to have somebody around knowing morethan they do. It aggravates them” (126). Scout is shocked that Cal has a “double life” – a life of herown, with children and a community, outside of theFinches
  45. 45. Chapter 13 Aunt Alexandra will stay with the children for a whileto give them a feminine influence. Very concerned about appearances, but part of it isillusion “…she chose protective garments that drew up her bosomto giddy heights, pinched in her waist, flared out her rear,and managed to suggest that Aunt Alexandra’s was once anhour-glass figure” (128) Concerned about manners, morals, gossip, to advise,caution and warn
  46. 46. Judgment Alexandra pointed out the shortcomings of variousfamilies in Maycomb to make hers look better Preoccupied with heredity – thinks Jem and Scout lackpride in their history and attempts to teach them Morbid Merriweathers – suicide of a young boy Flighty Penfield women – girl giggling in church Drinking Streak Gambling Streak Mean Streak Funny Streak
  47. 47. Cast System in Society To Scout: the old citizens vs. the young Gestures and behaviors repeated generation aftergeneration “No Crawford Minds His Own Business” “Every Third Merriweather is Morbid” “The Truth Is Not in the Delafields” “All the Bufords Walk Like That” Alexandra’s opinion is that the longer the family hasowned the same piece of land, the more fine they are;gentle breeding Tries to get Scout to behave like a lady by telling herfamily history
  48. 48. Chapter 14 As the Robinson trial draws closer, the Finch childrenbecome the focus of whispers amongst thetownspeople; accused of being Atticus’s children Aunt Alexandra forbids Scout to return to FirstPurchase and attempts to make Atticus fire Calpurnia,but Atticus defends her “Calpurnia’s not leaving this house until she wants to…Icouldn’t have gotten along without her all these years…She’s a faithful member of this family…she’s been harder onthem in some ways than a mother would have been…thechildren love her” (137)
  49. 49. Jem is growing up – tries to discipline Scout,telling her not to bother AlexandraCauses a fight (Scout doesn’t want to listen toher brother)Is pleased that he fights her back – means that theyare still equalsJem and Scout are sent to bed – Scout is pleasedthat Jem has to go to bed at the same time as her
  50. 50. Dill Found under Scout’s bed – ran away from his newfamily Imaginative – tells a grand tale of escape “in chains and left to die in the basement…secretly keptalive on raw field peas by a passing farmer who heard hiscries for help...[broke the chains and walked 2 miles]…discovered a small animal show and was immediatelyengaged to wash the camel…traveled” (140) Actual story: he was lonely Dills new family gave him toys and food and all materialgoods, but not attention (they would tell him to go playand spend time with each other only)
  51. 51.  Even though Jem tells on Dill (and is a traitor since hetakes the adult side) Scout realizes through Dill’s storythat she is lucky to have a family that loves to spendtime with her Atticus needed her advice Jem still sometimes liked to play Calpurnia “couldn’t get along” without her Dill escapes into fantasies when his life is terrible – adreamer; defense mechanism “Beautiful things floated around in his dreamy head. Hecould read two books to my one, but he preferred themagic of his own inventions…he preferred his own world”(144)
  52. 52. Chapter 15 As the trial nears Tom Robinson is moved to theMaycomb jail and concerns of a lynch mob arise. Atticus trusts his neighbors with doing the right thing Alexandra believes Atticus’s decision to represent Tomwill bring disgrace to the Finch family name, but Atticuswill not budge “that boy might go to the chair, but he’s not going till the truth’s told…[I’m] in favor of Southern womanhood as much as anybody, but not forpreserving polite fiction at the expanse of human life” (146-147) Atticus goes to the jail at night to stand guard overTom The children follow, afraid for his safety.
  53. 53. Lynch Mob – out to hurt Tom Scout runs out from her hiding place to aid her father.Jem and Dill follow. Atticus orders the children to return home. Jem refuses –stands up to his father. Scout recognizes Mr. Cunningham and speaks to himabout his son Walter and his court case, trying to diffusethe situation. Mr. C eventually tells the crowd to gohome. Mr. C, once recognized, becomes embarrassed and withers. There is strength in a mob and anonymity – once actionscould be attached to a specific person, it is different Mr. Underwood had the scene covered with a shotgun –aiding Atticus.
  54. 54. Chapter 16 Mob mentality (remember the Salem witch trials) – in agroup, people don’t think for themselves; follow the actions ofothers and are more likely to turn to violence Mr. Cunningham: “a gang of wild animals can be stopped, simplybecause they’re still human…you children last night made WalterCunningham stand in my shoes for a minute” (157) Interracial children: “They don’t belong anywhere. Colored folks won’t have ‘embecause they’re half white; white folks won’t have ‘em ‘causethey’re colored” (161) “Once you have a drop of Negro blood that makes you allblack” (162)
  55. 55. The Trial People from all over the county flood Maycomb. Miss Maudie refuses to attend the trial saying thatwatching someone on trial for their life is like a Romancarnival. Jem, Scout and Dill wait for the lunch group to reenterthe courthouse so they can sneak in without their fathernoticing. They wait too long and all the seats are taken. ReverendSykes lets them seat in the balcony with all the otherblacks – SIGNIFICANT – shows that the Finch familysupports the black community and values equality.