Grammar Extension and Appendix
Tradicional Story Language
STORY OPENERS: TIME OPENERS: TRADICIONAL ENDINGS:
*** Once upon a *** Now when… *** They lived happily
time… *** Then one day… ever after.
*** Long, long *** The next *** They became the
ago… day/morning… happiest prince and
*** Once there *** On his way… princess that ever
lived… *** But as soon as… lived.
*** One day there *** It wasn’t long *** They would never
was… before… want for anything ever
*** In a faraway *** Soon again.
kingdom… afterwards… *** …and nothing was
*** That very heard of the -
*** Suddenly… again.
*** At midnight…
Grammar Structures & Vocabulary you can use to
describe your characters & setting
* Adjectives describe nouns. They have the same form in the singular and plural.
e.g. a red car – (two) red cars.
* Adjectives go before nouns
e.g. a large box.
They can also be used alone after the verb to be and after verbs such as look,
smell, sound, feel, taste, etc.
e.g. Mary is tall. You look sad. It smells horrible.
* Adjectives ending in –ing (e.g. interesting, amazing, etc.) are used to describe
what somebody or something is like.
e.g. The film was boring. She is a very interesting person.
* Adjectives ending in –ed (e.g. amazed, surprised, puzzled, etc.) are used to
describe how somebody feels.
e.g. The children were terrified when they heard the thunder.
* There are two kind of adjectives: opinion adjectives (e.g. beautiful, lovely, great,
expensive, etc.) which show what a person thinks of somebody or something, and
fact adjectives (e.g. short, square, yellow, cotton, etc.) which give us factual
information about somebody or something (e.g. size, weight, color, etc.)
ORDER OF ADJECTIVES
1) Opinion adjectives go before fact adjectives.
e.g. a beautiful silk scarf
2) When there are two or more fact adjectives in a sentence, they usually go in the
Size Small, big, short, long, etc.
Weight Heavy, light, etc.
Shape Triangular, round, rectangular, square, etc.
Color Dark /light blue, yellow, pink, cream, red, purple, etc.
material Cotton, leather, silk, plastic, woolen, nylon, metal, gold, silver, velvet,
wooden, canvas, china, etc.
3) We do not usually have a long list of adjectives before a single noun.
e.g. an expensive, red, leather suitcase.
ADJECTIVES TO DESCRIBE PEOPLE
* These adjectives may be used as nouns
Cotton Algodón Rubber Goma
Gold Oro Silk Seda
leather Cuero Silver Plata
Plastic Plástico Wool Lana
* Adjectives used to describe a person.
Bald Calvo Old Viejo
Blond Rubio (a) Serious Serio
Curly Rizado (a) Short Chaparro
Dark Oscuro Straight Lacio
Good-looking Bien parecido Tall Alto
Handsome Guapo Young Joven
long largo Wavy Ondulado
WORDS AND PHRASES FOR DESCRIBING PEOPLE
e.g. He's about 55.
He's medium height.
He's bald and has a beard.
Age Edad Height Altura hair Cabello
About 20 Cerca de Short Chaparro Straight Cabello
los 20 black hair negro lacio
In her En sus Fairly short No muy Long red Cabello
thirties treintas chaparro hair pelirrojo
In his fifties En sus Medium Estatura Curly Cabello
cincuentas height media blond hair rubio rizado
Pretty tall No muy alto Short Cabello
brown hair castaño
Tall alto bald Calvo
A beard Barba
USEFUL VOCABULARY ABOUT CLOTHING
CLOTHES/ FOOTWEAR / ACCESORIES / JEWELRY
Bag Bolsa Rollerblades Patines
Backpack Mochila Scarf Bufanda
Belt Cinturón Shirt Camisa
Blouse Blusa Shoes Zapatos
Boots Botas Shorts Pantalones cortos
Bracelet Brazalete Skirt Falda
Cap Gorra Slippers Pantuflas
Coat Abrigo Socks Calcetines/calcetas
Dress Vestido Suit Traje
Earrings Aretes Sunglasses Gafas
Gloves Guantes Sweater Suéter
Hat Sombrero Tie Corbata
Jacket Chamarra Tights Mayas
Jeans Pantalones de Trainers Zapatos deportivos
mezclilla o entrenadores
Jumper Vestido sin mangas Trousers Pantalones
Necklace Collar T-shirt Playera
Pants Pantalones Vest Chaleco
ring Anillo Watch Reloj
Underwear Ropa interior
ADJECTIVES TO DESCRIBE THE SETTING
Grammar Structures you can use to build the plot
YES/NO QUESTIONS WITH DID
Structure: Examples: Notes:
Did + subject+ verb (simple form) A: Did you stay home on In the simple past tense,
+ complement +? Sunday? negative and question
forms are made by using
you B: Yes, I did. I watched a the auxiliary verb ‘Did’.
he football game on TV.
Did she go out? In yes/no questions, the
it auxiliary Did is placed
we No, I didn’t. I invited before the subject.
friends out to dinner.
Structure Examples Notes
Wh-question + Auxiliary + verb Wh- questions are also
(simple form) + complement +? A: What did you do on created by putting the
Sunday? auxiliary did before the
you subject. Then you add the
Where he wh- word at the beginning.
What did she go? B: I saw a good movie.
they I went to a concert.
What + happened A: What happened in the When who or what
Who + verb in past tense evening? (happened) is the subject,
use the simple past tense in
B: We stayed home the main verb.
A: Who danced in the
B: My sister and I
STATEMENTS & NEGATIVES
Structure Examples Notes:
Subject + verb (regular or irregular) + • I worked on my car Time expressions
complement+. used in the past
He studied a lot. yesterday
She went to a last • I bought a house Yesterday, last
It concert month last year. night, last month,
We last year, in 1990,
The two years ago, in the
Structure Examples Notes
Subject + Auxiliary did + not + verb • I didn’t work on my Negatives in the
(simple form) +complement +. simple past are
formed by adding
You didn’t (informal) or
He did not study yesterday • I didn’t buy a house did not (formal)
She didn’t go to a concert last year. before the simple
It form of the verb.
PAST TENSE VERB TO BE
Question Statement Contractions
Was I …? I was not I wasn’t
Were you …? You were not You weren’t
Was she …? She was not She wasn’t
Was he …? He was not He wasn’t
Was it …? It was not It wasn’t
Were we …? We were not We weren’t
Were you…? You were not You weren’t
Were they…? They were not. They weren’t.
The simple past tense is used:
a) To describe actions or situations that happened in the recent or long past
and are now finished.
Examples: The salesman sold two cars yesterday.
My brother bought a new house last year.
b) To tell a story.
Example: A man went into a pub and asked for a beer…
EXPRESSIONS OF PAST TIME
Here are some examples of expressions for past time:
Yesterday in April nex
The day before yesterday in 1993 the next day
Last night a few minutes ago after that
Last Monday evening a year ago a week later
Last year a long time ago
On May 1 then
FORMING THE PAST TENSE WITH REGULAR VERBS
With most verbs, the simple past is created by adding –ED. However, with
some verbs, you need to change the ending a little. Here are the rules.
Spelling rules for –ed Endings
1. If the simple form of a verb ends in –y after a consonant, change the –y to i and add –ed.
Examples: try/tried carry/ carried
2. If the simple form of a verb of one syllable ends in one consonant after a vowel, double
the last consonant (except x) and add –ed.
Examples: plan/planned stop/stopped
Note: The letters w and y at the end of words are vowels, not consonants.
Examples: row/ rowed play/played
3. If the simple form of a verb ends in an accented (stressed) syllable, follow the rule
above for one final consonant after one vowel.
Examples: permit/permitted prefer/preferred
4. If the simple form of a verb ends in –e, add only –d.
Examples: tie/tied change/changed
5. Add –ed to the simple form of all other regular verbs.
Examples: want/wanted ask/asked belong/belonged
REGULAR & IRREGULAR VERBS
LIST OF REGULAR VERBS: These regular verbs are the same for the past and
past participle (words ending in –ado, -ido)
Agreed Estuvo de acuerdo Needed Necesitó
answered Contestó Nodded Afirmó, asintió con
Argued Discutió, Offered Ofreció
Asked Preguntó, pidió Occurred Ocurrió, sucedió
belonged Perteneció Painted Pintó
Carried Llevó Passed Pasó (un examen,
Cleaned Limpió Permitted Permitió
Climbed Trepó, escaló Planned Planeó
Composed Compuso (una Played Jugó, tocó (un
Cooked Cocinó Preferred Prefirió
Cried Lloró Quarreled Discutió, peleó
Changed Cambió Received Recibió
Danced Bailó Remembered Recordó
Died Murió Robbed Robó
Directed Dirigió Sewed Coció (una prenda)
Discovered Descubrió Started Comenzó
Enjoyed Disfrutó Stayed Permaneció
Existed Existió Smoked Fumó
finished Terminó Stopped Paró, se detuvo
Graduated Graduó Studied Estudió
Happened sucedió Talked Habló, platicó
hated odió Tied Ató
Helped Ayudó Trapped atrapó
Hoped Esperaba, esperó Traveled Viajó
Insisted Insistió Tried Trató
Invented Inventó Typed Escribió a máquina
Invited Invitó Use Usó
Knitted Tejió Walked Caminó
Learned Aprendió Wanted Quiso, deseó
Liked Gustó Wrapped Envolvió (un
Listened Escuchó Washed Lavó (trastos, ropa)
Lived Vivió Watched Miró, observó
Moved Mudó Worked trabajó
Although many verbs in English form their past tense with –ED, some do not.
These are called irregular verbs, and they include some of the most basic verbs in
English. This page will explain some of the most important patterns in forming the
past tense. However, the only way to know how an irregular verb will change in the
past tense is to learn all of the important verbs.
The three most important irregular verbs
The three most important irregular verbs are BE, HAVE, and DO. BE is the most
difficult, because its forms are different depending on the subject. HAVE and DO
BASE FORM PAS TENSE
be Was (I, he, she it) and Were
(you, we, they)
OTHER IRREGULAR VERBS
Other irregular verbs fall into three main categories.
1) Verbs which don’t change. Cut → cut
Hit → hit
Fit → fit
2) Verbs which change their vowel. Get → got
Sit → sat
Drink → drank
3) Verbs which change completely. Catch → caught
Bring → brought
Teach → taught
LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS
Present Past Past participle
presente pasado Pasado participio
Am/ is / are Was / were Been
(soy, es, son, eres, estoy, (era, éramos, eran, (sido, estado)
estamos, están) estaba, estábamos,
Bring Brought Brought
(traer) (trajo) (traído)
Buy Bought Bought
(comprar) (compró) (comprado)
Catch Caught Caught
(atrapar) (atrapó) (atrapado)
Come Came Come
(venir) (vino) (venido)
Do Did Done
(hacer) (hizo) (hecho)
Drink Drank Drunk
(tomar) un líquido (tomó) (tomado)
Drive Drove Driven
(Manejar) (manejó) (manejado, conducido)
Eat Ate Eaten
(comer) (comió) (comido)
Fly Flew Flown
(volar) (voló) (volado)
Forget Forgot Forgotten
(olvidar) (olvidó) (olvidado)
Give Gave Given
(dar) (dio) (dado)
Go Went Gone
(ir) (fue) (ido)
Get Got Gotten
(obtener) (obtuvo) (obtenido)
Have Had Had
(tener) (tuvo) (tenido)
Know Knew Known
(saber, conocer) (supo, conoció) (sabido, conocido)
Lose Lost Lost
(perder) (perdió) (perdido)
Make Made Made
(hacer) (hizo) (hecho)
Meet Met Met
(reunirse, encontrarse) (reunió, encontró) (reunido, encontrado)
Pay Paid Paid
(pagar) (pagó) (pagado)
Put Put Put
(poner, colocar) (puso, colocar) (puesto, colocado)
Read Read Read
(leer) (leyó) (leído)
Ride Rode Ridden
(montar) (montó) (montado)
Ring Rang Rung
(sonar) (sonó) (sonado)
Run Ran Run
(correr) (corrió) (corrido)
See Saw Seen
(ver) (vio) (visto)
Sell Sold Sold
(vender) (vendió) (vendido)
Sit Sat Sat
(sentar) (sentó) (sentado)
Sleep Slept Slept
(dormir) (durmió) (dormido)
Speak Spoke Spoken
(hablar) (habló) (hablado)
Stand Stood Stood
(permanecer) (permaneció) (permanecido)
Take Took Taken
(tomar, llevar) (tomó, llevó) (tomado, llevado)
Teach Taught Taught
(enseñar) (enseñó) (enseñado)
Tell Told Told
(decir) (dijo) (dicho)
Think Thought Thought
(pensar) (pensó) (pensado)
Wear Wore Worn
(usar) (usó) (usado)
Write Wrote Written
(escribir) (escribió) (escrito)
Affirmative Interrogative Negative
Long Form Short Form
I was eating Was I eating? I was not eating I wasn’t eating
He/she/it was eating Was he/she/it eating? He/she/it was not eating He/she/it wasn’t eating
We/you/they were eating Were we/you/they We/you/they were not We/you/they weren’t
eating? eating eating
Was he/she/it…? Were we/you/they…?
Yes, he/she/it, etc. was Yes, we/I, etc. were
No, he/she/it, etc. wasn’t No, we/I, etc. weren’t
* We form the past continuous with was/were (past simple of the verb to be) and
the main verb with the –ing.
e.g. I was working. They were working
* We form questions by putting was/were before the subject.
* We form negations by putting the word no after was/were
e.g. Was he working? They were not/weren’t working.
We use the past continuous:
* For an action which was in progress at a stated time in the past. We do not know
when the action started or finished.
e.g. At five o’clock yesterday I was cooking dinner.
* For a past action which was in progress when another action interrupted it. We
use the past continuous for the action in progress (longer action) and the past
simple for the action which interrupted it (shorter action)
e.g. She was having breakfast when the phone rang.
* For two or more actions which were happening at the same time in the past
e.g. Tina was doing the washing-up while the children were playing in the
* To give background information in a story.
e.g. The sun was shining brightly as Tom was driving his brand new car through
the city centre.
TIME EXPRESSIONS WE USE WITH THE PAST CONTINUOUS
While, when, as, etc.
Note: when/while/as + past continuous (longer action)
When + past simple (shorter action)
Evans, Virginia & Dooley Jenny. (2000) Enterprise Grammar 2. Express
Publishing. United Kingdom.
Jack C, Richards; Hull, Jonatha & Proctor Susan (1997). New Interchange I.
English for international communication. Student’s book. Cambridge University
Press. New York.