Grammar Extension and Appendix
                       Tradicional Story Language

      STORY OPENERS:             TIME OP...
* Adjectives ending in –ed (e.g. amazed, surprised, puzzled, etc.) are used to
describe how somebody feels.
 e.g. The chil...
WORDS AND PHRASES FOR DESCRIBING PEOPLE
.




e.g. He's about 55.
    He's medium height.
    He's bald and has a beard.

...
USEFUL VOCABULARY ABOUT CLOTHING

            CLOTHES/ FOOTWEAR / ACCESORIES / JEWELRY
      Bag               Bolsa      ...
Grammar Structures you can use to build the plot

                                    PAST TENSE
FORM

YES/NO QUESTIONS WI...
STATEMENTS & NEGATIVES

             Structure                               Examples               Notes:

Subject + verb...
USE


The simple past tense is used:

a) To describe actions or situations that happened in the recent or long past
and ar...
FORMING THE PAST TENSE WITH REGULAR VERBS

With most verbs, the simple past is created by adding –ED. However, with
some v...
Cooked                Cocinó              Preferred            Prefirió
       Cried                Lloró              Qua...
OTHER IRREGULAR VERBS

Other irregular verbs fall into three main categories.


                Category                  ...
Go                    Went                   Gone
         (ir)                   (fue)                  (ido)
         Ge...
PAST CONTINUOUS
      Affirmative             Interrogative                              Negative
                        ...
TIME EXPRESSIONS WE USE WITH THE PAST CONTINUOUS

While, when, as, etc.
Note: when/while/as + past continuous (longer acti...
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Grammar extension and appendix lina

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Grammar extension and appendix lina

  1. 1. Grammar Extension and Appendix Tradicional Story Language STORY OPENERS: TIME OPENERS: TRADICIONAL ENDINGS: *** Once upon a *** Now when… *** They lived happily time… *** Then one day… ever after. *** Long, long *** The next *** They became the ago… day/morning… happiest prince and *** Once there *** On his way… princess that ever lived… *** But as soon as… lived. *** One day there *** It wasn’t long *** They would never was… before… want for anything ever *** In a faraway *** Soon again. kingdom… afterwards… *** …and nothing was *** That very heard of the - morning… ___________ever *** Suddenly… again. *** At midnight… Grammar Structures & Vocabulary you can use to describe your characters & setting ADJECTIVES * Adjectives describe nouns. They have the same form in the singular and plural. e.g. a red car – (two) red cars. * Adjectives go before nouns e.g. a large box. They can also be used alone after the verb to be and after verbs such as look, smell, sound, feel, taste, etc. e.g. Mary is tall. You look sad. It smells horrible. * Adjectives ending in –ing (e.g. interesting, amazing, etc.) are used to describe what somebody or something is like. e.g. The film was boring. She is a very interesting person. 1
  2. 2. * Adjectives ending in –ed (e.g. amazed, surprised, puzzled, etc.) are used to describe how somebody feels. e.g. The children were terrified when they heard the thunder. * There are two kind of adjectives: opinion adjectives (e.g. beautiful, lovely, great, expensive, etc.) which show what a person thinks of somebody or something, and fact adjectives (e.g. short, square, yellow, cotton, etc.) which give us factual information about somebody or something (e.g. size, weight, color, etc.) ORDER OF ADJECTIVES 1) Opinion adjectives go before fact adjectives. e.g. a beautiful silk scarf 2) When there are two or more fact adjectives in a sentence, they usually go in the following order. Fact Adjectives Size Small, big, short, long, etc. Weight Heavy, light, etc. Shape Triangular, round, rectangular, square, etc. Color Dark /light blue, yellow, pink, cream, red, purple, etc. material Cotton, leather, silk, plastic, woolen, nylon, metal, gold, silver, velvet, wooden, canvas, china, etc. 3) We do not usually have a long list of adjectives before a single noun. e.g. an expensive, red, leather suitcase. ADJECTIVES TO DESCRIBE PEOPLE * These adjectives may be used as nouns Cotton Algodón Rubber Goma Gold Oro Silk Seda leather Cuero Silver Plata Plastic Plástico Wool Lana Polyester Poliéster * Adjectives used to describe a person. Bald Calvo Old Viejo Blond Rubio (a) Serious Serio Curly Rizado (a) Short Chaparro Dark Oscuro Straight Lacio Good-looking Bien parecido Tall Alto Handsome Guapo Young Joven long largo Wavy Ondulado 2
  3. 3. WORDS AND PHRASES FOR DESCRIBING PEOPLE . e.g. He's about 55. He's medium height. He's bald and has a beard. Age Edad Height Altura hair Cabello About 20 Cerca de Short Chaparro Straight Cabello los 20 black hair negro lacio In her En sus Fairly short No muy Long red Cabello thirties treintas chaparro hair pelirrojo largo In his fifties En sus Medium Estatura Curly Cabello cincuentas height media blond hair rubio rizado Pretty tall No muy alto Short Cabello brown hair castaño corto Tall alto bald Calvo A beard Barba A Bigote moustache 3
  4. 4. USEFUL VOCABULARY ABOUT CLOTHING CLOTHES/ FOOTWEAR / ACCESORIES / JEWELRY Bag Bolsa Rollerblades Patines Backpack Mochila Scarf Bufanda Belt Cinturón Shirt Camisa Blouse Blusa Shoes Zapatos Boots Botas Shorts Pantalones cortos Bracelet Brazalete Skirt Falda Cap Gorra Slippers Pantuflas Coat Abrigo Socks Calcetines/calcetas Dress Vestido Suit Traje Earrings Aretes Sunglasses Gafas Gloves Guantes Sweater Suéter Hat Sombrero Tie Corbata Jacket Chamarra Tights Mayas Jeans Pantalones de Trainers Zapatos deportivos mezclilla o entrenadores Jumper Vestido sin mangas Trousers Pantalones Necklace Collar T-shirt Playera Pants Pantalones Vest Chaleco ring Anillo Watch Reloj Underwear Ropa interior ADJECTIVES TO DESCRIBE THE SETTING 4
  5. 5. Grammar Structures you can use to build the plot PAST TENSE FORM YES/NO QUESTIONS WITH DID Structure: Examples: Notes: Did + subject+ verb (simple form) A: Did you stay home on In the simple past tense, + complement +? Sunday? negative and question I forms are made by using you B: Yes, I did. I watched a the auxiliary verb ‘Did’. he football game on TV. Did she go out? In yes/no questions, the it auxiliary Did is placed we No, I didn’t. I invited before the subject. they friends out to dinner. WH-QUESTIONS Structure Examples Notes Wh-question + Auxiliary + verb Wh- questions are also (simple form) + complement +? A: What did you do on created by putting the I Sunday? auxiliary did before the you subject. Then you add the Where he wh- word at the beginning. What did she go? B: I saw a good movie. When it Etc. we they I went to a concert. What + happened A: What happened in the When who or what Who + verb in past tense evening? (happened) is the subject, use the simple past tense in B: We stayed home the main verb. A: Who danced in the evening? B: My sister and I 5
  6. 6. STATEMENTS & NEGATIVES Structure Examples Notes: Subject + verb (regular or irregular) + • I worked on my car Time expressions complement+. used in the past yesterday. I You tense: He studied a lot. yesterday She went to a last • I bought a house Yesterday, last It concert month last year. night, last month, We last year, in 1990, The two years ago, in the y past, etc. Structure Examples Notes Subject + Auxiliary did + not + verb • I didn’t work on my Negatives in the (simple form) +complement +. simple past are car yesterday. I formed by adding You didn’t (informal) or He did not study yesterday • I didn’t buy a house did not (formal) She didn’t go to a concert last year. before the simple It form of the verb. We They PAST TENSE VERB TO BE Question Statement Contractions Was I …? I was not I wasn’t Were you …? You were not You weren’t Was she …? She was not She wasn’t Was he …? He was not He wasn’t Was it …? It was not It wasn’t Were we …? We were not We weren’t Were you…? You were not You weren’t Were they…? They were not. They weren’t. 6
  7. 7. USE The simple past tense is used: a) To describe actions or situations that happened in the recent or long past and are now finished. Examples: The salesman sold two cars yesterday. My brother bought a new house last year. b) To tell a story. Example: A man went into a pub and asked for a beer… EXPRESSIONS OF PAST TIME Here are some examples of expressions for past time: Yesterday in April nex The day before yesterday in 1993 the next day Last night a few minutes ago after that Last Monday evening a year ago a week later Last year a long time ago On May 1 then 7
  8. 8. FORMING THE PAST TENSE WITH REGULAR VERBS With most verbs, the simple past is created by adding –ED. However, with some verbs, you need to change the ending a little. Here are the rules. Spelling rules for –ed Endings 1. If the simple form of a verb ends in –y after a consonant, change the –y to i and add –ed. Examples: try/tried carry/ carried 2. If the simple form of a verb of one syllable ends in one consonant after a vowel, double the last consonant (except x) and add –ed. Examples: plan/planned stop/stopped Note: The letters w and y at the end of words are vowels, not consonants. Examples: row/ rowed play/played 3. If the simple form of a verb ends in an accented (stressed) syllable, follow the rule above for one final consonant after one vowel. Examples: permit/permitted prefer/preferred 4. If the simple form of a verb ends in –e, add only –d. Examples: tie/tied change/changed 5. Add –ed to the simple form of all other regular verbs. Examples: want/wanted ask/asked belong/belonged REGULAR & IRREGULAR VERBS LIST OF REGULAR VERBS: These regular verbs are the same for the past and past participle (words ending in –ado, -ido) Agreed Estuvo de acuerdo Needed Necesitó answered Contestó Nodded Afirmó, asintió con la cabeza Argued Discutió, Offered Ofreció argumentó Asked Preguntó, pidió Occurred Ocurrió, sucedió belonged Perteneció Painted Pintó Carried Llevó Passed Pasó (un examen, una ley) Cleaned Limpió Permitted Permitió Climbed Trepó, escaló Planned Planeó Composed Compuso (una Played Jugó, tocó (un melodía) instrumento musical) 8
  9. 9. Cooked Cocinó Preferred Prefirió Cried Lloró Quarreled Discutió, peleó Changed Cambió Received Recibió Danced Bailó Remembered Recordó Died Murió Robbed Robó Directed Dirigió Sewed Coció (una prenda) Discovered Descubrió Started Comenzó Enjoyed Disfrutó Stayed Permaneció Existed Existió Smoked Fumó finished Terminó Stopped Paró, se detuvo Graduated Graduó Studied Estudió Happened sucedió Talked Habló, platicó hated odió Tied Ató Helped Ayudó Trapped atrapó Hoped Esperaba, esperó Traveled Viajó (de esperanza) Insisted Insistió Tried Trató Invented Inventó Typed Escribió a máquina Invited Invitó Use Usó Knitted Tejió Walked Caminó Learned Aprendió Wanted Quiso, deseó Liked Gustó Wrapped Envolvió (un paquete) Listened Escuchó Washed Lavó (trastos, ropa) Lived Vivió Watched Miró, observó Moved Mudó Worked trabajó IRREGULAR VERBS Although many verbs in English form their past tense with –ED, some do not. These are called irregular verbs, and they include some of the most basic verbs in English. This page will explain some of the most important patterns in forming the past tense. However, the only way to know how an irregular verb will change in the past tense is to learn all of the important verbs. The three most important irregular verbs The three most important irregular verbs are BE, HAVE, and DO. BE is the most difficult, because its forms are different depending on the subject. HAVE and DO are simpler. BASE FORM PAS TENSE be Was (I, he, she it) and Were (you, we, they) have had do did 9
  10. 10. OTHER IRREGULAR VERBS Other irregular verbs fall into three main categories. Category Examples 1) Verbs which don’t change. Cut → cut Hit → hit Fit → fit 2) Verbs which change their vowel. Get → got Sit → sat Drink → drank 3) Verbs which change completely. Catch → caught Bring → brought Teach → taught LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS Present Past Past participle presente pasado Pasado participio Am/ is / are Was / were Been (soy, es, son, eres, estoy, (era, éramos, eran, (sido, estado) estamos, están) estaba, estábamos, estaban) Bring Brought Brought (traer) (trajo) (traído) Buy Bought Bought (comprar) (compró) (comprado) Catch Caught Caught (atrapar) (atrapó) (atrapado) Come Came Come (venir) (vino) (venido) Do Did Done (hacer) (hizo) (hecho) Drink Drank Drunk (tomar) un líquido (tomó) (tomado) Drive Drove Driven (Manejar) (manejó) (manejado, conducido) Eat Ate Eaten (comer) (comió) (comido) Fly Flew Flown (volar) (voló) (volado) Forget Forgot Forgotten (olvidar) (olvidó) (olvidado) Give Gave Given (dar) (dio) (dado) 10
  11. 11. Go Went Gone (ir) (fue) (ido) Get Got Gotten (obtener) (obtuvo) (obtenido) Have Had Had (tener) (tuvo) (tenido) Know Knew Known (saber, conocer) (supo, conoció) (sabido, conocido) Lose Lost Lost (perder) (perdió) (perdido) Make Made Made (hacer) (hizo) (hecho) Meet Met Met (reunirse, encontrarse) (reunió, encontró) (reunido, encontrado) Pay Paid Paid (pagar) (pagó) (pagado) Put Put Put (poner, colocar) (puso, colocar) (puesto, colocado) Read Read Read (leer) (leyó) (leído) Ride Rode Ridden (montar) (montó) (montado) Ring Rang Rung (sonar) (sonó) (sonado) Run Ran Run (correr) (corrió) (corrido) See Saw Seen (ver) (vio) (visto) Sell Sold Sold (vender) (vendió) (vendido) Sit Sat Sat (sentar) (sentó) (sentado) Sleep Slept Slept (dormir) (durmió) (dormido) Speak Spoke Spoken (hablar) (habló) (hablado) Stand Stood Stood (permanecer) (permaneció) (permanecido) Take Took Taken (tomar, llevar) (tomó, llevó) (tomado, llevado) Teach Taught Taught (enseñar) (enseñó) (enseñado) Tell Told Told (decir) (dijo) (dicho) Think Thought Thought (pensar) (pensó) (pensado) Wear Wore Worn (usar) (usó) (usado) Write Wrote Written (escribir) (escribió) (escrito) 11
  12. 12. PAST CONTINUOUS Affirmative Interrogative Negative Long Form Short Form I was eating Was I eating? I was not eating I wasn’t eating He/she/it was eating Was he/she/it eating? He/she/it was not eating He/she/it wasn’t eating We/you/they were eating Were we/you/they We/you/they were not We/you/they weren’t eating? eating eating Short answers Was he/she/it…? Were we/you/they…? Yes, he/she/it, etc. was Yes, we/I, etc. were No, he/she/it, etc. wasn’t No, we/I, etc. weren’t FORM * We form the past continuous with was/were (past simple of the verb to be) and the main verb with the –ing. e.g. I was working. They were working * We form questions by putting was/were before the subject. * We form negations by putting the word no after was/were e.g. Was he working? They were not/weren’t working. USE We use the past continuous: * For an action which was in progress at a stated time in the past. We do not know when the action started or finished. e.g. At five o’clock yesterday I was cooking dinner. * For a past action which was in progress when another action interrupted it. We use the past continuous for the action in progress (longer action) and the past simple for the action which interrupted it (shorter action) e.g. She was having breakfast when the phone rang. * For two or more actions which were happening at the same time in the past (simultaneous actions) e.g. Tina was doing the washing-up while the children were playing in the garden. * To give background information in a story. e.g. The sun was shining brightly as Tom was driving his brand new car through the city centre. 12
  13. 13. TIME EXPRESSIONS WE USE WITH THE PAST CONTINUOUS While, when, as, etc. Note: when/while/as + past continuous (longer action) When + past simple (shorter action) BIBLIOGRAPHY Evans, Virginia & Dooley Jenny. (2000) Enterprise Grammar 2. Express Publishing. United Kingdom. Jack C, Richards; Hull, Jonatha & Proctor Susan (1997). New Interchange I. English for international communication. Student’s book. Cambridge University Press. New York. 13

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