BAIT1003 Chapter 7


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BAIT1003 Chapter 7

  1. 1. BAIT1003 IT Fundamentals Chapter 7 Application Software and Programming Languages
  2. 2. Objectives Application Software Computer programs & Programming languages Business Software Low level languages Graphic & Multimedia Software Procedural languages Software for home, personal, educational use Object-oriented languages Application for communications Other programming languages
  3. 3. Recap • Software (program) is a series of instructions that tells a computer what tasks to perform and how to perform them. • 2 types of software: 1. System software serves as the interface between the user, the application software, and the computer’s hardware.  Operating System  Utility Program 2. Application software
  4. 4. Application Software • Application software consists of programs designed to make users more productive and/or assist with personal tasks. To make business activities more efficient To assist with graphics and multimedia projects To support home, personal, and educational tasks To facilitate communications
  5. 5. Application Software • Available in a variety of forms: Packaged software Custom software Web application Open source software Shareware Freeware Public-domain software
  6. 6. Application Software • Package software – It is a mass produced, copyrighted retail software that meets the needs of a wide variety users, not just a single user or company. – Examples: word processing and spreadsheet application software.
  7. 7. Application Software • Custom software – Perform functions specific to a business or industry. The company may use programmers to develop tailor made custom software, which usually costs more than package software. Fulfill client’s requirements for particular business’s needs.
  8. 8. Application Software • Web application – It is awed site that allows users to access and interact with software from any computer that is connected to the Internet. – Many web sites provide free access to their programs; some charge a fee. – Example: email, word processing, game program….. Access anywhere
  9. 9. Application Software • Open source software – It is a software provided for use, modification, and redistribution. – The software has no restrictions from the copyright holder regarding modification of the software’s internal instructions and its redistribution. – This software can downloaded from the Internet, often at NO cost. Free download and update
  10. 10. Application Software • Shareware – It is copyrighted software that is distributed at no cost for a trial period. To use a shareware program beyond that period, you send payment to the program developer. – In some cases, a scaled-down version of the software is distributed free, and payment entitle the user to the fully functional product. If the trial version does not satisfy, no need spend money to purchase.
  11. 11. Application Software • Freeware – It is copyrighted software provided at no cost by an individual or a company that retains all right to the software. – Freeware indicates the software has no charge. Free of charge and downloadable from the Internet.
  12. 12. Application Software • Public domain software – The software has been donated for public use and has no copyright restrictions. – Anyone can copy or distribute to others at no cost.
  13. 13. Categories of Application Software
  14. 14. Business Software • Business software is application software that assists people in becoming more effective and efficient while performing business activities Word Processing Spreadsheet Database Presentation Note taking Personal information manager Business software for phones Business software suites Accounting Document management Enterprise computing software Project management
  15. 15. Business Software – Word Processing • Word processing , sometimes called a word processor • It allows users to create and manipulate documents containing mostly text and sometimes graphics. • Use to develop documents such as letter, memos, reports, mailing labels, and etc. • Most Word Processing allows users to incorporate graphical images. – Clip art is a collection of electronic drawings, photos, and other images • Example: Microsoft Word
  16. 16. Business Software – Word Processing
  17. 17. Business Software – Word Processing • Additional word processing features include: AutoCorrect AutoFormat Collaboration Columns Grammar Checker Ink Input Macros Mail Merge Reading Layout Research Search and Replace Smart Tags Tables Templates Thesaurus Tracking Changes Voice Recognition Web Page Development
  18. 18. Business Software – Word Processing • Developing a document • Enter text and numbers • Insert images • Perform other tasks Create a document Edit a document • Make changes to existing content • Inserting, deleting, cutting, copying, and pasting • Change appearance • Font • Font size Format a document
  19. 19. Business Software – Spreadsheet • Spreadsheet software allows users to organize data in rows and columns and perform calculations on the data.
  20. 20. Business Software – Spreadsheet • These rows and columns collectively are called a worksheet. • The following are the features of most spreadsheet programs: – Spreadsheet organization (more than 1000 worksheet, 16,000 columns, 1 million rows) – Calculations (use formula + function) – Recalculation (capability of recalculating he rest of the worksheet when data in a worksheet changes.) – Charting (line chart, column chart,….)
  21. 21. Business Software – Spreadsheet • Charting depicts data in a spreadsheet in graphical form
  22. 22. Business Software – Spreadsheet • A function is a predefined formula that performs common calculations. • Example: =SUM(B10:B14) FV NPV PMT PV RATE DATE NOW TIME ABS INT LN LOG ROUND SQRT SUM AVERAGE COUNT MAX MIN STDEV IF
  23. 23. Business Software – Database • A database is a collection of data organized in a manner that allows access, retrieval, and use of that data • Database software allows users to create, access, and manage a database. • Using the software, you can add, change, and delete data in a database; sort and retrieve data from the database; and create forms and reports using the data in the database. • Example: Microsoft Access
  24. 24. Business Software – Database
  25. 25. Business Software – Presentation • Presentation software allows users to create visual aids for presentations to communicate ideas, messages, and other information to a group
  26. 26. Business Software – Note Taking • Note taking software is application software that enables users to enter typed text, handwritten comments, drawings, or sketches anywhere on a page.
  27. 27. Business Software – Business Software Suite • A software suite is a collection of individual programs available together as a unit. Advantages: • Example: Microsoft Office • This software typically include: 1.Costs significantly less – – – – Word processing Spreadsheet Presentation Email than purchasing the program individually 2.Easy of use because the program in the suite normally use similar interface and share features.
  28. 28. Business Software – Personal Information Manager Software • A personal information manager (PIM) is application software that includes: • To help users organize personal information Appointment calendar Address book Notepad • Most PDAs and many smart phones include PIM functionality.
  29. 29. Business Software – Personal Information Manager Software • Enables users to create documents and worksheets, manage databases, create slides shows, take notes, manage budget….. • Scaled down versions of software are available to work with smart phones and other mobile devices.
  30. 30. Business Software – Others Project management software allows a user to plan, schedule, track, and analyze the events, resources, and costs of a project Accounting software helps companies record and report their financial transactions Document management software provides a means for sharing, distributing, and searching through documents by converting them into a format that can be viewed by any user
  31. 31. Business Software – Others Enterprise Computer Software • Enterprises typically require special computing solutions for various functional units Human resources Accounting Engineering Marketing Sales Distribution Customer service Information technology
  32. 32. Graphic & Multimedia Software • Software that designed specifically for their field work, allows to work with graphics & multimedia. • Suitable for power user such as: – Engineers – Architects – Desktop publishers – Graphic artists
  33. 33. Graphic & Multimedia Software
  34. 34. Graphic & Multimedia Software Examples Computer-aided design (CAD) software for creating engineering, architectural, and scientific design Desktop publishing software (for the professional) For production of high quality color documents such as text book, corporate newsletters, product catalogs. Paint/Image editing software(for the professional) To create and modify graphical images such as DTP document and Web pages
  35. 35. Graphic & Multimedia Software Examples Professional photo editing software (for the professional) Edit and customize digital photos Video and audio editing software (for the professional) To modify a segment of a video Multimedia authoring software To combine text, graphics, audio, video and animation in an interactive application
  36. 36. Graphic & Multimedia Software Examples • Web page authoring software helps users of all skill levels create Web pages that include multimedia and interactive content
  37. 37. Software for Home, Personal & Educational Use - Examples Personal finance software Accounting software that help home user balance their checkbooks, pay bills, track personal income expenses…. Legal software Assist in the preparation of legal document and provide legal information to individuals. Tax preparation software Guide individual through the process of filing federal taxes.
  38. 38. Software for Home, Personal & Educational Use - Examples Desktop Publishing Software (For personal use) Helps home and small business users to create newsletters, brochures, flyers, advertisements, postcard…… Personal paint/image editing software (For personal use) Personal paint – to draw pictures, shapes & other images Personal image editing – to modify existing graphics & photos Personal photo editing software Allow users to edit digital photos by removing red-eye, adding special effects…..
  39. 39. Software for Home, Personal & Educational Use - Examples Clip art/image gallery A collection of clip art and photos Video and audio editing software (For personal use) Home users can edit home movies, add music or others sounds to the video Home design/landscaping software To assist users with the design, remodeling or improvement of a home
  40. 40. Software for Home, Personal & Educational Use - Examples Travel and mapping software Enable users to view maps, determine route directions Reference software Provides valuable information, E.g. encyclopedias, dictionaries Educational software Software that teaches a particular skills, E.g. Learning how to type Entertainment software It includes interactive games, videos & other programs designed to support a hobby
  41. 41. Application Software for Communications- Examples Web Browser Instant Messaging Chat Room Blogging E-Mail Newsgroup / Message Board Web 2.0 Technology Text, Picture, Video Messaging RSS Aggregator FTP VoIP Video Conferencing Social Media
  42. 42. Application Software for Communications- Examples Web Browser • Allows users to access and view Web Pages on the Internet E-mail • Messages and files sent via a network such as the Internet Instant Messaging Chat Room Text, Picture, Video Messaging RSS Aggregator • Real-time exchange of messages, files, audio, and/or video with another online user • Real-time, online typed conversation • Short text, picture, or video messages sent and received, mainly on mobile devices • Keeps track of changes made to Web sites by checking RSS feeds
  43. 43. Application Software for Communications- Examples Blogging Newsgroup/Message Board FTP VoIP (Internet Telephony) Video Conferencing • Time-stamped articles, or posts, in a diary or journal format, usually listed in reverse chronological order • Online area where users have written discussions • Method of uploading and downloading files with other computers on the Internet • Allows users to speak to other users over the Internet • Meeting between geographically separated people who use a network such as the Internet to transmit video/audio
  44. 44. Computer Programs & Programming Languages • A computer program is a series of instructions that directs a computer to perform tasks. • A computer programmer/ developer, creates and modified computer program.
  45. 45. Computer Programs & Programming Languages • A programming language is a set of words, abbreviations, and symbols that enables a programmer to communicate instructions to a computer.
  46. 46. Low Level Languages • Low level language is a programming language that is machine dependant. • • It runs on only one particular type of computer These programs are not easily portable to other types of computers. For example, an assembler language written using the operators for an Intel x86 CPU would not work on a machine with a Motorola CPU, and vice versa.
  47. 47. Low Level Languages • 2 types of low-level languages are: • • Machine language (first generation language) Assembly language (second generation language)
  48. 48. Low Level Languages – First Generation Language (1GL) • A Machine language is the first generation of programming languages, is the only language the computer directly recognizes. – Use a series of binary digits (1s and 0s) or a combination of numbers and letters that represents binary digits. – Coding in machine language is tedious and time consuming.
  49. 49. Low Level Languages – First Generation Language (1GL) • Example of 1GL – Machine language • The only languages understood by computers • It is extremely difficult to use and read
  50. 50. Low Level Languages – Second Generation Language (2GL) • Example of 2GL – assembly language • Programmer writes instructions using symbolic instruction codes
  51. 51. Low Level Languages – Second Generation Language (2GL) • Programmer must convert an assembly language program into machine language before the computer can execute. • A source program contains the code to be converted to machine language. • To convert the assembly language source program into machine language, programmer use a program called an assembler.
  52. 52. Procedural Languages • The disadvantages of machine and assembly languages led to the development of procedural language in the late 1950s and 1960s. • In the procedural language, the programmer writes instructions that tell the computer what to accomplish and how to do it. • Procedural language often called a Third generation language (3GL).
  53. 53. Procedural Languages – Third Generation Language (3GL) • Third generation language (procedural language) uses a series of English-like words and arithmetic symbols to write instructions.  Example: • ADD stand for additional • PRINT means to print • “+” for additional, “*” for multiplication • English like words and arithmetic symbols simplify the program development process for the programmer. • Example: C and COBOL
  54. 54. Procedural Languages – Third Generation Language (3GL) • For the 3GLs, programmers typically use either a compiler or an interpreter to perform the translation. A compiler translates an entire program before executing it An interpreter converts and executes one code statement at a time
  55. 55. Procedural Languages – Third Generation Language (3GL) • Compiler • Result from compiling the 3GL is called object code/ object program • While it is compiling the source program into object code, the compiler checks the source program for errors. • The compiler produces a program listing that contains the source code and list of any errors. • Compiler translates an entire program before executing it.
  56. 56. Procedural Languages – Third Generation Language (3GL) While it is compiling the source program into object code, the compiler checks the source program for errors Result from compiling the 3GL is called object code / object program The compiler produces a program listing that contains the source code and list of any errors
  57. 57. Procedural Languages – Third Generation Language (3GL) • Interpreter • Translate and executes one statement at a time. • Does not produce an object program. • When it finds errors, it display feedback immediately. • The programmer can correct any errors before the interpreter translates the next statement.
  58. 58. Object-Oriented Programming Languages • An object-oriented programming (OOP) language allows programmers the ability to reuse and modify existing objects • Other advantages include: Objects can be reused Programmers create applications faster Work well in a RAD environment Most program development tools are IDEs
  59. 59. Object-Oriented Programming Languages • The variety of object oriented programming language and program development tools: • • • • • Java The Microsoft .NET Framework allows almost any type of program to run on the Internet or an internal business network, as well as computers and mobile devices C++ is an extension of the C programming language C# is based on C++ and was developed by Microsoft Visual Studio is Microsoft’s suite of program development tools
  60. 60. Other Programming Languages – Fourth Generation Language • A 4GL (fourth-generation language) is a nonprocedural language that enables users and programmers to access data in a database. • With the nonprocedural language, the programmer writes English-like instructions or interact with graphical environment to retrieve data from file or a database. • Easier to use than procedural languages. • Example: – One popular 4GL is SQL
  61. 61. Meaning & Importance of Layers Concept of Software • Hardware, software and end-users work in a series of layers (as shown) • End Users interact with the application software directly • Application software must work through the system software to the hardware
  62. 62. Significance of Layers Concept • Compatibility : • Not all Application Software can work with one particular System Software e.g. UBS Accounting software that runs on Window XP cannot run on Mac OS. • Not all System Software can work with all Hardware e.g. OS/400 can only run on IBM AS/400 computer and not on Sun Microsystem platform (which is an Unix box).
  63. 63. Significance of Layers Concept • The more layers there are in the system, the slower the whole system will be. This is because it takes longer time to go through more layers of software. • The ‘thicker’ the layers of the software (i.e. software which are complex and with a lot of features) are, the slower the system will be. This is because it takes longer time to go through the ‘thicker’ layers.
  64. 64. Summary Application Software Business Software • Word processing • Spreadsheet • Database • Presentation • Note taking • Business Software Suite • Personal Information Manager • Others Graphic & Multimedia Software • Computer-aided design (CAD) • Desktop publishing • Paint/Image editing • Professional photo editing • Video and audio editing • Multimedia authoring • Web page authoring Software for home, personal & educational use • Personal finance • Legal • Tax preparation • Desktop publishing • Personal paint/image editing • Personal photo editing • Clip art/image gallery • Video/audio editing • Home design/landscaping • Travel & mapping • Reference • Educational • Entertainment Application for communications • Web browser • E-mail • Messaging • Chatroom • Text, picture, video messaging • RSS aggregator • Blogging • Newsgroup / Message board • FTP • VoIP • Video conferencing
  65. 65. Summary Computer Programs & Programming Languages Low Level Languages • 1GL – Machine language • 2GL – Assembly language Procedural Languages • 3GL – C & COBOL Object-Oriented Languages • Java • .Net • C++ • C# Other Language • 4GL – SQL (nonprocedural)