BAIT1003 Chapter 3


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Chapter 3: Input Devices

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BAIT1003 Chapter 3

  1. 1. BAIT1003 IT Fundamentals Chapter 3 Input Devices
  2. 2. Objectives Pointing Devices Keyboard Voice Input Input Devices Biometric Input Terminals Scanners & Reading Devices Digital Cameras Video Input
  3. 3. What is input? • Input is any data and instructions entered into the memory of a computer
  4. 4. What is input? Instructions entered into the computer can be in the form of: – Program • It is a series of related instructions that tell a computer what tasks to perform and how to perform them. – Command • Program respond to command that a user issues. A command is an instruction that causes a program to perform a specific action. – User response • It is an instruction a user issues by replying to a question displayed by a program.
  5. 5. What is input?
  6. 6. What are Input Devices? • An input device is any hardware component that allows users to enter data and instructions into a computer. • Examples: 1. Keyboard 2. Pointing Devices 3. Voice Input 4. Digital Cameras 5. Video Input 6. Scanners and Reading Devices 7. Terminals 8. Biometric Input
  7. 7. What are Input Devices? Examples
  8. 8. Keyboard • A keyboard is an input device that contains keys users press to enter data and instructions into a computer
  9. 9. Keyboard Desktop computer keyboards typically have 101 to 105 keys. Keyboard features:  All desktop computer keyboards have a typing are that includes the letters of the alphabet, numbers, punctuation marks, and other basic keys.  A numeric keypad is a calculator-style arrangement of keys representing numbers, a decimal point, and some basic mathematics operators.
  10. 10. Keyboard Keyboard features:  Function keys, which are labelled with the letter F followed by a number are special keys programmed to issue commands to a computer.  E.g. COPY SHIFT+F2  E.g. OPEN CTRL+F12  A toggle key is a key that switches between 2 states each time a user presses the key.  E.g. press the NUM LOCK key, it locks the numeric keypad so you can use the keypad to type numbers.  The insertion point, also known as the cursor, is a symbol on the screen that indicates where the next character you type will appear.
  11. 11. Keyboard
  12. 12. Keyboard • Insertion point
  13. 13. Keyboard Keyboard connect through the following: Wired Keyboards Wireless Keyboards USB port Bluetooth IrDA
  14. 14. Keyboard Types of keyboard:  An enhanced keyboard has 12 function keys, 2 CTRL keys, 2 ALT keys, and a set of arrow and additional keys between the typing area and numeric keypad. (Most of today’s desktop PC keyboards)  A wireless keyboard or cordless keyboard is a battery-powered device that transmits data using wireless technology, such as radio waves or infrared light waves.
  15. 15. Keyboard • Ergonomic keyboard has a design that reduces the chance of the wrist and hand injuries. The goal of ergonomic is to incorporate comfort, efficiency and safety into the design of items in the workplace.
  16. 16. Keyboard Keyboard for mobile computers & mobile devices • On notebook computers and other mobile devices the keyboard is built in the top of the system unit. • Keyboards on mobile devices typically are smaller and/or have fewer keys. • Some phones have predictive text input, which saves time when entering text using the phone’s keypad.
  17. 17. Pointing Devices • A pointing device is an input device that allows a user to control a pointer on the screen. • A pointing device can be used to move the insertion point, select text, graphics, and other objects; click buttons, icons, links, and menu command. • Examples: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Mouse Trackball Touch pad Pointing stick Light pen Touch screen Pen input
  18. 18. Pointing Devices - Mouse • A mouse is a pointing device that fits under the palm of your hand comfortably.  The top and sides of the mouse has one to four buttons; some also have a small wheel.  The bottom of a mouse is flat and contains a mechanism that detects movement of the mouse. • A mouse can be wired or wireless.
  19. 19. Pointing Devices - Mouse • With a mouse, users control the movement of the pointer, often called a mouse pointer.  Use the mouse to move the pointer on the screen to an object such as button, a menu, an icon, a link, or text. Then, you may press a mouse button to perform a certain action associated with that object.
  20. 20. Pointing Devices - Mouse • Mouse operations includes: Point Triple-click Free-spin wheel Click Drag Press wheel Right-click Double-click Right-drag Rotate wheel Tilt wheel Press thumb button
  21. 21. Pointing Devices - Mouse • Types of mouse: – Optical mouse – Laser mouse – Air mouse – Wireless mouse/ cordless mouse Optical Mouse Mechanical Mouse Air Mouse
  22. 22. Pointing Devices - Mouse Optical mouse • The mouse has no moving mechanical parts inside; it uses devices that emit and sense light to detect the mouse’s movement .
  23. 23. Pointing Devices - Mouse Laser mouse • Uses a laser and more expensive than optical mouse. • Can place on nearly all types of flat surface.
  24. 24. Pointing Devices - Mouse Air mouse • A newer type of mouse, is a motionsensing mouse, with the typical buttons allow you to control objects, media players, and slide shows by moving the mouse in predetermined directions through the Air navigation via a combination of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors, digital signal processing technology (DSP) and radio frequency (RF) wireless technology. Using these technologies, the users hold the mouse any way they please while pointing it in any direction, though they must be within 30 feet of their computers
  25. 25. Pointing Devices - Mouse Wireless mouse/cordless mouse • It is a battery-powered device that transmits data using wireless technology, such as radio waves (Bluetooth) or infrared light waves (IrDA).
  26. 26. Pointing Devices – Trackball    It is a stationary pointing device with a ball on its top or side.  The ball in most trackballs is about the size of a Ping-Pong ball. To move the pointer using a trackball, you rotate the ball with your thumb, fingers, or the palm of you hand. Trackball is good because we do not have to move the entire device.
  27. 27. Pointing Devices – Touchpad   It is a small, flat, rectangular pointing device that is sensitive to pressure and motion. To move the pointer using a touchpad, you slide your fingertip across the surface of the pad.
  28. 28. Pointing Devices – Pointing stick   It is a pressure-sensitive pointing device shaped like a pencil eraser that is positioned between keys on a keyboard. To move the pointer using a pointing stick, you push the pointing stick with your finger.
  29. 29. Touch Screens & Touch-Sensitive Pads • A touch screen is a touch-sensitive display device.
  30. 30. Touch Screens & Touch-Sensitive Pads    It is a monitor that has a touch–sensitive panel on the screen. Users interact with these devices by touching areas of the screen with a finger or a stylus. Touch screens are not used to enter large amount of data. Kiosks often have touch screens, which normally located in stores, hotel, airport, museums and etc.
  31. 31. Touch Screens & Touch-Sensitive Pads  The touch-sensitive pad on a portable media player is an input device that enables users to scroll through and play music, view pictures, watch videos or movie, adjust volume, and customize settings.
  32. 32. Touch Screens & Touch-Sensitive Pads Microsoft Surface Touch-sensitive pads
  33. 33. Pen Input • With pen input, you use a stylus or digital pen on a flat surface to write, draw, or make selections
  34. 34. Pen Input   Stylus is a small metal or plastic device that looks like a tiny ink pen but uses pressure instead of ink. A digital pen, which is slightly larger than a stylus, is available in two forms: some are pressure-sensitive; others have built in digital cameras.
  35. 35. Pen Input   A graphics tablet is a flat, rectangular, electro nic plastic board. Architects, mapmakers, designers, and artists create drawings and sketches by using a pressure sensitive pen or a cursor on a graphics tablet.
  36. 36. Game Controllers • Video games and computer games use a game controller as the input device that directs movements and actions of onscreen objects.
  37. 37. Game Controllers – Game pads  A gamepad, which is held with both hands, controls the controls the movement and actions of players or object in video games or computer games.
  38. 38. Game Controllers – Joystick & Wheel   A joystick is a handheld vertical lever mounted on a base. You move the lever in different directions to control the action of the simulated vehicle or player. Wheel is a steering-wheel-type input device. Users turn the wheel to simulate driving a car, truck or other vehicle. Most wheels also include foot pedals for acceleration and braking action.
  39. 39. Game Controllers – Light Guns • A light gun is used to shoot target and moving objects after you pull the trigger on the weapon. • Most light guns work by detecting light.
  40. 40. Game Controllers – Dance Pads • A dance pad is flat electronic device divide into panels that users press with their feet in response to instructions from a music video game.
  41. 41. Game Controllers – Motionsensing game controllers • It allow the user to guide on screen elements by moving a hand held input device in predetermined directions through the air. • Example: sport games
  42. 42. Digital Cameras • A digital camera is a mobile device that allows users to take pictures and store them digitally.  Digital cameras typically allow users to review, and sometimes edit images while they are in the camera.  Some digital cameras connect directly to or communicate directly with a printer or television. This feature eliminates the need to copy images to a computer’s hard disk.
  43. 43. Digital Cameras
  44. 44. Digital Cameras Two factors affect the quality of digital camera photos: Resolution Resolution is the number of horizontal and vertical pictures in a display device. A pixel is the smallest element in an electronic display Number of bits it stores in a pixel Each pixel consists of one or more bits of data The more bits used to represent a pixel, the more colors and shades of gray that can be represented.
  45. 45. Digital Cameras
  46. 46. Voice Input • Voice input is the process of entering input by speaking into a microphone. • Voice recognition is the computer’s capability of distinguishing spoken words. – Example of popular voice recognition programs for personal computer include IBM ViaVoice and Dragon Naturally Speaking – It does not understand speech. They only recognize a vocabulary of preprogrammed words.
  47. 47. Voice Input Audio input • It is the process of entering any sound into the computer such as speech, music, and other sound effects. • To enter high quality sound into a personal computer, the computer must have a sound card. • Users enter sound into computer via devices such as microphones, tape players, CD/DVD/Blue-ray Disc players, radio, each of which plugs in a port on the sound card.
  48. 48. Video Input • Video input is the process of capturing full-motion images and storing them on a computer’s storage medium such as a hard disk or optical disc. • To enter video from analog devices, the analog signal must be converted to a digital signal. To do this, plug a video camera, VCR or anolog video device into a video capture port on the system unit. – Video capture card converts an analog video signal into a digital signal that a computer can use. • A digital video (DV) camera records video as digital signals instead of analog signal.
  49. 49. Video Input (Example) Home users can transfer videos to their computers and then use video editing software to edit the video.
  50. 50. Video Input • A Web cam is a type of digital video camera that enables a user to: Capture video and still images Send e-mail messages with video attachments Broadcast live images over the Internet Add live images to instant messages Make video telephone calls
  51. 51. Video Input • A video conference is a meeting between two or more geographically separated people who use a network or the Internet to transmit audio and video data. • A whiteboard is another window on the screen that display notes and drawings simultaneously on all participants screen.
  52. 52. Scanners & Reading Devices   Devices that can capture data directly from a source documents instead of manually data entry. Devices that can capture data directly from a source document include: 1. Optical scanners 2. Optical readers 3. Bar codes scanners 4. RFID readers 5. Magnetic strip card reader 6. Magnetic-ink characters recognition readers (MICR)
  53. 53. Scanners & Reading Devices – Optical Scanners   Usually called a scanner, is a lightsensing input device that reads printed text and graphics and then translates the results into a form the computer can process. Four types: Flatbed Pen or Handheld Sheet-fed Drum
  54. 54. Scanners & Reading Devices – Optical Scanners Flatbed Pen or handheld • Similar to a copy machine • Scanning mechanism passes under the item to be scanned, which is placed on a glass surface.    Move pen over text to be scanned, and then transfer data to computer. Ideal for mobile users, students and researcher. Some connect to a smart phone.
  55. 55. Scanners & Reading Devices – Optical Scanners Sheet-Fed    Drum    Item to be scanned is pulled into a stationary scanning mechanism. Smaller than a flatbed scanner Some models designed specifically for photographs are called a photo scanner. Item to be scanned rotates around stationary scanning mechanism. Very expensive Used in large business.
  56. 56. Scanners & Reading Devices – Optical Readers • It is a device that uses a light source to read characters, marks, and codes and then converts them into digital data that can be processed by the computer. • Two technology used by optical readers are as follow: 1. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) 2. Optical Mark Recognition (OMR)
  57. 57. Scanners & Reading Devices – Optical Scanners Optical Character Recognition (OCR) • It is a technology that involves reading typewritten, computer printed, or hand-printed characters from ordinary documents and translating the images into a form that the computer can process. – OCR devices include a small optical scanner for reading characters and sophisticated software for analysing what is read. – OCR devices read printed characters in an OCR font. Application: • A turnaround document is a document you return to the company that creates and sends it. For example, when consumers receive a bill, they often tear off a portion of the bill and send it back to the company with their payment.
  58. 58. Scanners & Reading Devices – Optical Scanners
  59. 59. Scanners & Reading Devices – Optical Scanners How OCR works?  During the scan of documents, an OCR device determines the shapes of characters by detecting patterns of light and dark.  OCR software then compares these shapes with predefined shapes stored in memory and converts the shapes into characters the computer can process.
  60. 60. Scanners & Reading Devices – Optical Scanners Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) • It is a technology that reads hand-drawn marks such as small circles or rectangles.  Example:  A person places these marks on a form, such as a test, survey, or questionnaire answer sheet.  The OMR devices first scan the answer key sheet to record correct answers based on patterns of light.  The OMR device then scans the remaining documents and matches their patterns of light against the answer key sheet.
  61. 61. Scanners & Reading Devices – Bar Code Scanners • A bar code reader, also called a bar code scanner uses laser beams to read bar codes by using light pattern that pass through the bar code lines. • A bar code is an identification code that consists of a set of vertical lines and spaces of different widths. • The bar code represents data that identifies the manufacturer and the item. • The bar code is printed on a product’s package or on a label that is affixed to a product.
  62. 62. Scanners & Reading Devices – RFID Reader • RFID (radio frequency identification) uses radio signals to communicate with a tag placed in or attached to an object   RFID tags contain a memory chip and an antenna. An RFID reader reads information on the tag via radio waves. RFID readers can be handheld devices or mounted in a stationary object such as a doorway. Alternative to bar code identification because it does not require direct contact. • RFID can:  – – – – Tracking times of runners in a marathon Tracking location of soldiers Airline baggage tracking payment as vehicle pass through booths on toll way system.
  63. 63. Scanners & Reading Devices – Magnetic Stripe Card Reader    It reads the magnetic stripe on the back of credit cards, entrainment cards, bank cards and other similar cards. The stripe, which is divided in three horizontal tracks, contains information identifying you and the card issuer.  Example: name, account number, and card’s expiration date When a consumer swipes credit card through the magstripe reader, it reads the information stored on the magnetic stripe on the card.
  64. 64. Scanners & Reading Devices – Magnetic Ink Character Recognition • MICR (magnetic ink character recognition) devices read text printed with magnetized ink. • An MICR reader converts MICR characters into a form the computer can process. • Application: Banking industry uses MICR for check processing Each check has precoded MICR characters beginning at the lower left edge.
  65. 65. Scanners & Reading Devices – Magnetic Ink Character Recognition Example: Use of MICR in Check Processing  When a bank receives a check for payment, it uses an MICR inscriber to print amount of the check in MICR characters in the lower right corner.  The check then is sorted or routed to the customer’s bank.  Each check is inserted in an MICR reader for processing.
  66. 66. Scanners & Reading Devices – Data Collection Devices • A data collection device obtains data directly at the location where the transaction or even take place. • It has the capability of wirelessly transmitting data over a network or the Internet. • Example: – Factories and retail stores use data collection device to take inventory and order products.
  67. 67. Biometric Input • It is the technology of authenticating a person’s identity by verifying a personal characteristic.  Biometric devices translate a personal characteristic into a digital code that is compared with a digital code stored in the computer.  If the digital code in the computer does not match the personal characteristic’s code, the computer denies access to the individual.
  68. 68. Biometric Input Fingerprint reader Capture curves and indentations of a fingerprint. Face recognition system Capture a live face image and compares it with a stored image to determine if the person is legitimate user.
  69. 69. Biometric Input Hand geometry system Measure the shape and size of a person’s hand. Voice verification system Compared a person’s live speech with their stored voice pattern.
  70. 70. Biometric Input Signature verification system Recognized the shape of your handwritten signature as well as measures the pressure exerted and the motion used to write the signature. Iris recognition system Read patterns in the iris of the eye.
  71. 71. Terminals    It is a computer usually with limited processing power, that enable users to send data to and/ or receive information from a host computer. A terminal consists of a keyboard, a monitor, a video card, and memory. Often these components are housed in a single unit. 3 widely used special purpose terminals are: 1. Point-of-sale (POS) terminal 2. Automated teller machines 3. DVD kiosks
  72. 72. Terminals – Point-of-sale Terminal   POS terminal to record purchase, process credit or debit, and update inventory. The POS terminal is a combination of an electronic cash register, barcode reader, and printer.
  73. 73. Terminals – Automated Teller Machines  It is a self-service banking machine that connects to a host computer through a network.
  74. 74. Terminals – DVD Kiosk It is a self service DVD rental machine that connect to a host computer through a network.  Touch screen to select DVD movie.  Card Reader to read membership details  Cash Reader to accept cash upon purchase  DVD Dispenser to dispense the DVD to the customer
  75. 75. Factors of Selection for Input Devices Input device choice factors: • Physiological and psychological characteristics of users, their training and expertise – experience levels and training (e.g., typing) – physiological factors (e.g., vision, arthritis) • What Tasks to be performed? – drawing --> continuous movement – selecting menu options --> discrete movement • Work and environment – speech input and noise levels – dust – physical security
  76. 76. Summary • This chapter described various techniques of entering input and several commonly used input devices.