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- 1. CE-416 Pre-stressed Concrete Lab Sessional Presented By: Md. Zahidul Islam Id No:10.01.03.142 Course teachers: Munshi Galib Muktadir Sabreena Nasrin Department Of Civil Engineering Ahsanullah University of Science & technology
- 2. STRESS The internal resistance offered by a body per unit area of the cross section is known as stress Types of stresses : Direct stress Shear stress or Tangential stress Bending stress Torsional stress Thermal stress
- 3. TORSIONAL STRESS Shear stress produced when we apply the twisting moment to the end of a shaft about its axis is known as Torsional stress. Torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque. In sections perpendicular to the torque axis, the resultant shear stress in this section is perpendicular to the radius. Typical Figure of Torsional stress
- 4. TORSION Torsion is the twisting of a straight bar when it is loaded by twisting moments or torques that tend to produce rotation about the longitudinal axes of the bar. For instance, when we turn a screw driver to produce torsion our hand applies torque „T‟ to the handle and twists the shank of the screw driver.
- 5. BARS SUBJECTED TO TORSION Let us now consider a straight bar supported at one end and acted upon by two pairs of equal and opposite forces. Then each pair of forces P1 and P2 form a couple that tend to twist the bar about its longitudinal axis, thus producing surface tractions and moments. Then we can write the moments as T1 P d1 1 T2 P2 d 2
- 6. TORSION The moments that produce twisting of bar, such as twisting moments. and The moments are indicated by the right hand rule for moment vectors, which states that if the fingers curl in the direction of the moments then the direction of the thumb represents the direction of vector. T1 are called torques or T2
- 7. TORSIONAL STRESS ON CIRCULAR SHAFTS Interested in stresses and strains of circular shafts subjected to twisting couples or torques. Turbine exerts torque T on the shaft. Shaft transmits the torque to the generator. Generator creates an equal and opposite torque T.
- 8. NET TORQUE DUE TO INTERNAL STRESSES Net of the internal shearing stresses is an internal torque, equal and opposite to the applied torque, T dF dA Although the net torque due to the shearing stresses is known, the distribution of the stresses is not. Distribution of shearing stresses is statically indeterminate – must consider shaft deformations. Unlike the normal stress due to axial loads, the distribution of shearing stresses due to torsional loads can not be assumed uniform.
- 9. AXIAL SHEAR COMPONENTS Torque applied to shaft produces shearing stresses on the faces perpendicular to the axis. Conditions of equilibrium require the existence of equal stresses on the faces of the two planes containing the axis of the shaft. The existence of the axial shear components is demonstrated by considering a shaft made up of axial slats. The slats slide with respect to each other when equal and opposite torques are applied to the ends of the shaft.
- 10. SHAFT DEFORMATIONS From observation, the angle of twist of the shaft is proportional to the applied torque and to the shaft T length. L When subjected to torsion, every cross-section of a circular shaft remains plane and undistorted then the bar is said to be under pure torsion. Cross-sections for hollow and solid circular shafts remain plain and undistorted because a circular shaft is axisymmetric. Cross-sections of noncircular (non-axisymmetric) shafts are distorted when subjected to torsion.
- 11. TORSIONAL DEFORMATION OF CIRCULAR SHAFT Consider a cylindrical bar of circular cross section twisted by the torques T at both the ends. Since every cross section of the bar Is symmetrical and is applied to the same internal torque T we say that the bar is in pure torsion. Under action of torque T the right end of the bar will rotate through small angle known as angle of twist. The angle of twist varies along the axis of the bar at intermediate cross ( x) . section denoted by
- 12. TORSIONAL DEFORMATIONS OF A CIRCULAR BAR Rate of twist d dx Shear Strain at the outer surface of the bar max bb | ab rd dx r For pure torsion the rate of twist is constant and equal to the total angle of twist divided by the length L of the bar r max r L
- 13. FOR LINEAR ELASTIC MATERIALS From Hooke‟s Law G G is shear modulus of elasticity is shear strain From Shear Strain equation : max Shear Stress at the outer surface of the bar : max Gr Torsion Formula : To determine the relation between shear stresses and torque, torsional formula is to be accomplished. r r L Shear Stresses in cylindrical bar with circular cross section.
- 14. TORSIONAL FORMULA Since the stresses act continously they have a resultant in the form of moment. The Moment of a small element dA located at radial distance and is given by 2 max dM dA r The resultant moment ( torque T ) is the summation over the entire cross sectional area of all such elemental moments. T 2 max dM r A dA A max r Ip Polar moment of inertia of circle with radius r and diameter d r4 d4 Ip 2 Maximum Shear Stress max 32 Tr Ip 16T d3 Distribution of stresses acting on a cross section.
- 15. EXAMPLE FROM “MECHANICS OF MATERIALS” BY GERE & TIMOSHENKO A solid steel bar of circular cross section has diameter d=1.5in, l=54in, G=11.5*106 psi.The bar is subjected to torques T acting at the ends if the torques have magnitude T=250 lbft a)what is the maximum shear stress in the bar b)what is the angle of twist between the ends? Solution a)From torsional formula max b) Angle of twist Ip d4 32 TL GI p 16T d3 *1.54 32 16*250*12 *1.53 .4970in 4 250 *12 *54 11.5*10 6 4530 psi
- 16. STRESS AND STRAIN ANALYSIS A shaft of circular cross section subjected to torques at opposite ends is considered . A point in the cross section at the coordinate x3 will be rotated at an angle x3 u1 x2 x,3 u2 x1 x3 ( ui / uk uk / xi ) The displacements are given by and u3 0 .Since is zero in x3 direction. Components of strain tensor by using 1 0 we have ij 0 0 0 x2 2 ,x1 2 x2 x1 0 2 2 ii ik 2 0 : Torsion does not result in the change in volume it implies pure shear deformation.
- 17. STRESS AND STRAIN ANALYSIS From Hooke‟s Law we have ij ij kk 2 where & are Lame‟s Constant. And =G where G is modulus of rigidity. Components of stress tensor 0 ij 0 G x2 0 0 G x1 G x2 G x1 0 ij
- 18. EFFECTS Warping Rotation Crack
- 19. ASSUMPTIONS The shaft has a uniform cross-section. Plane sections remain plane after the torque is applied. The shear strain γ varies linearly in the radial direction. The material is linearly elastic, so that Hooke's law applies.
- 20. ANALYSIS OF TORSIONAL STRESS To find the maximum shear stress τmax which occurs in a circular shaft of radius c due to the application of a torque T. Using the assumptions above, we have, at any point r inside the shaft, the shear stress is τr = r/c τmax ∫τrdA r = T ∫ r2/c τmax dA = T τmax/c∫r2 dA = T
- 21. J = ∫ r2 dA is the polar moment of inertia of the cross sectonal area. Thus, the maximum shear stress: τmax = Tc/J For a solid circular shaft, we have: J = π/2(c)4 For any point at distance r from the center of the shaft, we have, the shear stress τ is given by τ = Tr/J
- 22. TORSION TEST A torsion test can be conducted on most materials to determine the torsional properties of the material. These properties include but are not limited to: Modulus of elasticity in shear Yield shear strength Ultimate shear strength Modulus of rupture Ductility
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