LEADERSHIP IN BUSINESS
“Group Empirical Assignment”
Kevin Pratama 3094004
Eka Darmadi Lim 3094802
Eric Ariawan 3094808
University of Surabaya
Faculty of Business and Economics
International Business Networking
Name : Mr. Harry Yohanes. S.E
Age : 29 Years Old
Position : Outlet Manager Xo Suki – Galaxy Mall
Date Birth : Surabaya, August 18, 1983
Elementary School : Petra Jemursari (1989 – 1994)
Junior High School : Petra Jemursari (1994 – 1996)
High School : Petra Jemursari (1996 – 1998)
University : Petra University (1998 – 2002)
1. Oil Company TOP ONE As a Sales Person - From 2001 until 2002 – (Part-time Job)
2. Ice Cream Cocofrio As a Waiter – From 2002 until 2002
3. Ice Cream Cocofrio As a Captain – From 2002 until 2003
4. Surabaya Plaza Hotel As a Kitchen – From 2003 until 2005
5. Surabaya Plaza Hotel As a Chef – From 2005 until 2007
6. XO Suki Galaxy Mall As Supervisor – From 2007 until 2009
7. XO Suki Galaxy Mall As Outlet Manager – From 2009 until Now
X.O Group of Restaurants was established since 2005 at Surabaya and offers several concepts
of Chinese Food and Grilled cuisine such as Suki (Steamboat), Grilled, Signature Cuisine and
Dim Sum. The segmentation of X.O Group of Restaurants is the middle up class consisting
youngsters to family.
Chinese Food concept was chosen because it has varied of menus. Besides that, Chinese Food
is one of the most favorable cuisines which own the biggest market range in the world,
especially in Indonesia. Suki, that also known as Steamboat is the main product of X.O
Group of Restaurants because of the health fact. Suki Menu or Steamboat is kind of cuisine
which is use boiling as the cooking process so it maintains the healthiness of foods. The
uniqueness about Suki in X.O Group of Restaurants, customers can choose which food they
like and then boil it according to their own appetite with two selections of soups such as Tom
Yum or Chicken Stock. The “self-cooking” process will create familial atmosphere during
they dine in X.O Restaurant.
What is Leader?
A Leader is someone in authority to lead others to accomplish a goal(s). A leader needs to be
able to motivate others to accomplish a goal(s) while at the same time encourage others to
work toward their own professional goals.
What is Leadership?
“The ability from a leader to influence group to achievement their goals.”
“The Ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals”
“Leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a
MR. Bernard Says:
“Any person who is more than ordinarily efficient in carrying successful
psychological stimuli to others and is thus effective in conditioning collective
responses may be called a leader’. There is no mention of the characteristics of the
group or situation here.”
What the Leader do?
Direct vs indirect leadership
Direct involve attempt to influence followers when interacting with them or using
communication media to send message to them such as memo, sending email
messages, holding meetings with small group of employess, participating activities
involving employee such as attending training sessions, company picnics.
Indirect Leadership attempt to use memo, email, media, phone to talk and manage
The Nature of Leadership:
Leadership - process whereby one individual uses no coercive techniques to influence
other group members toward attaining defined group or organizational goals
Leadership influence is goal directed - exercise influence for a purpose
Leadership requires followers - leadership is a two-way street
Effective Leadership Qualities:
6. Emotional Stability
9. Human Relation Skill
Managers vs. Leader
Focus on things Focus on People
Do things right Do the right things
3. Laissez Faire
A leadership style characterized by specific instructions to employees regarding what,
how, and when work should be done.
The leader plans, organizes, controls, and coordinates.
Emphasis is on getting the job done without regard for input from others.
2. Employees know the manager’s expectations.
1. Discourages employees from thinking about process improvements
2. Employee dissatisfaction
3. Decline in worker performance
4. Does not prepare employees for promotion or possible advancement
When to use the autocratic style?
1. During an emergency
2. Managing temporary employees
3. Managing new employees
A leadership style characterized by encouragement for employees to share in
the decision-making and problem-solving processes.
General management style
Considers everyone’s viewpoint in decision making
Utilizes team concept in goal setting
1. Employees actively involved in decision making
2. Higher employee morale
3. Stronger employee commitment to established goals
1. Time consuming
2. Not everyone likes to participate in decision making.
When to use the democratic style
1. Managing employees who are committed to their jobs
2. Managing employees who are interested in more responsibility
3. Managing experienced and well-trained employees
Laissez Faire Leadership
A leadership style in which minimal direction and supervision is given to
Open management style
Management shares information
Team (or individual employee) is completely responsible for the
1. Easy management style to administer
2. Complete empowerment for employees
1. Poor decision making may result.
2. Some employees do not perform well without direction and supervision.
When to use laissez-faire
1. Managing experienced, well-trained, and highly- motivated workers
2. Managing home-based employees, outside salespersons
Leadership characterized by shifts in management style as appropriate for
The management style applied depends on the needs of each employee.
1. Management style personalized for each employee
2. Improved communication
3. High employee morale
4. Improved production
1. Time consuming
2. Difficult to manage
When to use situational management
1. Highly experienced manager
2. Manager highly skilled in human relations
3. Employees with range of needs for supervision
Democratic leadership is related with the type of leadership of Mr. Harry because
when Mr. Harry makes the policy, that policy must according to all employees’ view
point. Mr. Hary cannot make his own policy; the policy must according to the
decision of the entire employee in XO Suki.
“The transactional style of leadership was first described by Max Weber in 1947 and
then by Bernard Bass in 1981. This style is most often used by the managers. It
focuses on the basic management process of controlling, organizing, and short-term
Transactional leadership involves motivating and directing followers primarily
through appealing to their own self-interest. The power of transactional leaders comes
from their formal authority and responsibility in the organization. The main goal of
the follower is to obey the instructions of the leader. The style can also be mentioned
as a ‘telling style’
The relationship between leader and employee becomes "transactional" -- I will give
you this if you give me that, where the leader controls the rewards, or contingencies.
The transactional style of leadership is viewed as insufficient, but not bad, in
developing the maximum leadership potential. It forms as the basis for more mature
interactions but care should be taken by leaders not to practice it exclusively,
otherwise it will lead to the creation of an environment permeated by position, power,
perks, and politics.
“Working for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful and uplifting experience.
They put passion and energy into everything. They care about you and want you to
What Transformational Leader do?
Develop the vision
Sell the vision to the subordinate
Find the way forwards
Lead the charge
Transactional vs. Transformational Leadership
“Approaches followers with an eye to exchanging one thing for another … Burns”
“Recognizes and exploits an existing need or demand of a potential follower… (and) looks
for potential motives in followers, seeks to satisfy higher needs, and engages the full person
of the follower” … Burns
As exactly said by Bass – “the transactional leaders work within the organizational culture as
it exists; the transformational leader changes the organizational culture”.
Leaders are aware of the link between the effort and reward
Leadership is responsive and its basic orientation is dealing with present issues
Leaders rely on standard forms of inducement, reward, punishment and sanction to
Leaders motivate followers by setting goals and promising rewards for desired
Leadership depends on the leader’s power to reinforce subordinates for their
successful completion of the bargain.
Leaders arouse emotions in their followers which motivates them to act beyond the
framework of what may be described as exchange relations
Leadership is proactive and forms new expectations in followers
Leaders are distinguished by their capacity to inspire and provide individualized
consideration, intellectual stimulation and idealized influence to their followers
Leaders create learning opportunities for their followers and stimulate followers to
Leaders possess good visioning, rhetorical and management skills, to develop strong
emotional bonds with followers
Leaders motivate followers to work for goals that go beyond self-interest.
In our opinion, the type of leadership of Mr. Harry is related with transformational
leadership because Mr. Harry is very care with the employee, Mr. Harry is often to
give the motivation to the employee, and also Mr. Harry want to learn from all
employee (upper and lower level).
TRAITS AND SKILL
Traits refer to a variety of individual attributes, including aspect of personality,
temperament, needs, motives, and values. Beside that skill refers to the ability to do
something in effective manner.
The traits and skill are also important to get the success of manager, there have some
studies says that traits can predict emergence as an informal leader in groups, some
says that traits predict emergence as an informal ledears in group, and also traits can
prdict advancement to higher levels of management.
In X.O Suki restaurant they also have traits and skill.
1. Adaptable to the situations
Mr. Heri as the manager outlet in X.O Suki have many experience before he
becomes outlet manager, such as as sales person in oil company, as waiter and
Captain in Ice Cream Cocofrio, also experience to be chef, etc, so he can adapt
the situation and his job also not same, waiter, captain, chef, sales, supervisor.
For this experience, he can adapt the situation, it is needed to be leader.
In the experience that he share for us, Mr heri always active to help other
employee, help the job of waiters, captain, and other employee. He want to
other employee can learn from him, although right now he is outlet manager
but he also active work help other employee, he also serving not sit down like
boss, with that the employee can respect him.
3. Self Convidence
To be leader, also must have self convidence, with a lot of experience, Mr
Heri wants to open his restaurant, not just to be outlet manager but to be
1. Diplomatic and tacticfull
Leader also have a good decision making, In X.O Suki. In the meeting to take
a decision, the outlet manager can take decision making not independent, they
can make a disscusion so it will be good to the company, also they have a
tactic for examle working hours they have shiff, it can make the employee can
give 100% contribution to company
2. Fluent in Speaking
In the speaking, the leader must have confidence and fluenty, so the employee
can understand and respect to their leader
3. Socially Skilled
Leader also must to pay attention to society, with the socially skilled can make
the employee works more comfortable, and also can make the customers more
comfortable and can make the customers loyal to their company.
In X.O Suki, the manager outlet given authority by owner to make their
restaurant more comfortable and can make the customers eat in their
restaurant. Mr heri as a outlet manager in branch Galaxy Mall, he make a
promo decision with coorperate BCA Bank such as buy one get one, it can
make attract the customers buy and eat in their restaurant.
STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP BY EXECUTIVE
Leaders is the important things in the company, because the leader is the brain of the
company. Such as in XO Suki, Mr heri is the Leader in X.O Suki restaurant branches
in Galaxy Mall, so the performance X.O Suki in Galaxy Mall depend on him. It is
good or not it depend on the leadership decision and strategy.
How leader Influence Organizational Performance? The managers will choose that the
restaurant they want to, it means that it depend on the performance of the manager, if
he can do good performance it can also make the employee will do the good things
and that also can increase the productivitas in X.O Suki.
To do their action, the leader may face many strong constrain. There have two constrain, first
is internal constrain, second is external constrain.
1. Internal constrains
The leaders disrection can be limited by a variety of internal organizational factors,
for example the manager have a great idea but the employee and the finance of that
company cannot fullfill the idea
2. External constrains
Disrection of the leader include the nature of the organizations prmary product and
services and the type of markets in which the organization operates.
For example : have a disasters
Type of Leadership:
I. Ethical Leadership
a. Some aspects of behavior and motives :
b. Attempts to influence the ethical behavior of others
II. Servant Leadership
- A servant leader must attend to the needs of followers and help followers to be
healthier, wiser, and more willing to accept their responsibilities.
- Servant leaders must listen to followers, learn about their needs and
aspirations, and be willing to share in their pain and frustration
- The servant leader must stand for what is good and right, even when it is not
in the financial interest of the organization
- The servant leader must empower followers instead of using power to
III. Spiritual Leadership
Spiritual Leadership describes how leaders can enhance the intrinsic motivation of
followers by creating conditions which increase their sense of spiritual meaning in
In our opinion, the leadership type of Mr. Harry is related with servant leader
1. Mr. Harry wants to learn from the employee, it means that Mr. Hary want to
listen the followers, for example, if the employee have some ideas or have
some innovations in their job, so Mr. Harry wants to receive and learn those
ideas and innovations.
2. Mr. Harry tries to understand the problems faced by the employee, it means
that Mr. Harry wants to learn about the needs and aspirations of his followers,
for example, if the employee have the problems in their job such as cannot
work optimally, have the problems with the other employee, Mr. Harry wants
to understand the problems and try to solve those problems.
Functional Work Teams
The members of a functional work team generally have different
responsibilities, but they are all helping to perform the same basic function.
The teams typically continue operating for a long duration of time, and the
membership is relatively stable.
In a functional work team, leadership responsibilities are usually concentrated
in a formal leader, although other group members may assist in performing
specific leadership functions.
Cross-functional teams are being used increasingly in organizations to
improve coordination of independent activities between specialized
The teams allow flexible, efficient deployment of personnel and
resources to solve problems as they are discovered.
In self-managed worked teams, most of the responsibility and authority
usually vested in a position of manager is turned over to the team
In virtual teams, the members are geographically separated and they
seldom if ever meet face-to-face. Most of the communication between
members relies on computer and telecommunications technology.
In our opinion, XO Suki is more related with Self-Managed Teams because all
the responsibility and authority in XO Suki done by Mr. Harry as the Manager
and then those responsibility and authority will be followed by all the
employee in XO Suki. Mr. Harry as the manager of XO Suki will make the
policy which will followed by all the employee in XO Suki. As the manager of
XO Suki, Mr. Harry must manage the employee by giving training for them.
Mr. Harry must also evaluate the job of the employee and also the condition of
Sunday, June, 3, 2012 our team decided to interview one of XO Suki manager in
Surabaya, His name is: Mr. Harry Yohanes S.E as the “Outlet Manager” in XO –
Galaxy Mall since 2009 until now.
Before Mr. Harry Yohanes S.E as the “Outlet Manager” the “old” leader named Mr.
Jimmy Candra S.E teach Mr. Harry, before him ready to be “new” outlet manager.
Impartation from the *old* leader
XO Suki Galaxy Mall already has a great outlet leader named Mr. Jimmy Candra S.E.
after working for 3 years, Mr. Jimmy Candra promoted form Outlet Manager to Area
Manager. Before Mr. Jimmy C, become area manager of XO Suki, means that He
must find someone that become his legacy of “outlet manager” so that time Mr. Harry
come to XO, and start his carrier as Supervisor, within 2007 – 2009 Mr Jimmy teach
Mr. Harry to become outlet manager, some of the knowledge that Mr. Jimmy give to
o XO System
o XO Culture
o XO Working System
o XO Characteristic
And within 1 year in 2008, Mr. Jimmy let Mr. Harry to work *alone* for Mr. Jimmy,
He want to see the Mr. Harry performance and if he can pass it, he become the next
outlet manager, finally Mr. Harry can pass it and become new outlet manager in 2009,
as Mr. Jimmy promoted as Area Manager of XO, that hold all over XO in Surabaya.
The Leadership of Mr. Harry
Mr. Harry have lot of experiences that he already have, form his previous job,
sometimes we can say that Mr. Harry is an Expert, but in the beginning of his
leadership, as usual he faced trouble that he never expected before, although the past
two years while Mr. Jimmy “help” him to lead XO, but this time Mr. Jimmy
“disappear”, he must lead XO as his own, here some of the problem that Mr. Harry
Decision Making Process
Lack of knowledge
Decision Making Process
As an outlet manager, for sure that Mr. Harry should take control of the whole
decision for his outlet, and some of decision can’t be decided by his own,
some of decision like employee working hour, employee insurance, employee
bonus, employee sick permit, or outlet renovation, outlet SOP, Plan for the
future, recruiting, training, marketing, promotion, resolving customer
How Mr. Harry Solve this problem
Meeting with his employee or staff
Socialize to his employee (for decision employee)
Transpiration with his staff
Share with other outlet manager
Share with his leader
Up to 70% of XO employee only graduated from junior high school or senior
high school, means that they have less knowledge, the way of thinking, and
also the experience.
How Mr. Harry Solve HR problem
Training to the employee
For the training program
Mr. Harry have his own training program, to his new employee that don’t have
lot of experience, one of the training program with this new employee by
using the simulation, of daily XO activity like: how to welcome the guest, how
to serve the customer, how to arrange the table, how to input the order into
After working in XO Suki for 5 years, Mr. Harry has many experiences such as making the
policy for the company, managing the employee, etc.
1. Making the policy
To make the policy in XO Suki, Mr. Harry must review that policy by himself. All the
employee in XO Suki must agree with that policy because that policy is for all the
employee needs in XO Suki. Mr. Harry must make the policy which is suitable with
the condition of the employee in XO Suki. The policy made by Mr. Harry :
a. The employee must come to XO Suki On Time
b. Shift system for the employee
2. Managing the employee
There are some types to recruit the employee in XO Suki :
- For the chef, waitress, human resource department, marketing department,
operation department, and Finance department, XO Suki will make the job
advertising in the media. (For the chef, XO Suki will train the chef by itself).
- For the security, XO Suki outsource from outside company
The employee must be trained about the product knowledge, operational. From
this training, Mr. Harry can know the knowledge of the employee about the
product in XO Suki and the ability of the employee in operational process of XO
Suki. In training process, the employee must do the working simulation. In
working simulation, the employee must do their job, but not in the real condition.
From that working simulation, Mr Harry can know the knowledge, ability, and
skill of the company in XO Suki.
Every morning all the employee in XO Suki must do the briefing. The function of
briefing is to explain what is the main job of each employee in XO Suki. From
that briefing XO Suki hope that each employee can understand what is the main
job and they can work well.
Mr. Harry will evaluate the job of the employee and the condition of the company.
The function of evaluation is to know the strong, weaknesses, and problems of the
employee and company. After know the strong, weaknesses, and problems of the
employee and company, Mr. Harry can solve the problems faced by the company
and employee, fix the mistakes of company and employee, and make the company
and employee become stronger.
Next Leader Preparation
To find the new outlet manager of XO Suki, there are some methods:
In interview session the candidate will be asked about the knowledge of the company,
skill, and ability.
XO Suki will include the background of the candidate as the consideration to recruit
the employee because the background of the candidate will influence the attitude and
the working process of the employee. The background is include working experience,
family, education, etc.