 Medium and Technique Elements Subject Matter Style Principles of Design
 Medium: materials used by the artists by  which they create their works Technique: refers to how artists use their  med...
   Two-dimensional expressions: pigments    and techniques on surfaces       : it has height and width (flat work)       ...
Boxer Codex
   Pintados – early inhabitants of the    Visayan region who covered their bodies    with tattoos   Barks of trees, flat...
Spoliarium, Juan Luna, 1884, oil on canvas, 425cm x 775cm, NationalMuseum collection
Virgenes Christianas Expuestas al Populacho, Felix Resureccion HIdalgo
   Acrylic – acrylic vinyl polymer emulsion,    a water-based and quick-drying paint;    can be used on canvas or on pape...
Invisible Forest, Wire Tuazon, 2007, acrylic on canvas, 244cm x 244cm
Letras y Figuras, Jose Honorato Lozano, 19th Century, watercolor onpaper, Lopez Museum
   Printmaking – another technique that    uses paper; printmaking techniques    includes relief printing, serigraphy,   ...
Lichonan (detail), Manuel Rodriguez, 2011, etching, 40.64cm x 50.80cm
Woven by widowed B’laan women of Cagayan de Sulu, Mindanao(pandan and buri leaves)
Gemma Perez, Lumban, Laguna, jusi (banana fibers) and piña(pineapple fibers)
   Stained Glass – employs small pieces of    colored glass to form an image;    popularly used in churches   Mosaic – u...
The Call to Arms, The Supreme Sacrifice, and Peace, Cenon Rivera, Mt.Samat Three-Paneled Stained Glass
River of Life, Arturo Luz, Church of the Holy Sacrifice, University of thePhilippines, Diliman
Beautiful Lady, Cedric Cruz, 2012
   Three-dimensional expression: has    height, width and depth       : sculpture is the most prominent form   Wood – co...
Allegorical Harpoon, Napoleon Abueva
Paete, Laguna
Bonifacio Monument, Guillermo Tolentiino, Ambrosio Morales, et.al., 1931
 Metal – includes bronze, brass-casting,  lead, copper Glass – can also be made by assembling  colored bottles together...
Checkmate, Daniel Dela Cruz, 2011, copper, and lead
Passive Multiplayer Online, Ramon Orlina, 2011, glass
Maranao, Julie Lluch, 2004, terracotta, 68.1cm x 71.1cm x 80cm
 Basketry – common traditional art form  found all over the Philippine Mixed Media – combination of different  materials...
Pasiking (backpacks) made of rattan and/or bamboo
Musmos, Imelda Cajipe Endaya, 1991,, Mixed Media (oil on canvas andassemblage mounted on plywood,), 122.5cm x 122.5cm
Sandata Indi Magua Dona, Lirio Salvador, Stainless Scrap Metal BassGuitar Sculpture
   Architectural materials: considers the    availability of the materials       : considers the suitability of the    ma...
The façade of the Baclayon Church in Bohol is made of white coralstones collected from the sea, cut into square blocks, an...
 Organic Materials – such as wood and  grass are also used for architecture Metals – of different kinds were  commonly u...
The San Sebastian Church in Manila is known as the only fully-steelchurch in Asia. It was built in 1893.
San Miguel Corporation Building, Jose Manuel and Francisco Mañosa,Ortigas Center, Mandaluyong City
MRT
   Architectural Technique: the five basic    methods of architectural construction    includes lashed, post and lintel, ...
   Post and Lintel – consists of one horizontal    lintel on top of two vertical posts forming    a right angle   Arch a...
Bahay na Bato
Parish of the Holy Sacrifice, UP Diliman, Arch. Leandro Locsin, 1955
Church of the Risen Lord, UP Diliman, Arch. Cesar H. Concio, 1950s
   Skeleton Construction – dependent on    structural steel and reinforced concrete    (i.e. high rise buildings)   Cant...
Cultural Center of the Philippines, Leandro Locsin
   These are the basic parts of an art work   They are the building blocks of visual arts    and architecture   Basic E...
   Line – is a mark drawn or carved on a    surface; can be a row of similar things    that can indicate direction; can h...
Reclining Mother and Child by Vicente Manansala
   Vertical Lines – can suggest alertness,    equilibrium, strength, formality and    firmness   Diagonal Lines – connot...
Bonifacio Monument, Guillermo Tolentino, 1933, Kalookan
 Color – best element to use for the  expression of emotions Culture is very influential in determining  how people use ...
   Properties of Color:    (1) Hue – is a particular kind of color;    primary colors are red, yellow and blue;    white,...
   Properties of Color:    (3) Temperature – the warmth and    coolness of a hue; cool colors tend to    recede while war...
Kahapon, Ngayon at Pangarap, Edgar Talusan Fernandez, 1990
 The visual element of value is the  interplay of light and dark in an image It refers to the lighting effect on the  en...
Photograph by Eduardo Masferre in “A Tribute to Sagada” album
 Value indicates what the focus or center  of attention of the artwork is It is almost synonymous with  chiarouscuro, a ...
Café Juanita in Pasig (Fine dinning restaurants usually have lowlight orlow value to approximate a mood of romance.)
   Texture is how things feel to the touch.   It appeals to one’s sense of approach or    avoidance   Texture in archit...
Lualhati, Guillermo Tolentino, marble
Torso, Napoleon Abueva
Manila Hotel Lobby (The very smooth surface of marble flooring gives afeeling of formality and opulence)
   Shape are areas formed by boundaries    of line or differences in color, texture and    value   Closed Shapes – those...
Oblation, Guillermo Tolentino,
 Space is concerned with the dimension  of height, width and depth It is the most important element in  architecture Vi...
Philippine Revolution, Carlos “Botong” Francisco (used overlappingshapes and vertical placement to connote space)
Jeepney, Vicente Manansala (creates an illusion of depth by reducingclarity, contrast, size and color intensity of objects)
   This is what the image is about   Examples of image subject matter are    portraits (people), landscape, historical  ...
 Portrait is a representation of an  individual or a group of people. It is usually posed. Portraits are very good indi...
Una Bulaquena, Juan Luna
 Genre paintings show people doing  everyday activities Different from portraits because people  are depicted as activel...
Planting Rica, Fernando Amorsolo
 Landscape paintings show the  panorama of nature They are representations of space,  whether urban or rural Most lands...
Fishpond in Malabon, Fernando Amorsolo
 Historical paintings are representations  of important historical events They constitute history from the point of  vie...
The Assassination of Governor Bustamante, Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo
   Mythology abounds in the visual arts   Religious subject matter is based on    stories and legends from the holy text...
Maria Makiling, Carlos “Botong” Francisco
Brown Madonna, Galo Ocampo
   Still Life is a popular subject matter. It    consists of objects, furniture, interior    domestic settings, utensils,...
Chair with Table and Lamp, Arturo Luz
Nude 2 Ronald Ventura
   How the artists manipulate materials, use    technique, and the manner in which    subject matter is depicted   Repre...
 Naturalism is a kind of representational  art It involves the representation of nature  the way it looks Naturalism is...
Tinikling, Fernando Amorsolo
 Expressionism is a kind of  representational art that does not  concern itself with the observation,  copying, or ideali...
Self-Portrait, Danilo Dalena
Dog Fight, Ang Kiukok
   Cubism is another kind of    representational art, using multiple    perspective, or a view painted from    different ...
Tiangge, Vicente Manansala
   Impressionism is concerned with    capturing the impression of light on    objects.   Impressionist do not paint the ...
Jones Bridge, Emilio Cruz
   Surrealism is concerned with the    depiction of the subconscious reality of    the artist   In surrealist paintings,...
Invitation to the Feast, Ronald Ventura, 2011
   Abstract art are nonrepresentational art   Geometric abstraction is limited to the    use of geometric shapes in buil...
Mutants, Hernando R. Ocampo
 Baroque is the dominant style in  Philippine church architecture It is characterized by extensive use of  decoration an...
Pakil Church, Laguna
 Neo-classical style is usually used in  government buildings Simplicity, order, balance and symmetry  are the general c...
Legislative Building, Manila
   Rhythm is created    when there is    repetition, alternation,    progression or    reduction.
   Movement is seen in the placement on    space of certain elements
   Balance needs to be    achieved to create a    work of art or it will not be    comfortable to look at or    experienc...
   Asymmetrical Balance
   Proportion refers to how one shape    relates to the other
   Variety is also    important to    works of art or    these could    become    boring
   Emphasis    means that    there is an area    that is stressed,    given    importance, or    accented so    that it b...
   Contrast is when you use light colors in an    area of a painting, one can darken one    side to “bring out the light”...
   Contrast,    Harmony    and Unity
03 the language of art
03 the language of art
03 the language of art
03 the language of art
03 the language of art
03 the language of art
03 the language of art
03 the language of art
03 the language of art
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The language of art - visual arts and architecture

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03 the language of art

  1. 1.  Medium and Technique Elements Subject Matter Style Principles of Design
  2. 2.  Medium: materials used by the artists by which they create their works Technique: refers to how artists use their medium The choice of material and technique is always a deliberate act of the artist; it is neither neutral nor incidental Important consideration is in the availability and accessibility of materials
  3. 3.  Two-dimensional expressions: pigments and techniques on surfaces : it has height and width (flat work) : wall-based and viewed from the front : composed of a surface or ground and a coloring or marking substance that is applied to surface or ground
  4. 4. Boxer Codex
  5. 5.  Pintados – early inhabitants of the Visayan region who covered their bodies with tattoos Barks of trees, flattened bamboo reeds, leaves Oil on canvas – most traditional of painting materials and techniques
  6. 6. Spoliarium, Juan Luna, 1884, oil on canvas, 425cm x 775cm, NationalMuseum collection
  7. 7. Virgenes Christianas Expuestas al Populacho, Felix Resureccion HIdalgo
  8. 8.  Acrylic – acrylic vinyl polymer emulsion, a water-based and quick-drying paint; can be used on canvas or on paper Paper – widely used painting surface; made from papyrus or plant fibers such as rice, bamboo and cogon Watercolor – commonly used by Filipino painters on paper
  9. 9. Invisible Forest, Wire Tuazon, 2007, acrylic on canvas, 244cm x 244cm
  10. 10. Letras y Figuras, Jose Honorato Lozano, 19th Century, watercolor onpaper, Lopez Museum
  11. 11.  Printmaking – another technique that uses paper; printmaking techniques includes relief printing, serigraphy, lithography and intaglio Woven Mat – use plant materials that are abundant in the area; banig Embroidery – widespread in the Philippines
  12. 12. Lichonan (detail), Manuel Rodriguez, 2011, etching, 40.64cm x 50.80cm
  13. 13. Woven by widowed B’laan women of Cagayan de Sulu, Mindanao(pandan and buri leaves)
  14. 14. Gemma Perez, Lumban, Laguna, jusi (banana fibers) and piña(pineapple fibers)
  15. 15.  Stained Glass – employs small pieces of colored glass to form an image; popularly used in churches Mosaic – uses small pieces of colored stone (tesserae) combined to form an image, usually on floors or walls Photography – uses technical process to create images on highly sensitive paper
  16. 16. The Call to Arms, The Supreme Sacrifice, and Peace, Cenon Rivera, Mt.Samat Three-Paneled Stained Glass
  17. 17. River of Life, Arturo Luz, Church of the Holy Sacrifice, University of thePhilippines, Diliman
  18. 18. Beautiful Lady, Cedric Cruz, 2012
  19. 19.  Three-dimensional expression: has height, width and depth : sculpture is the most prominent form Wood – common sculptural material Taka – intricately painted paper mache figures Stone – popular sculptural material; marble, granite, alabaster
  20. 20. Allegorical Harpoon, Napoleon Abueva
  21. 21. Paete, Laguna
  22. 22. Bonifacio Monument, Guillermo Tolentiino, Ambrosio Morales, et.al., 1931
  23. 23.  Metal – includes bronze, brass-casting, lead, copper Glass – can also be made by assembling colored bottles together Clay – commonly used for pottery; terracotta is baked clay used for sculpture
  24. 24. Checkmate, Daniel Dela Cruz, 2011, copper, and lead
  25. 25. Passive Multiplayer Online, Ramon Orlina, 2011, glass
  26. 26. Maranao, Julie Lluch, 2004, terracotta, 68.1cm x 71.1cm x 80cm
  27. 27.  Basketry – common traditional art form found all over the Philippine Mixed Media – combination of different materials Installation Art – uses mostly found objects and recycled materials
  28. 28. Pasiking (backpacks) made of rattan and/or bamboo
  29. 29. Musmos, Imelda Cajipe Endaya, 1991,, Mixed Media (oil on canvas andassemblage mounted on plywood,), 122.5cm x 122.5cm
  30. 30. Sandata Indi Magua Dona, Lirio Salvador, Stainless Scrap Metal BassGuitar Sculpture
  31. 31.  Architectural materials: considers the availability of the materials : considers the suitability of the material for the locale’s climate and weather conditions Rock – often used for architecture; includes corals, clay, bricks, sandstone and adobe
  32. 32. The façade of the Baclayon Church in Bohol is made of white coralstones collected from the sea, cut into square blocks, and piled on topof one another
  33. 33.  Organic Materials – such as wood and grass are also used for architecture Metals – of different kinds were commonly used to build bridges and skyscrapers Synthetic Material – such as glass Concrete – considered a hybrid material made of cement, sand, gravel and water
  34. 34. The San Sebastian Church in Manila is known as the only fully-steelchurch in Asia. It was built in 1893.
  35. 35. San Miguel Corporation Building, Jose Manuel and Francisco Mañosa,Ortigas Center, Mandaluyong City
  36. 36. MRT
  37. 37.  Architectural Technique: the five basic methods of architectural construction includes lashed, post and lintel, arch and vault, skeleton, and cantilever construction Lashed – different parts are manually tied together wit the use of ropes made from rattan (e.g. Bahay Kubo)
  38. 38.  Post and Lintel – consists of one horizontal lintel on top of two vertical posts forming a right angle Arch and Vault – usually made of cut stone; keystone, a wedge-shaped piece at the topmost portion of the arch, holds the stone parts of the arch together; arches of the same size placed together form a vault
  39. 39. Bahay na Bato
  40. 40. Parish of the Holy Sacrifice, UP Diliman, Arch. Leandro Locsin, 1955
  41. 41. Church of the Risen Lord, UP Diliman, Arch. Cesar H. Concio, 1950s
  42. 42.  Skeleton Construction – dependent on structural steel and reinforced concrete (i.e. high rise buildings) Cantilever Construction – characterized by a part of the architecture projecting beyond its support
  43. 43. Cultural Center of the Philippines, Leandro Locsin
  44. 44.  These are the basic parts of an art work They are the building blocks of visual arts and architecture Basic Elements: line, color, value, texture, shape and space (all are used to convey meaning in art)
  45. 45.  Line – is a mark drawn or carved on a surface; can be a row of similar things that can indicate direction; can hint at movement and direction Horizontal Lines – can suggest rest, sleep, stability and death; connotes horizons in landscapes
  46. 46. Reclining Mother and Child by Vicente Manansala
  47. 47.  Vertical Lines – can suggest alertness, equilibrium, strength, formality and firmness Diagonal Lines – connote movement
  48. 48. Bonifacio Monument, Guillermo Tolentino, 1933, Kalookan
  49. 49.  Color – best element to use for the expression of emotions Culture is very influential in determining how people use color i.e. “bluer that blue” = sad we “see red” = mad yellow = jealousy / cowards “green with envy” = envious
  50. 50.  Properties of Color: (1) Hue – is a particular kind of color; primary colors are red, yellow and blue; white, gray and black are considered neutrals (2) Value – the lightness or darkness of a hue; color can be made lighter by adding white (tints) and darker by adding black (shades)
  51. 51.  Properties of Color: (3) Temperature – the warmth and coolness of a hue; cool colors tend to recede while warm colors appear to be closer and bigger (4) Intensity – also known as saturation or chroma; the dullness or brightness of a hue; intensity can be made duller or brighter by adding neutrals
  52. 52. Kahapon, Ngayon at Pangarap, Edgar Talusan Fernandez, 1990
  53. 53.  The visual element of value is the interplay of light and dark in an image It refers to the lighting effect on the entire surface area of the work It is the element that creates mood, atmosphere, temperature, climate, and time of day in an artwork
  54. 54. Photograph by Eduardo Masferre in “A Tribute to Sagada” album
  55. 55.  Value indicates what the focus or center of attention of the artwork is It is almost synonymous with chiarouscuro, a combination of chiaro meaning “clear” and oscuro meaning “dark”. Value in architecture can be seen in the material used for construction
  56. 56. Café Juanita in Pasig (Fine dinning restaurants usually have lowlight orlow value to approximate a mood of romance.)
  57. 57.  Texture is how things feel to the touch. It appeals to one’s sense of approach or avoidance Texture in architecture is also very important
  58. 58. Lualhati, Guillermo Tolentino, marble
  59. 59. Torso, Napoleon Abueva
  60. 60. Manila Hotel Lobby (The very smooth surface of marble flooring gives afeeling of formality and opulence)
  61. 61.  Shape are areas formed by boundaries of line or differences in color, texture and value Closed Shapes – those that are self- contained and without any protrusions or projections Open Shapes – shapes with protrusions and projections
  62. 62. Oblation, Guillermo Tolentino,
  63. 63.  Space is concerned with the dimension of height, width and depth It is the most important element in architecture Visual artists try to represent space in a 2D format. To do this, they use perspective, a system of spatial clues, visual clues that give an illusion of depth
  64. 64. Philippine Revolution, Carlos “Botong” Francisco (used overlappingshapes and vertical placement to connote space)
  65. 65. Jeepney, Vicente Manansala (creates an illusion of depth by reducingclarity, contrast, size and color intensity of objects)
  66. 66.  This is what the image is about Examples of image subject matter are portraits (people), landscape, historical events, religious (scenes), literary accounts, myths, surreal images (dreams), nudes, still lives, and scenes of objects from everyday life
  67. 67.  Portrait is a representation of an individual or a group of people. It is usually posed. Portraits are very good indicators of class, social status, race and nationality. Miniaturismo portraits are paintings of the ilustrados showing the minute details and intricate designs of their clothes, jewelry, furniture and accessories
  68. 68. Una Bulaquena, Juan Luna
  69. 69.  Genre paintings show people doing everyday activities Different from portraits because people are depicted as actively doing everyday activities, so that they do not appear to be posing
  70. 70. Planting Rica, Fernando Amorsolo
  71. 71.  Landscape paintings show the panorama of nature They are representations of space, whether urban or rural Most landscapes are meant to show the beauty of nature
  72. 72. Fishpond in Malabon, Fernando Amorsolo
  73. 73.  Historical paintings are representations of important historical events They constitute history from the point of view of artists
  74. 74. The Assassination of Governor Bustamante, Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo
  75. 75.  Mythology abounds in the visual arts Religious subject matter is based on stories and legends from the holy texts of different religions
  76. 76. Maria Makiling, Carlos “Botong” Francisco
  77. 77. Brown Madonna, Galo Ocampo
  78. 78.  Still Life is a popular subject matter. It consists of objects, furniture, interior domestic settings, utensils, flowers, food, etc. The nude is a study of anatomy. The human body is often idealized in the nude.
  79. 79. Chair with Table and Lamp, Arturo Luz
  80. 80. Nude 2 Ronald Ventura
  81. 81.  How the artists manipulate materials, use technique, and the manner in which subject matter is depicted Representational or figurative style – subject matter is recognizable Non-representational or abstract art – made up primarily of visual elements such as line, color, texture and shapes
  82. 82.  Naturalism is a kind of representational art It involves the representation of nature the way it looks Naturalism is a style that adheres to Plato’s concept of mimesis, or the copying of nature Other artists aim to represent an ideal nature (idealized or stylized)
  83. 83. Tinikling, Fernando Amorsolo
  84. 84.  Expressionism is a kind of representational art that does not concern itself with the observation, copying, or idealizing of nature The expression of emotion is the primary consideration of expressionism Colors as vehicle for expression Concerned with the subjective reality
  85. 85. Self-Portrait, Danilo Dalena
  86. 86. Dog Fight, Ang Kiukok
  87. 87.  Cubism is another kind of representational art, using multiple perspective, or a view painted from different angles or vantage points Transparent Cubism – human figure is not broken down into cubes, cones and cylinders
  88. 88. Tiangge, Vicente Manansala
  89. 89.  Impressionism is concerned with capturing the impression of light on objects. Impressionist do not paint the actual objects; they paint the effect of light on the objects
  90. 90. Jones Bridge, Emilio Cruz
  91. 91.  Surrealism is concerned with the depiction of the subconscious reality of the artist In surrealist paintings, images look dreamlike, sometimes nightmarish and weird
  92. 92. Invitation to the Feast, Ronald Ventura, 2011
  93. 93.  Abstract art are nonrepresentational art Geometric abstraction is limited to the use of geometric shapes in building abstract forms Abstract expressionism or action painting upholds the notion that it is the act of painting that is art, not the painting itself
  94. 94. Mutants, Hernando R. Ocampo
  95. 95.  Baroque is the dominant style in Philippine church architecture It is characterized by extensive use of decoration and ornamentation As a style, it generally appeals more to the emotions, rather than to the intellect
  96. 96. Pakil Church, Laguna
  97. 97.  Neo-classical style is usually used in government buildings Simplicity, order, balance and symmetry are the general characteristics of neo- classical architecture They abide by the Greek and Roman ideas about architecture Greek column orders: Doric, Ionic and Corinthian
  98. 98. Legislative Building, Manila
  99. 99.  Rhythm is created when there is repetition, alternation, progression or reduction.
  100. 100.  Movement is seen in the placement on space of certain elements
  101. 101.  Balance needs to be achieved to create a work of art or it will not be comfortable to look at or experience Symmetrical Balance
  102. 102.  Asymmetrical Balance
  103. 103.  Proportion refers to how one shape relates to the other
  104. 104.  Variety is also important to works of art or these could become boring
  105. 105.  Emphasis means that there is an area that is stressed, given importance, or accented so that it becomes the focus of the work of art
  106. 106.  Contrast is when you use light colors in an area of a painting, one can darken one side to “bring out the light” Harmony is when all the elements in an artwork go together in a pleasing manner Unity is when all parts of the artwork contribute to the “unified whole” or have unity and oneness
  107. 107.  Contrast, Harmony and Unity

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