Effective Communication Skiil


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Concept and Objective of Communication ,
What is Communication ?,
Communication Components ,
Four facets of communication,
Why we communicate ?,
How we communicate?,
Types of Communication ,
Characteristics of interpersonal communication: ,

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Effective Communication Skiil

  1. 1. Group No:-1 (Asp.Net) Communication Skills
  2. 2.  Our ability to communicate and the different forms our communication takes are very often taken for granted.  The communication process is fundamental for human survival. It is essential to the development of the individual, to the formation and continued existence of groups and to the interrelations among Groups.
  3. 3.  Communication is as old as human history; many indicators prove that effective communication is the main factor enhancing civilization through history. This is why communication is considered multi- culture phenomena, Ancient–Greeks, Ancient– Egyptians, Ancient–Chinese, Arabs, Europeans and Americans have got their impact on communication.
  4. 4. The Question here is : What is Communication ?  Berelson and Steiner define communication as the transmission of information, ideas, emotions, skills through the use of symbols, words, pictures, figures, and graph.  Rogers says, “Communication is the process of transmitting ideas, information, and attitudes from the source to a receiver for the purpose of influencing with intent”.
  5. 5.  As shown in Figure below, we have a sender who produces a message to receivers Depending on the previous definitions, we can conclude that communication is a process used to timely and properly exchange information between a sender and a receiver to achieve a desired goal. ReceiverSender
  6. 6.  Three are four facets in all types of communication: 􀂄 Sender 􀂄 Receiver 􀂄 Information 􀂄 Behavior
  7. 7.  In any communication: ◦ The Senderis the person trying to communicate a message ◦ The Receiveris the person at whom the message is directed ◦ A message is sent to convey information ◦ Information is meant to change behavior
  8. 8.  We communicate to:  Share our ideas and opinions  Provide feedback to others  Get information from others  Gain power and influence  Develop social relationships  Maintain self-expression and our culture
  9. 9.  We communicate and build interpersonal relationships through: ◦ Speech ◦ Writing ◦ Listening ◦ Non-verbal language ◦ Music, art, and crafts
  10. 10.  A) Process: It suggests that the components of interaction are dynamic In nature. They cannot be regarded as unchanging elements in time And space. This simply means that no single aspect of Communication can be meaningfully understood apart from The other elements.
  11. 11.  Interaction:  It is the process of linking between senders and receivers Of the message.  The process specifies interaction or linkages Between or among countless factors, so that the changes in any set of forces affect the operation of all other processes to produce a total effect.
  12. 12.  The concept of interaction is central to an understanding of the concept of process in communication.  Communication is an attempt to bridge the gap between two individuals through producing and receiving messages which have meanin for both.
  13. 13. Social Context:  Human communication is, to a great extent, influenced by the social context in which it occurs.  The context or the situation that consists of a set of  rules which govern the origin, flow and effect of the messages.
  14. 14. Verbal communication: which includes:  Oral communication such as talking to oneself, dialogue, discussion between two people, telephone calls.  Visual communication such as maps, graphic, traffic signals, advertisement …etc.
  15. 15.  Written communication such as memos, letters reports, papers.  Electronic which is communication facilitated by an interface with a computer, modem, telephone fax, Email…etc,
  16. 16.  Intrapersonal Communication: It is a communication transaction that takes place within the individual, this is the silent talking all of us do to ourselves such as thinking, remembering, dreaming and deciding. Intrapersonal communication is made possible because man become object to himself.
  17. 17.  Interpersonal Communication: It is the process of face-to-face interaction between sender and receiver such as group meetings, interviews, conversations among individuals. It has the advantage of a two-way communication with immediate feedback.
  18. 18.  Interpersonal communication is very effective in influencing attitudes and behaviour. Hazarded focused in its characteristics in that field: ◦ Personal contacts are casual, difficult to avoid. ◦ People are likely to put their trust in the judgment and view point of persons whom they know, like and respect. ◦ Personal communication influence people through what is said and by personal control in which the source is as important as the content itself.
  19. 19. ◦ There is a great flexibility in the content of interpersonal communication. If the communication meets resistance from the receivers, he can change the line to meet their reaction. ◦ In face-to-face communication a person can ask questions, help direct the communication and make some control over it. ◦ In face-to-face situation, there is a chance for quick exchange of information. Two-way communication that gives a chance for immediate feedback to evaluate the effect of the signs one puts out, to correct to explain and to answer objections.
  20. 20.  It is a fundamental human interaction where speech alone is unable to deal with it. It is communication that can occur without words at all.  The sender has at least four main sets of physical non – verbal cues:  face, eyes, body, and voice.
  21. 21.  Nonverbal communication, known as “body language” sends strong positive and negative signals. This is how much it influences any message: ◦ Words 8% ◦ Tone of voice 34% ◦ Non-verbal cues 58% ◦ Message 100%
  22. 22. ◦ 􀂄 Face ◦ 􀂄 Figure ◦ 􀂄 Focus ◦ 􀂄 Tone ◦ 􀂄 Time  Each of these is described in the following slides…
  23. 23. Face includes:  􀂄 Your expressions  􀂄 Your smile or lack thereof  􀂄 Tilt of the head; e.g., if your head is tilted to one side, it usually indicates you are interested in what someone is saying  What message are you sending if someone is presenting a new idea and you are frowning?
  24. 24. Figure includes:  􀂄 Your posture  􀂄 Your demeanor and gestures  􀂄 Your clothes and accessories such as jewelry  What message are you sending if you are dressed casually at an important meeting?
  25. 25.  Focusis your eye contact with others  􀂄 The perception of eye contact differs by culture. For most Americans…  􀂄 Staring makes other people uncomfortable  􀂄 Lack of eye contact can make you appear weak or not trustworthy  􀂄 Glasses may interfere or enhance eye contact  What message are you sending if you are looking at other things and people in a room when someone is speaking to you?
  26. 26. Toneis a factor of your voice  􀂄 Pitch is the highness or lowness of voice  􀂄 Volume is how loud your voice is  􀂄 Emphasis is your inflection  What message are you sending if during a disagreement you start speaking very loudly?
  27. 27.  Timefocuses on how you use time. It is also called chronemics.  􀂄 Pace is how quickly you speak  􀂄 Response is how quickly you move  􀂄 Punctuality is your timeliness
  28. 28.  The face includes frowning, smiling and grimacing.  The eyes can signal by direction of gaze.  The body offers posture positions of arms and legs and distancing.  d) Voice includes tone and speech rhythm.
  29. 29.  The receiver has five primary senses: vision, hearing, touch, taste and smell. There are five functional categories of non- verbal communication:  Emblems movements that are substituted for words.  Illustrator’s movements that accompany speech and accent.
  30. 30.  Regulators movements that maintain or signal a change in speaking and listening roles.  Adaptors movements related to individual need or emotional state.  Effect particularly the facial expressions showing emotions.
  31. 31.  There are some common barriers exist against effective communication. Communication is straightforward. But it becomes complex and difficult when barriers are there. Here are some types of barriers that negatively affect to effective communications. Obstacles of Communication
  32. 32. Language Barriers –  This is one of the most common barriers that can be found.  Many Communication issues can be occurred because of the language and vocabulary differences.
  33. 33.  If the sender and the receiver cannot understand the languages of each others, the communication will not give the intended effect.  Use of unclear and inappropriate words also can make confusions and misunderstandings during a particular communication process.
  34. 34. Cultural Barriers –  There are many communication issues comes through cultural differences. ◦ Age differences ◦ gender differences ◦ economic positions ◦ political beliefs and cultural backgrounds are some of them.  Effective communication between people of different cultures is really difficult.
  35. 35.  Age differences.
  36. 36.  gender differences.
  37. 37.  Same word can make different meaning to people who have cultural differences.
  38. 38. Organization Barriers –  Most of the communication barriers exist in workplaces can be included into this category.  Poor organization structures, some rules and regulations, poor employee relationships, physical separations,
  39. 39. (Continue).. outdated equipments and noisy environment can badly affect to communication processes within the organization.
  40. 40. Personal barriers –  Individual discomfort and perceptions can also make negative impact on effective communication.  If people are not in the same level in terms of their perceptions, knowledge and attitudes; s
  41. 41. (Continue).. the communications between them are not very much successful.
  42. 42.  We need to overcome above barriers to do an effective communication. Here are some things you should follow when communicating with other.  You can easily overcome organization barriers through the establishment of proper communication network within the organization.
  43. 43.  Always take feedbacks. It will help you to determine the effectiveness of the communication you did. Try to keep eye contacts when you are talking to someone or listening to someone. These will help you to resolve many communication barriers.  Chanel barriers can overcome through using proper communication channels. Always try to avoid intermediaries exist in the communication channel you use.
  44. 44. Importance of listening  Listening plays a vital role in communication. Many barriers can be avoided through effective listening. Use below tips to improve your listening capabilities. ◦ Use face-to-face communication and eye contacts ◦ Listen to ideas not just words ◦ Do not interrupt when someone speaks ◦ Ask questions to clarify unclear points of the conversation ◦ Always give feedbacks
  45. 45.  Eliminating barriers completely is not possible. But by knowing the barriers you have for effective communication, you can take necessary actions to avoid them or lower them.  This is all about communication; May be these topics will be helpful to you to improve your communication.