anemia ferropenica

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  • Custom animation effects: video wall reveal picture(Basic)Tip: For best results when reproducing the picture effects on this slide, you may want to use the Snap objects to grid feature. To do so, right-click the slide background and select Grid and Guides. Under Snap to, select Snap objects to grid.To reproduce the background on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then clickBlank. Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background.In the Format Background dialog box, in the left pane, select Fill, and then do the following in the Fill pane: Select Picture or texture fill.Under Insert from, click File. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.To reproduce the first row of squares with animation effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle (first option on the left). On the slide, drag to draw the rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, do the following to change it into a square:In the Shape Height box, enter 2.5”.In the Shape Width box, enter 2.5”.Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Shape Styles group, do the following:Click the arrow next to Shape Fill, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1 (first row, second option from the left).Click the arrow next to Shape Outline, and then click No Outline.Select the square. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow underPaste, and then click Duplicate. Repeat this process two more times for a total of four squares.Press and hold CTRL, and then select all four squares.On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Top.Click Distribute Horizontally.Press and hold CTRL, and then select all four squares. On the Animations tab, in the Animations group, click CustomAnimation, and then do the following in the Custom Animation task pane:Click Add Effect, point to Exit, and then click More Effects. In the Add Exit Effect dialog box, under Subtle, click Fade, and then click OK.Under Modify: Fade, in the Start list, select With Previous. Under Modify: Fade, in the Speed list, select Very Fast. Also in the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Select the first animation effect. Click the arrow to the right of the first animation effect (fade effect for the first square), and then click Timing. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 0, and then click OK.Select the second animation effect. Click the arrow to the right of the second animation effect (fade effect for the second square), and then click Timing. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 0.1, and then click OK.Select the third animation effect. Click the arrow to the right of the third animation effect (fade effect for the third square), and then click Timing. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 0.2, and then click OK.Select the fourth animation effect. Click the arrow to the right of the fourth animation effect (fade effect for the fourth square), and then click Timing. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 0.3, and then click OK.To reproduce the second row of squares with animation effects on this slide, do the following:On the slide, select one of the squares in the first row.On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Paste, click Duplicate, and then drag the duplicate square away from the first row of squares. Repeat this process two more times for a total of four new squares (a total of eight squares on the slide).On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Select, and then click SelectionPane. Press and hold CTRL, and then in the Selection and Visibility pane, select the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth objects (four new squares). On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align Middle.Click Distribute Horizontally.In the Custom Animationtask pane, select the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth animation effects (fade effects for the second row of squares), and then do the following:Under Modify: Fade, in the Start list, select With Previous. Under Modify: Fade, in the Speed list, select Very Fast. Also in the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Select the fifth animation effect. Click the arrow to the right of the fifth animation effect (fade effect for the fifth square), and then click Timing. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 0.4, and then click OK.Select the sixth animation effect. Click the arrow to the right of the sixth animation effect (fade effect for the sixth square), and then click Timing. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 0.5, and then click OK.Select the seventh animation effect. Click the arrow to the right of the seventh animation effect (fade effect for the seventh square), and then click Timing. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 0.6, and then click OK.Select the eighth animation effect. Click the arrow to the right of the eighth animation effect (fade effect for the eighth square), and then click Timing. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 0.7, and then click OK.To reproduce the third row of squares with animation effects on this slide, do the following:On the slide, select one of the squares in the second row.On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Paste, click Duplicate, and then drag the duplicate square away from the second row of squares. Repeat this process two more times for a total of four new squares (a total of 12 squares on the slide).Press and hold CTRL, and then in the Selection and Visibility pane, select the ninth, 10th, 11th, and 12thobjects (four new squares). On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align Bottom.Click Distribute Horizontally.In the Custom Animationtask pane, select the ninth, 10th, 11th, and 12thanimation effects (fade effects for the third row of squares), and then do the following:Under Modify: Fade, in the Start list, select With Previous. Under Modify: Fade, in the Speed list, select Very Fast. Also in the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Select the ninth animation effect. Click the arrow to the right of the ninth animation effect (fade effect for the ninth square), and then click Timing. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 0.8, and then click OK.Select the 10th animation effect. Click the arrow to the right of the 10th animation effect (fade effect for the 10th square), and then click Timing. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 0.9, and then click OK.Select the 11th animation effect. Click the arrow to the right of the 11th animation effect (fade effect for the 11th square), and then click Timing. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 1, and then click OK.Select the 12th animation effect. Click the arrow to the right of the 12th animation effect (fade effect for the 12th square), and then click Timing. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 1.1, and then click OK.
  • anemia ferropenica

    1. 1. ANEMIAFERROPENICAMarcela Alviz NúñezLiliana Arjona GranadosVII semestreMedicina
    2. 2. DEFINICION• Cuando la cantidad perdida de hierro es mayor que su absorción, se inicia el desarrollo de la deficiencia de hierro. Es una de las formas mas prevalentes de malnutrición y explican en promedio 841.000 fallecidos cada año a nivel mundial
    3. 3. Ciclo del hierro Recambio: 60-90 min  10-15 min TransferrinaFe
    4. 4. Ciclo del hierro 2Fe+ en exceso se une a apoferritinapara formar: FERRITINA  Interioriza a través de las fositas revestidas de clatrina  Endosoma ácido  Liberación del Fe.  Fe  Hemo  Receptor  membrana  Transferrina  circulación. Fe
    5. 5. Ciclo del hierro 3  Vm: 120 días.  Recambio diario: 0.8 a 1% de los eritrocitos  Fagocitosis por sistema reticuloendotelial  Degradación de la hemoglobina: globina  a.a. y el Fe pasa a la membrana de la célula RE donde es captado nuevamente por la transferrina circulante.
    6. 6. Absorción del hierro • Intestino delgado. • Ácido estómago mantiene el hierro en solución. • Fe es captado por la célula de la luz intestinal . • Hierro férrico se convierte en ferroso por una ferrirreductasa. • Transportado al interior de la célula por DMT 1 • Almacenamiento como ferritina o liberación a transferrina plasmática.
    7. 7. Datos nutricionales acerca del hierro.• Absorción del hierro se facilita por agentes reductores.• Requerimientos mínimos de hierro: hombres absorber 1mg/dia, mujeres 1,4mg/día.• Dieta: 6mg de hierro elemental por cada 1000 calorías. Hombres ingieren 15mg/d y absorben 6%, mujeres 11mg/d y absorben 12%.• Hierro en forma de Hemo (carnes rojas) se absorbe con mayor facilidad.• Vegetarianos: fitatos y fosfatos reducen 50% absorción de hierro.• Pérdida de hierro: hemorragias, descamación de células epidérmicas de la piel e intestinales.
    8. 8. Estadíos de la ferropenia:Demandas o Movilización de Disminución de Agotamiento pérdidas hierro de los los depósitos de depósitos de ANEMIA superan depósitos del hierro (conc. hierro : ferritina FERROPÉNICAabsorción de sistema RE. Ferritina) <15ug/L hierro.
    9. 9. Estadíos de la ferropenia1. Disminución de hierro: Disminución Absorción intestinal progresiva de las de hierro debe estar reservas de hierro aumentada durante (ferritina sérica < esta fase. 12ug/L) Amplitud de Parámetros distribución de eritrocitarios eritrocitos elevada. normales Indica deficiencia de hierro.
    10. 10. Estadíos de la ferropenia2. Eritropoyesis con deficiencia de hierro:• Agotamiento de los depósitos de hierro. (hierro sérico <50ug/dl y ferritina disminuidos, CTFH aumentada).• Disminución saturación transferrina. Reciclaje.
    11. 11. Estadíos de la ferropenia3. Anemia por deficiencia de hierro:• Anormalidad importante de las pruebas de laboratorio (F sérica, CTFH, Fe sérico, %satHb).• Elevación protoporfirina eritrocitaria• ANEMIA MICROCÍTICA HIPOCRÓMICA = fase avanzada.
    12. 12. Presentación clínica• Las manifestaciones clínicas son debidas en parte a la anemia y en parte a la falta de hierro. SINTOMAS INESPECIFICOS
    13. 13. Síntomas y signos por falta de hierro tisularDependen de lagravedad y cronicidad Queilosisde la anemia Pica pagofagia Susceptibilidad A infecciones Glositis Coiloniquia Fatiga muscular Disfagia Trastornos del crecimiento y el aprendizaje Papiledema
    14. 14. QUEILOSIS GLOSITIS COILONIQUIA
    15. 15. Diagnostico• Se deben separar las pruebas de laboratorio entre las que corresponden al diagnostico de la deficiencia de hierro de aquellas que corresponden a las características de la anemia. En primera instancia se debe realizar Cuadro hemático Ferritina sérica Estudios de la medula ósea Hierro sérico concentración de protoporfirina eritrocitaria
    16. 16. Fases secuenciales de deficiencia de hierro • Disminución del hierro tisular • Disminución del hierro medularI. Diminución del hierro • Aumento del nivel de transferrina almacenado • Disminución de VCM • Disminución de HCMII. Disminución del • Disminución de saturación de transferrina hierro para eritropoyesis • Aumento en la protoporfirina eritrocitaria libre • Disminución de la hemoglobinaIII. Disminucion de • Disminución del hematocrito la Hb En sangfre periferica • Sintomas clinicos IV. Descenso del • Signos clinicosaporte de O2 a lostejidos perifericos
    17. 17. Fases secuenciales de deficiencia de hierro
    18. 18. Algoritmo Diagnostico
    19. 19. Manejo• Luego de identificar la enfermedad primaria que origino la deficiencia de hierro se debe iniciar la reposición del mineral.• La gravedad y la causa definirán el método que debe usarse en el tratamiento.• Ancianos sintomáticos con deficiencia cardiovascular: transfusiones de eritrocitos• Personas jóvenes: reposición de hierro
    20. 20. Manejo Transfusión de eritrocitos Tratamiento con hierro Tratamiento parenteralSe reserva para por vía oral con hierropersonas con anemia en pacientes Se puede administrar ensintomática, sirve para asintomáticos con pacientes que no tolerenestabilizar al paciente, y anemia ferropenica la vía oral y en cuales lasestas mas relacionado establecida, se cuenta necesidades seancon consecuencias de la con múltiples agudas o necesitenanemia que con la medicamentos hierro de forma continuaferropenia
    21. 21. Preparados orales de hierro100-200 mg/ 1o 2 veces aldía, durante 3-6meses.
    22. 22. Cantidad de hierro para cada paciente
    23. 23. ALIMENTOS RICOS EN HIERRO• Marcela Alviz •Liliana Arjona
    24. 24. ABSORCION DE HIERRO

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