Cold War Project By:Lily Moens, Tim Lee, Bradley Wong, and Cole Johnson
Prague Spring1968 Prague Spring of 1968 is used to define the period of time when the government of Czechoslovakia wanted to democratize the nation By democratizing the nation, Alexander Dubcek thought that he could lessen the stranglehold Moscow had on Czechoslovakia’s affairs The Prague Spring ended with the Soviets invading Czechoslovakia, the removal of Dubcek from power, and an end to reform within Czechoslovakia
Prague Spring Analysis • Prague Spring is a relatively hot event, considering its extremely strong political roots. When Soviets intervened in Czechoslovakia, killing thousands and ending reform, it sent shockwaves throughout Europe. Although the event was localized, the impact it had on other regions justifies the high temperature rating.
1950 Korean War The Korean War began on June 25, 1950 when 75,000 North Korean soldiers poured across the 38th parallel It was the first military action of the Cold War The Americans rushed in to support the South Koreans, viewing it as a war against the forces of communism itself Casualties mounted, and the American officials worked toward an armistice with the North Koreans, fearing that the alternative would be a wider war with China and Russia The Korean War ended in July 1953
Korean War Analysis • The Korean War could be considered one of the hottest events during the Cold War. Nations joined the cause, backing one side or the other, and it became an ideological and intensely political war. With multiple powerful countries involved, people believed the world was on the brink of WWIII.
SALT Jimmy Carter, the newly elected American President, attempted to renegotiate the original SALT treaty in the hopes of reducing the number of Soviet missiles1977 Carter and Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev signed the SALT II agreement in Vienna The American Senate refused to ratify the treaty in 1980
SALT Analysis • The SALT Treaty has a relatively low temperature because it was created with the intention of reducing potential violence. It is not completely cold, however, because although the treaty was signed by both the Soviets and the U.S. President, Congress refused to ratify it due to previously inspired suspicions and prejudices.
Helsinki Accords All of the countries in Europe (except Albania), the U.S., and Canada signed this agreement The accords were primarily an effort to reduce tension between the Soviet and Western blocs1975 The agreement recognized the inviolability of the post-WWII frontiers in Europe and pledged the 35 nations to respect human rights and fundamental freedoms The Helsinki Accords are nonbinding and do not have treaty status
Helsinki Accords Analysis • The Helsinki Accords are extremely cold, which can be attributed to the nature of the Accords. The accords’ entire purpose was to keep the peace in Europe, and when the majority of the European nations signed the document, it seemed as if some of the tension was alleviated.
1979 Soviet-Afghan War Uprisings from the middle class and peasantry weakened the newly established socialist government In 1979, the Soviets invaded to defend the government The war turned into a disaster– in 1988, the Soviets withdrew after losing 15,000 troops in ten years
Soviet-Afghan War Analysis • The Soviet-Afghan war was extremely hot due to the various political contributing factors. The Soviets sent in troops to defend not only the Afghani socialist government, but socialism itself. The defeat humiliated the Soviets and increased tension in the Middle East.
Gorbachev’s glasnost & perestroika "Perestroika" (restructuring) and "glasnost" (openness) were Mikhail Gorbachevs watchwords for the renovation of the Soviet body politic and society that he pursued as general1985 secretary of the Communist Party from 1985 until 1991.
Gorbachev’s glasnost & perestroika Analysis • This event is relatively cold because it is just economic, political, and social change within Russia, nothing remarkable to make it stand out as an event in the Cold War.
Berlin Wall The Berlin Wall1961 was erected in the dead of night and for 28 years kept East Germans from fleeing to the West. Its destruction, which was nearly as instantaneous as its creation, was celebrated around the world.
Berlin Wall Analysis • The Berlin Wall is considered a “hot” event because it was a physical division between East and West Germany. This boundary heated the tensions between East and West, which in turn caused heightened conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States.
Vietnam War The Vietnam War was the1959 prolonged struggle between nationalist forces attempting to unify the country of Vietnam under a communist government and the United States (with the aid of the South Vietnamese) attempting to prevent the spread of communism. Engaged in a war that many viewed as having no way to win, U.S. leaders lost the American publics support for the war.
Vietnam War Analysis • The Vietnam War would be considered extremely hot because it was real warfare. There was real bloodshed and death, as well as political and social unrest.
1948 Berlin Blockade (airlift) Blockade of the US, UK and French zones of Berlin by the Soviet Union, intended to force negotiations over the division and future of Germany. It failed because the blockaded powers were able to airlift in huge amounts of supplies.
Berlin Blockade Analysis • This event was somewhat hot because it increased tensions between the US and the Soviet Union greatly. This move by the US completely went against the Soviet Union, and allowed the US to aid the Germans.
1946 Iron Curtain In this speech, Churchill gave the very descriptive phrase that surprised the United States and Britain, "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent." Before this speech, the U.S. and Britain had been concerned with their own post-war economies and had remained extremely grateful for the Soviet Unions proactive role in ending World War II. It was Churchills speech that changed the way the democratic West viewed the Communist East.
Iron Curtain Analysis • This event would be considered warm because, while it was not a real, physical conflict, it was a very bold announcement. The “Iron Curtain” Speech was very powerful since it was spoken by the British Prime Minister, who was accompanied by President Harry Truman. It effectively changed the view of an entire nation in order to truly divide Europe mentally.
1949 NATO NATO stands for The North American Treaty Organization which is an alliance made up of 11 nations in Europe and North America to stop the spread of communism. It was signed in 1949 for the protection of the freedom and security of the member countries through political and economic means. The formation of NATO triggered the formation of the Warsaw Pact, an alliance between communist nations.
NATO Analysis • I believe the formation of NATO was a fairly warm event due to the increased tension between the anti communist nations and the communist nations. • The tension is created as alliances vow to protect those who they are alliances with. The communism nations were pressured to create their own alliance as NATO could overpower.
Sputnik1957 Russian for “Fellow Traveler on Earth” The United States and the Soviet Union entered a space race for the exploration of space. The Soviet Launched the first artificial satellite in space, The Sputnik 1 into space. The launching caused an uproar by the United States in fear of being bombed.
Sputnik Analysis • I believe the launching of sputnik was warm as the launch caused great uproar in the United States. The United states were afraid of missiles and bombsImage YOU HAVE FOUND goes here dropped by Russians. • Tension grew as the Soviet Union defeated the United States in the Space Race with their first satellite, the Sputnik.
Star Wars This is also called the “Strategic Defense Initiative.” The Strategic Defense Initiative was proposed by Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983 as a mean for protection against strategic1983 nuclear missiles. The SDI is a ground and space based system used to shoot lasers at incoming missiles.
Star Wars Analysis • I believe this event was hot because the idea of the SDI lead to the Soviet Union seeing this as a threat. The Soviet Union saw this as a physical threat and a threatImage YOU HAVE FOUND goes here to neutralize Soviet Defense. Tension grew between the United states and the Soviet Union as the SDI could be possibly used as a weapon against the Soviet Union.
1980/1984 Olympics In response to the Soviet war in Afghanistan, The US demanded that the Soviet Union withdraw troops from Afghanistan in One month or the United States would boycott the 1980 Olympics held in Moscow Russia. The Soviet Union did not withdraw and the boycott took place. In response to the 1980 Olympic1980/ Boycott. The Soviet Union and1984 other nations decided to Boycott the 1984 Olympics held in Los Angeles, California, United States
1980/1984 Olympics Analysis • I believe this was a fairly warm event as the boycotting of the Olympics created a tension between the United States and the Soviet Union as the united States disconnected themselves from Soviet Union causing the Soviet Union to follow back with their boycott the following Olympics.
U2 Incident (Gary Powers) On May 1, 1960, A US U-2 Plane was shot down over the1960 airspace of the Soviet Union . The US refused to inform the Soviet of the plane’s purpose and mission until the plane and the surviving pilot, Gary Powers, was brought up by the Soviet Union. The mission was to spy on the Soviet Union and their military bases. This event was an embarrassment to the United States and deteriorated the relation with the Soviet Union.
U2 Incident Analysis • I believe this event was HOT as this was an action taken by the Soviet Union against The United States. Tension was veryImage YOU HAVE FOUND high as evidence of the goes here United States spying on the Soviet Union was present. This was an action that included the interaction of one’s properties.
Khrushchevs Secret Speech Khrushchev makes a1961 speech in the 20th Party Congress belittling and criticizing Stalin’s methods of leadership. The speech was distributed, and led to unrest in Poland and revolution in Hungary
Khrushchevs Secret Speech Analysis • This event is cool on the temperature scale because it did not have an overwhelming effect on military actions. Even though it was part of unrest and rebellion, it was merely a small factor in Image YOU HAVE FOUND these events and was not the goes here sole cause of either. It is not cold because there was a great deal of political disagreements over who should rule Russia because of this speech.
Cuban Missile Crisis Cubans and the Soviets built missile bases in Cuba with the1962 capability to strike the US. This was in response to the US building nuclear weapons in Turkey, Italy, and the UK that had the ability to reach Moscow. Tensions built while each side wanted the other to withdraw their missiles. The countries finally agreed to dismantle and remove all missile bases and nuclear weapons they had near each other.
Cuban Missile Crisis Analysis • This event was very hot on the temperature scale. It almost turned the Cold War into a full scale nuclear war. Panic had spread among citizens of the US who believed they would be hit by Image YOU HAVE FOUND a nuclear warhead. Khrushchev goes here even mentioned that this could be a nuclear war between them. It was only by a treaty that this near catastrophic event ended.
1947 Truman Doctrine The Truman Doctrine is a policy brought about by President Truman in a speech. It was stated then that the US would provide financial and military aid to Turkey and Greece in order to keep them from being taken over by Communist forces. This was the point at which the US became involved in containing the spread of Communism, making this the true beginning of the Cold War.
Truman Doctrine Analysis • This event was listed as cool on the temperature scale. Even though it marked the true start of the Cold War, it was not the source of violence or threat to any nation. While the USImage YOU HAVE FOUND promised it would provide military goes here support if needed, the chance never arose, and they provided only financial support to Turkey and Greece. The Truman Doctrine didn’t cause any serious or violent reactions.
1945 United Nations The United Nations was set up after WWII to maintain the peace. It serves as a place for the representatives of each country to speak and negotiate on entirely peaceful terms. The UN was an attempt at fixing the flaws with the League of Nations, which failed to prevent WWII.
United Nations Analysis • This event was “cold”, and was not at all threatening. The establishment of this organization was intended to keep peace, and was met with very little conflict. It may even be the reason the ColdImage YOU HAVE FOUND War remained peaceful. It goes here provided a place for nations to speak on equal, peaceful terms, and was seen favorably by its participants. It was a step towards peace, not war.
Fall of the Berlin Wall The Berlin Wall separated East and West Germany. It was a physical barrier with guards and other means of preventing people from crossing and migrating to the other side of Germany. Due to the efforts of protesters and the cooperation of other European governments, the gates in the wall were opened and people were allowed through. This was followed by much fanfare, and1989 was a step toward more peace in Europe.
Fall of the Berlin Wall Analysis • This event was cold because it was gained by peaceful protests and governmental agreements. When the wall fell, it was a sign of peace and agreement between East and West Germany, andImage YOU HAVE FOUND symbolized the heightened unity goes here of Europe, Germany in particular. The people were overjoyed at the news, and Germany was more unified than it had been ever since the construction of the wall.
100 120 0 20 40 80 60 United Nations Iron Curtain Truman Doctrine Berlin Blockade NATO Korean War Sputnik Vietnam War U2 Incident Berlin WallKrushchevs Secret Speech Cuban Missile Crisis Prague Spring Helsinki Accords SALT Soviet-Afghan War 1980&1984 Olympics Star Wars Gorbachevs… Fall of the Berlin Wall Events & Their Temperatures In Chronological Order Temperature
Final AnalysisThrough our research and analysis, we found that the Helsinki Accords was the coldest event based on the content expressed in the treaty. Because the sole purpose of the accords was to maintain peace in the post WWII society, there was no evidence of tension or violence. Therefore, we concluded that this event deserved to be named the coldest. In regards to the hottest, we decided that the Cuban Missile Crisis was the hottest due to the tremendous amount of tension between the Soviets and the U.S. The threat of nuclear missiles and the multiple advances the USSR made during the Cuban Missile Crisis sent American officials scrambling, the public panicking, and the world bracing itself for a full-scale nuclear war. The consequences and reactions to this event made the Cuban Missile Crisis the hottest event of the Cold War.