Atom Structure Notes

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Atom Structure Notes

  1. 1. Structure of An Atom Notes
  2. 2. <ul><li>6 Elements that are needed for living things ____________ </li></ul><ul><li>____________ = 96% of the Human Body </li></ul>CHNOPS CHNO
  3. 3. <ul><li>Atoms = ________________________ </li></ul><ul><li> ________________________ </li></ul><ul><li> = has all the characteristics of that element </li></ul><ul><li> = ________________________ ________________________ </li></ul>smallest particle of an element basic building block of all matter
  4. 4. PROTONS positive ( p+ ) Neutrons neutral ( n ° ) NUCLEUS e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e- Electron cloud ELECTRONS negative ( e- )
  5. 5. <ul><li>All nuclei are _________ because of the ________. </li></ul><ul><li>Each element has a different number of _________ </li></ul>positive protons protons
  6. 6. e- e- 2 8 18 Energy Levels NUCLEUS Energy Levels e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e-
  7. 7. 2 6 Example: Oxygen = 8 e- NUCLEUS e- e- Energy Levels e- e- e- e- e- e-
  8. 8. O <ul><ul><li>The # of p+ in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines which </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>element an atom is </li></ul></ul>= the total # of particles an atom Atomic Number 8 15.9994 Atomic Weight
  9. 9. O Atomic Number Atomic Weight then if you ROUND You will get the… Mass Number = the sum of p+ and n ° Number of Neutrons = Mass # - Atomic # 8 15.9994 = + MASS NUMBER Number of p+ Number of n °
  10. 10. O So, why is this a decimal? It is an average of all the isotopes! What’s an isotope? 8 15.9994
  11. 11. The Nuclei of 3 isotopes of H+ PROTIUM DEUTERIUM TRITIUM + + + 1 PROTON 1 PROTON 1 NEUTRON 1 PROTON 2 NEUTRONS Atoms that have the same # of p+ but different # of n ° Definition
  12. 12. <ul><li>Example of Compounds: </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>NaCl </li></ul><ul><li>C6H12O6 </li></ul><ul><li>HCl </li></ul><ul><li>NH4 </li></ul>Substance with atoms of 2 or more elements that are chemically combined Compounds =
  13. 13. Atoms come together when the result is more ________ than the individual atoms stable e- e- 2 8 18 If filled to capacity then it is STABLE NUCLEUS e- e- e- e- e- e- e- e-
  14. 14. <ul><li>How do they fill energy levels? </li></ul><ul><li>1) BY SHARING ELECTRONS </li></ul><ul><li>2) BY GAINING OR LOSING ELECTRONS </li></ul>
  15. 15. Method One: sharing electrons Example: Hydrogen unstable sharing electrons is called &quot;covalent bonding&quot; H e- H H e- e-
  16. 16. H H O stable & happy! H20 = water Examples of Molecules with Covalent Bonding: sugars, fats, proteins, & water
  17. 17. <ul><li>MOLECULE = group or atoms held together by a covalent bond </li></ul>Examples of Molecules with Covalent Bonding: sugars, fats, proteins, & water water
  18. 18. Method Two: gaining or losing electrons <ul><li>An atom (or group of atoms) that gains or loses electrons = ION = (charged particle) </li></ul>If I lose a negative electron then I will become more positive If I gain an electron then I will become more negative
  19. 19. Na Cl Na Cl 11 e- 11 p+ 17 e- 17 p+ + unstable unstable
  20. 20. Na Cl ionic bond Ionic bond = attractive force between 2 ions of opposite charge stable
  21. 21. <ul><li>MIXTURE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of substances in which the individual components retrain their own properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be separated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: chex mix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SOLUTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixture in which 1 or more substances (solutes) are distributed evenly in another substance (solvent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Jello </li></ul></ul>

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