Great barrier reef presentation


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Great barrier reef presentation

  1. 1. Biodiversity in Danger<br />The GreatBarrierReef<br />Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  2. 2. Overview:<br />Introduction to the Reef:<br />What is a reef?<br />Meet the Great Barrier Reef <br />The Problem:<br />Endangered Species of the GBR<br />Causes of the Problem<br />Solutions for The Problem<br />Reef water protection plan<br />Biodiversity strategy<br />Conclusion<br />Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  3. 3. What is A Reef?<br /><ul><li>Coral reefs are diverse ecosystems made of tiny living animals, called corals.
  4. 4. Corals are soft, stationary animals without a backbone!
  5. 5. When the corals die, they leave behind hard structures that are the basis of the reef
  6. 6. Home to 30 different kinds of whales, 6 kinds of turtles, and over 1500 kinds of fish, PLUS sea snakes, sharks, and stingrays!
  7. 7. Home to some of the largest clams in the world!
  8. 8. Microscopic algae live on the corals and through photosynthesis, the corals “steal” nutrients from the algau, giving them their vibrant colors</li></ul>Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  9. 9. Meet the Great Barrier Reef<br /><ul><li>Barrier Reefs are those that form parallel to a land mass, usually several miles away
  10. 10. Found in the shallow waters surrounding Queensland, Australia!
  11. 11. Named one of the seven wonders of the world!
  12. 12. Estimated to be 500,000Years old
  13. 13. It is the largest reef system in the world!
  14. 14. Over 344,400 square kilometers and 1,800 miles long!
  15. 15. 1,200 miles long
  16. 16. Can be seen from space!</li></ul>Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  17. 17. The Problem:<br /><ul><li>Due to many outside influences, Great Barrier Reef is in peril!
  18. 18. It is estimated that by the year 2100, the world will have only 30% of it’s coral reefs
  19. 19. The Great Barrier Marine Park Authority has introduced several plans to help stop this
  20. 20. Lots of the species that are native to the Great Barrier Reef, and only found there are becoming endangered!
  21. 21. Endangered animals are species that are in danger of going extinct
  22. 22. Many of the species on the reef are exclusive to this area, which means when they are gone from the reef, they are gone from the planet</li></ul>Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  23. 23. The Problem: Endangered Species<br /><ul><li>The following are the chief concern of the Marine Park Authority. There are MANY other species in danger as well.
  24. 24. Sharks – whale shark, grey nurse shark, great white shark, freshwater and green sawfish
  25. 25. Marine turtles
  26. 26. Birds
  27. 27. Seals
  28. 28. Whales and dolphins
  29. 29. Dugongs
  30. 30. Shells – helmet shells, triton shells, tridacnid clams
  31. 31. Fish – seahorses, pipefish, sea dragons, potato cod, Queensland Grouper, barramundi cod, Maori wrasse, all other grouper over 100 cm
  32. 32. Seasnakes
  33. 33. Crocodiles</li></ul>Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  34. 34. Causes of The Problem:<br /><ul><li>Climate Change
  35. 35. Pollution – Toxic Spills, and groundings
  36. 36. Over-fishing and poaching
  37. 37. Natural Disasters, such as hurricanes, and tropical storms
  38. 38. Physical Damage
  39. 39. Water Quality</li></ul>Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  40. 40. CLIMATECHANGE<br /><ul><li>Every part of the reef is affected by the climate changes
  41. 41. The water temperature is expected to rise 1.8-5.4 degrees Fahrenheit
  42. 42. Rising climate makes ice bergs melt, which makes the ocean rise, estimates are at 3 mm per year
  43. 43. Causes stress to the very delicate corals:
  44. 44. They become unfit hosts for and discharge the microorganisms which live on them.
  45. 45. Causes Coral Bleaching, which is when the corals begin to lose their colorations
  46. 46. Ocean acidification – Increasing temperatures cause increased carbon dioxide to be absorbed by the ocean waters.</li></ul>Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  47. 47. POLLUTION AND WATER QUALITY<br /><ul><li>30 Rivers in Queensland dump into the waters around the reef
  48. 48. Pesticides and fertilizers run off into these rivers and poison the inhabitants.
  49. 49. Spreads disease among corals
  50. 50. Copper from industries stunts polyp development
  51. 51. Ships take “shortcuts” through the reef, and release exhausts and leak oils that suffocate the corals and other organisms, into the waters
  52. 52. Sediment: solid particles settle into the water and smother the environment
  53. 53. Can result in the reef being buried!
  54. 54. Blocks sunlight so the microorganisms cannot photosynthesize and give the coral their colors</li></ul>Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  55. 55. OVER-FISHING<br /><ul><li>Many species of the reef are increasing in popularity as “delicacies”
  56. 56. Naturally predatory species are over-fished, causing species lower on the food chain to grow out of control
  57. 57. Likewise, if species low on the food chain are diminished, natural predators will die due to lack of food.
  58. 58. Fishing increases pollution on the reef, because of the ships
  59. 59. Many of the endangered species are poached, for flavors, and high rates of pay
  60. 60. Reduces life span and reproduction of species (Keller et. al, 2009).
  61. 61. Nets dragged across the sea floor cause damage to the habitat.</li></ul>Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  62. 62. NATURAL DISASTERS<br /><ul><li>String storm winds and waves break the corals
  63. 63. Increase sea levels!
  64. 64. Dump too much freshwater into the sea
  65. 65. The corals, polyps and all other inhabitants are salt water friendly
  66. 66. Freshwater decreases coral growth
  67. 67. Rising water levels increase run off into the rivers and, subsequently into the sea!
  68. 68. Diluting the salt water contributes to coral bleaching and death of the polyps</li></ul>Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  69. 69. TOURISM<br /><ul><li>Stealing: Tourists rip pieces of the coral, and polyps from the reef
  70. 70. Touching: Suntan lotions and oils wash off and cause damage to the reef
  71. 71. Boats drop anchors in the reef and cause physical damage
  72. 72. Increases pollution, also
  73. 73. Littering: leaving foreign things in the reef
  74. 74. Fishes may ingest harmful matter
  75. 75. Chemicals in the litter can be harmful
  76. 76. Much of the litter does not biodegrade
  77. 77. Propellers hit marine animals, such as endangered dugongs and turtles
  78. 78. Snorkel fins damage corals when stricken</li></ul>Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  79. 79. Solutions for The Problem<br /><ul><li>Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority
  80. 80. Outlook Report
  81. 81. Biodiversity Strategy
  82. 82. Reef water Protection Plan</li></ul>Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  83. 83. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority<br /><ul><li>Manages the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
  84. 84. Employs 15 Advisory Committees
  85. 85. Committed to the long-term protection of the reef
  86. 86. Reef HQ Aquarium – education center run by the GBRMPA
  87. 87. 25 Year plan:
  88. 88. Conservation
  89. 89. Resource Management
  90. 90. Education, and Communication
  91. 91. Research and Monitoring
  92. 92. Management Processes</li></ul>(<br />Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  93. 93. Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report 2009<br /><ul><li>A summary of the status and future of the Great Barrier Reef
  94. 94. Provides a report of the management of the Great Barrier Reef
  95. 95. Summarizes the past and present management of the Great Barrier Reef
  96. 96. Highlights:
  97. 97. The GBR is one of the most extraordinary ecosystems in the world
  98. 98. Key issues to be addressed within the Park:
  99. 99. Climate
  100. 100. Declining water quality
  101. 101. Loss of habitat
  102. 102. Fishing</li></ul>Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  103. 103. Bio-Diversity Strategy<br /><ul><li>Great Barrier Reef is home to a VAST variety of species
  104. 104. No other place in the world is home to as many different plant and animal species living in harmony with each other
  105. 105. It is imperative that we preserve the diversity of this ecosystem
  106. 106. Aims to guide and help coordinate management actions that will protect and conserve biodiversity in the Great Barrier Reef, (GBRMPA, August 2010).
  107. 107. Conserves the diversity of the habitat as well as it inhabitants
  108. 108. Provides a framework for how biodiversity is managaged (GBRMPA, 2010).
  109. 109. Completes assessments on progress
  110. 110. Identifies problems, fall-backs, and prioritizes threats
  111. 111. Manufactures and distributes publications to the public</li></ul>Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  112. 112. Reef water protection plan<br /><ul><li>Launched in 2003, revised 2009
  113. 113. 2 Goals:
  114. 114. immediate goal - to halt and reverse the decline in water quality entering the Reef by 2013 (Qld Gov, 2009)
  115. 115. long term goal - to ensure that by 2020 the quality of water quality entering the Reef from adjacent catchments has no detrimental impact on the health and resilience of the Great Barrier Reef. (Qld Gov, 2009)
  116. 116. Implement strategies on the farms surrounding the area
  117. 117. Enact, Review, oversee and stay on top of policies</li></ul>Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  118. 118. Reef Protection Plan<br /><ul><li>Goal: To protect the Great Barrier Reef
  119. 119. Protects 33% of the reef from commercial and recreational fishing!
  120. 120. Identifies endangered species, and outlines steps to protect them
  121. 121. Allows native peoples to fish the reef
  122. 122. Prohibits removal of any part of the reef or any inhabitant</li></ul>Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  123. 123. Conclusion:<br />The Great Barrier Reef has been recognized as a World Heritage Site. It covers an area larger than the size of Italy. Te Great Barrier Reef is home to a very wide variety of corals, polyps, plants, animals, fish, and more organisms and is more than 500,000 years old. It is imperative that we preserve this treasure trove under the sea. Many human practices are killing The Great Barrier Reef, but through knowledge we can spread the word and help combat the destruction of this natural wonder of the Earth. Please, help, spread the word!<br />Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  124. 124. Works Cited<br />1. "Australia and Oceania." International Wildlife 26.2 (1996): 34. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 28 Sept. 2010.<br /> =aph&AN=9602294069<br />2. Mitchell, Alanna. Seasick: Ocean Change and the Extinction of Life on Earth. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2009. Print.<br />3. Veron, J E. N. A Reef in Time: The Great Barrier Reef from Beginning to End. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2008. Print.<br />4. Bowen, James, and Margarita Bowen. The Great Barrier Reef: History, Science, Heritage. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Print.<br />5. Chaloupka, Milani, et al. "Encouraging outlook for recovery of a once severely exploited marine megaherbivore." Global Ecology & Biogeography 17.2 (2008): 297-304. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 12 Oct. 2010.<br /> =aph&AN=28807648<br />6. GBRMPA. "Biodiversity Strategy." August 2010. Australian Government. Web 30 September 2010.<br /><br />7. GBRMPA. "Outlook Report 2009." 2009. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. Australian Government. Web 10 Oct 2010.<br /><br />8. GBRMPA. "Protected Species in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Australian Government. Web 15 November 2010.<br /><br />8. Keller, Brian, et al. Pub Med Central. Springer, 2009. Climate Change, Coral Reef Ecosystems, and Management Options for Marine Protected Areas. Web. 10 Oct. 2010.<br /><br />9. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. NOAA Fisheries. Office of Protected Resources. Green Turtle, 2008. Web. 30 Sept. 2010.<br /><br />10. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. NOAA Fisheries. Office of Protected Resources. Hawksbill Turtle, 2008. Web. 30 Sept. 2010.<br /><br />11. Queensland Government. "Reef Water Quality Protection Plan." 31 August 2009. Australian Government. Web 30 September 2010.<br /><br />12. WWF - Australia. "Great Barrier Reef." 2010. World Wildlife Fund. Web. 12 Oct 2010. <br /> <br />Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  125. 125. Photo Credits<br />1. Rowell, Andy. “Great Barrier Reef.” 07 July 2010. Online Image. Oil Change International. Accessed 16 November 2010.<br /><br />2. Queensland Tourism/AP. “australia-great-barrier-reef.” 2010. Online Image. Destination 360. Accessed 16 November 2010. <br /><br />3. AP. “Fishing.” 06 April 2010. Online Image. Huffington Post. Online Image. Accessed 16 November 2010.<br /><br />4. James, Debra. “Great Barrier Reef, Australia.” Science Daily. Online Image. Accessed 16 November 2010.<br /><br />5. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. “Coral Bleaching.” 2010. The Age. Online Image. Accessed 16 November 2010.<br /><br />6. Bell, Gary. “Great Barrier Reef, Australia.” 13 April 2007. National Geographic. Online Image. Accessed 16 November 2010.<br /><br />7. Freund, J. “Porites Corals, Great Barrier Reef, Ausatralia.” 02 January 2009. BBC News. Online Image. Accessed 16 November 16, 2010. <br /><br />8. Winter, Kate. “Hatchling.” 15 April 2010. Queensland Government. Environment and Resource Management. Online Image. Accessed 16 November 2010.<br /><br />9. Leguen, Roger. "Turtle." WWF. Onlne Image. Accessed 29 Nov 2010.<br /> <><br />10. "Turtle 3." <br /> <><br />11. Reuters. "Beach whale" 17 July 2006. Baltimore Sun. Online image. Accessed 29 Nov 2010.<br /><br />12. "Dying Coral Reefs." Global Issues in Context Online Collection. Detroit: Gale Global Issues In Context. Gale. Online Image. Accessed 29 Nov 2010.<br /><br />13. Messersmith, Jan. 25 September 2009. Madang-PlesBilong Mi. Online Image. Accessed 29 Nov 2010.<br /><br />14. "Bleach tumblr." 10 Oct 2010. One Green Planet. Online Image. Accessed 29 Nov 2010.<br /><br />Angel Carney, 2010<br />
  126. 126. PhotoCredits<br />15. Coleman, Neville. "Pseudoceros sp. World of Water. Marine flatworms in Focus. Online Image. Accessed 29 Nov 2010.<br /><br />16. "Giant Clam" Northrup and Johnson. Worldwide Yacht Charters. 6 March 2009. Online Image. Accessed 30 November 2010.<br /><br />17. Croce, Peter. "great-barrier-reef-diving." 29 May 2009. Cairns. See the Great Barrier Reef. Online Image. Accessed 30 Nov 2010.<br /><br />18. Freund, Jurgen. "GBR Crown of Thorns." WWF. Online Image. Accessed 15 Oct 2010. <br /><br />19. Australia Indymedia. “shen_neng_1_aground_great_barrier_reef.” San Francisco Bay Area Independent Media Center. Online Image. Accessed 18 Oct 2010.<br /><br />20. Greenland, J. ” DSC04121.” 2002. Australian Government. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. Online Image. Accessed 25 Oct 2010.<br /><br />21. Reuters. “FIJI_1597512c.” 17 March 2010. The Telegraph. Online Image. Accessed 25 October 2010.<br /><br />22. Burke, Loretta. March 2003. “photo_cbleach_sed.” WRI Features. Ed. Peter Denton. World Resources Institute. Online Image. Accessed 10 November 2010.<br /><br />23. Whitsunday Boat Show. 31 March 2010. “GBRMPA” Don’t Touch The Coral. GBR Threats Blog. Online Image. Accessed 30 November 2010.<br /><br />24. 7 February 2009. ” 450px-coral_garden.” The Great Barrier Reef Corals. Visit the Great Barrier Reef. Online Image Accessed 25 October 2010.<br /><br />25. Schofield, Laura. "ozgbr." 2 March 2010. Visit Australia's Natural Wonders. STA Travel. Online Image. Accessed 25 October 2010.<br /><br />26. Hancock County. "Animals of the Great Barrier Reef." Hancock Economic Development Council. Online Image. Accessed 25 October 2010.<br /><br /> <br />Angel Carney, 2010<br />