Quality Management


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Quality Management

  1. 1. Quality ManagementMozilla’s reportLilly-F030936/7/2012
  2. 2. Lilly-F03093 1 Quality ManagementTable of ContentsIntroduction ................................................................................................................................................... 23a. Information made available to customers and the importance given to effective marketing .................. 33b. Benefit of user and non-user surveys in determining customer needs .................................................... 43c. Methods of consultation employed in one quality scheme to encourage participation by under-represented groups ........................................................................................................................................ 53d. Value of complaints procedures and analyze how each is used to improve quality ............................... 64a. Role of self-assessment in order to determine an organization‟s current „state of health‟ ...................... 84b. Stages of staff consultation for effective implementation of a quality scheme .................................... 104c. Propose new systems or modifications to existing systems that could improve service quality........... 11Conclusion .................................................................................................................................................. 15References ................................................................................................................................................... 16Appendix ..................................................................................................................................................... 18 1
  3. 3. Lilly-F03093 2 Quality Management IntroductionAs the new Quality Director for the Mozilla Foundation, which has previously made an in-depthstudy for pertaining to the quality system in the organization, I prepared this report to supportMozilla in implement their quality system. A range of quality controls and assess their benefits tothe customer is reported. Some principles of quality management to improve performance of anorganization were suggested to Mozilla. Hope that this report will be useful for Mozilla and alsofor other users. 2
  4. 4. Lilly-F03093 3 Quality Management3a. Information made available to customers and the importance given to effectivemarketingWhen decide to use any kind of products, customers always want to understand as much aspossible about this. Thus, company need to provide them some necessary information.Mozilla has an official website on which users can access to various kinds of information such asvision, mission, support, about the two main products of Mozilla. From this, customers havegeneral view about Mozilla Company.Beside the general information, Mozilla also allow users to access to the detail information abouteach product. For example: the feature of Firefox in each version.This information attracts usersto use Firefox as their browser. Thus, it contributes effectively to the marketing strategy ofMozilla.Not only the good information but also the information about the bug is also public through theBugzilla application. Bugzilla is a web-based tool that lets users report and look up existingbugs. Changes made to a bugs status are automatically sent to users. This means the informationabout the weaknesses of Firefox also available to customers through Bugzilla. It seems to beunusual, because it can effect badly to decision making of users.However,when public this information about bugs of Firefox, it‟s marketing strategyof Mozilla.Based on the purchasing psychology of customers, the more information they know about theproducts, the more attention they pay to this. Thus, Mozilla provide customers as muchobjectives information as possible. Users will suppose that Firefox hasn‟t perfect, and Mozillaaware of that, so they leaseBugzilla to control the quality. It shows that Mozilla care about thequality. They want find out the bugs in their products by the contribution of customers. Mozillashows that they respect and care for their users, so this will satisfy them.Not only public the information about the bugs, Mozilla also fixes them and notice back to theirusers. Thus, it can avoid customers from the bad psychology of afraid of using Firefox on thefuture. They will keep using this product for the long term to see how this product will beimproved by the company. The increasing in numbers of users of Firefox every year proved thatfacts. 3
  5. 5. Lilly-F03093 4 Quality Management3b. Benefit of user and non-user surveys in determining customer needsMozilla defines quality based on the satisfaction of customers. Thus, to complete their qualitymanagement system, they need to understand customer needs firstly.There are many ways to understand customer needs, but survey is one of the most popular ways.However, businesses need to decide what kind of survey will they use? To whom?Users or non-users?The first survey‟s target is the users of Mozilla. The survey with their users helps Mozillaunderstand their actual strengths and weaknesses. The respondents are using the products, thustheir answers will be relevant. With the relationship of seller and customers, the voice of userswill represent the demand and needs for Mozilla products.Moreover, Mozilla will use internetsurvey as a main tool to do survey, so the people who actually use these two products will havethe opportunities to see this survey higher than others. It meansuser‟s survey has the responserate higher.Beside the user‟s survey, Mozilla can also use non-users surveys. Non-user surveys can beunusual in marketing research, but it‟s also very useful. Because they aren‟t current customers ofMozilla, they will let the company know why they don‟t use Mozilla‟s products. What do theywant from a browser? What do they best satisfy with their current browsers? Etc. From theseinformation, Mozilla can know what they aren‟t goods as their competitors? What criteria effectcustomer‟s using decision? Thus, Mozilla will have the strategy to fulfill the distance betweentheir actual products with the customers‟ need. Moreover, using non-user survey shows thatMozilla care about the customer need. This will make customers want to use Mozilla‟sproducts.Besides the advantages, non-user survey also has some disadvantages such as theresponse rate is low, because the opportunities for non-users to see the survey of Mozilla are low.To determine customers‟ needs, Mozilla should apply both 2 kinds of survey.This will help thecompany find out what are they doing good or bad (user survey) and what they are hasn‟t meetcustomer need? (non-user survey). Even using both will cost much administrative effort and taketime, but Mozilla can take advantages of both two kinds to get the best result in determiningcustomer need. 4
  6. 6. Lilly-F03093 5 Quality ManagementThere are some possible questions such as: Do you use Firefox? If yes, answer user survey, if no,answer non –user survey. For user survey: Are you satisfied with the current browser? Have you ever get crash or trouble with Firefox? What annoy you best when using Firefox? What do you want to change?etc.. For non-user survey: Have you ever use Firefox? What is your current browser? Why don‟t you use Firefox? Do you have any suggestion for change for Firefox? Etc.Using survey, Mozilla needs to consider about the number of question and the contents to beconvenient to respondents.3c. Methods of consultation employed in one quality scheme to encourage participation byunder-represented groupsIn quality management, one of the most important requirements is customers‟ satisfaction. Thus,Mozilla need to understand customer need about their company to improve or maintain theirperformance. The voice of every customer is equally important, but how Mozilla can hear thisvoice from every representative group is difficult.Underrepresented groups are the group of users has little communicate with the company. Theyhave little feedback for company. Thus their influence on the company is low. However, theinformation that this group of users is also very useful for the company, so Mozilla should havesome method to encourage participation by this group.To get the best results for hearing VOC, Mozilla first needs to understand why these people areunderrepresented. For example: the different in language, the communication culture, etc. Foreach barrier, Mozilla can have different solutions to encourage participation.If the differences in language prevent these users from communicating, Mozilla should havelanguage supports for them. For example: Mozilla have different channels that users can givetheir feedback such as Bugzilla, Mozilla blogs, ect. Usually, this channel will be designed inEnglish. But not every people can understand this language, so Mozilla also can have differentchoice in language for users. This will make users willing to share in detail than using thelanguage that they aren‟t familiar with. 5
  7. 7. Lilly-F03093 6 Quality ManagementIn many countries, people are usually passive in communication. Vietnamese people are anexample. They rarely share their feeling or experience with the suppliers. It‟s one reason tobecome underrepresent group. To encourage the group of users have this reason, Mozilla shouldmake them feel free to share. The best ways to do is use people who have the same culture withthem to investigate. For example: Mozilla can build up a Mozilla‟s office in Vietnam, orMozilla‟s official website in Vietnam. People with the same culture can easy to understand eachother and make Mozilla‟s users in Vietnam feel easy when they give feedbacks.3d. Value of complaints procedures and analyze how each is used to improve qualityCustomer complaints can be an opportunity for a business. Effectively dealing with customercomplaints cannot only appease the unhappy customer, but also build loyalty. In the eyes ofmany customers, it is not so much whether a business gets it right the first time - but how thisbusiness reacts to mistakes.Mozilla also understand the importance of users‟ complaints. Mozilla has 10 office centers in 10different regions. However, the complaints procedure is applied the same in all Mozilla‟s centers.One tool that Mozilla‟s centers use to collect customer‟s complaints is Bugzilla. When usershave any problem with Mozilla‟s products, they can report this to Bugzilla. The report will benumbered. The more votes the report has, the more important the crash is. Mozilla will keeptrack of these reports from users. They will fix these problem and email back to the reporters ifthe problem was fixed. Using Bugzilla, the complaints of customers are collected in a systematicway but it costs time and administrative effort from Mozilla. Mozilla Users Bugzilla Assess the Mozilla Mozilla email post their will importance record fixed the back to problem numberred by numbers the reported used if on the post of vote by problem problem problem Bugzilla (code) users was fixed Pic 1: Bugzilla’s process 6
  8. 8. Lilly-F03093 7 Quality Management Pic 2: Bugzilla’s reportBesides Bugzilla, Mozilla also use Internet Relay Chat (IRC) to collect feedback from users.It is a form of real-time text messaging between multiple users at the same time. IRC also allowsone to one communication between connected users. This is the primary form of communicationfor members of the Mozilla community; developers, testers, users, and the like. There are severaldifferent applications which allow you to connect to IRC networks. The easiest to use is an add-on for Firefox called Chatzilla. Using IRC will help Mozilla respond to their user immediatelybut it‟s has no historical record, so it hard for Mozilla in constantly management. Pic 3: Chatzilla 7
  9. 9. Lilly-F03093 8 Quality ManagementOther ways that Mozilla is using to collect complaint to improve quality of products are Mozillaforum or blogs of Mozilla. The availability of many different channels makes users easy toconnect to Mozilla.4a. Role of self-assessment in order to determine an organization’s current ‘state of health’It‟s necessary for the organization to understand its “state of health” to see whether their businessoperation well or not. That‟s why organizations should do self-assessment. “Self-assessment is acomprehensive, systematic and regular review of an organization‟s activities and results,referenced against the excellence model‟‟.(anon, n.d.)Mozilla are engaged in number of activities with an intention to achieve their objectives.However, how can they say that they are performing well? They decided and designed thesystem according to their best knowledge and experience or not? Thus, unless they verify, theycannot be confidence.The assessment needs to be done against the objectives and to determine the extent to which itwas achieved. There is no second opinion about this and Mozilla needs assessments. The QualityManagement Systems, therefore, insist on periodic assessment. The model of Self-assessment is: Pic 4: Seft-assessment processAssessments might be planned, systematic and explicit or unplanned and implicit.There aremany ways that Mozilla can use to do their self-assessment. 8
  10. 10. Lilly-F03093 9 Quality ManagementThe first method is benchmarking.Benchmarking is a tool which allows organizations tocompare with others, to identify their strengths and weaknesses and improve. Benchmarkinggives company a comprehensive view of their current health by compiling metrics of businessperformance. Beside the benefit, benchmarking also has disadvantages such as needing theagreement of the partner for benchmarking. Moreover, even the successful benchmarking; thecompany is still the follower, not the first innovator. Benchmarking costs lots of time, money andeffort.When benchmarking, Mozilla should do with their direct competitor or the best-in-class of thefield which they want to benchmarking (Marketing-Apple, customers‟ services-Toyota, etc). Determine which Identify the key factors and Select the best-in-class functional areas to variables with which to measure companies for each area to be benchmarked (eg: those functions (eg: financial be benchmarked (Apple or marketing or data or markting strategy) Toyota, Chrome ot IE) customer services ) Measure the performance of Specify those programs and Measure Mozillas the company for each actions to meet and surpass the performance for each benchmark being considered competition based on a plan -- from sources such as the developed to enhance those areas variable to find out SEC, companies that show potential for the gap themselves, articles in the compliment press or trade journals Implement these programs by setting specific improvement targets and deadlines, Pic 5: Mozilla’s benchmarking processBesides, Mozilla can also evaluate their business activities by internal assessment.Questionnaires for employees will be prepared in different categories (appendix). This kind ofassessment should be conducted quarterly to ensure that the improvement in performance is kepttrack frequently. 9
  11. 11. Lilly-F03093 10 Quality ManagementOne of the cons of internal assessment is bias, so Mozilla can pay for an external agency to doassessment for more objective results. This method can be expensive so Mozilla only need to doit every 2 years.4b. Stages of staff consultation for effective implementation of a quality schemeImplementing a new quality scheme, there will be much change in Mozilla. Staffs of Mozillacan feel worried about what will happen. These bad feelings affect badly to their performance.Thus, Mozilla should do staff consultation. It will help employees feel more confident. TheAndre Changing Management Model (2012) is suggested for Mozilla: Plan Stabilize Do Pic 6: Andre Changing Management ModelPlan: The planned changes should be prepared for employees. For example: the change is in theorganizational structure of Mozilla, the manager of the company need to plan who and whatposition will be changed. Not only the changing candidate but also relevant employees should bemotivated toward this change. The time pressure (urgency) will push people into trying theirbest. The candidate should be empowered to do some jobs to be familiar with new position.Do: Because new quality scheme will be implemented, some necessary training is needed foremployees. Mozilla can assign supervisors in quality management to train their employees. Allemployees should be trained to commit with the new quality scheme. Some main part of qualityscheme can be conducted by empowered team. The better future when the quality scheme issuccessful and its good effects are used to motivate employees.Stabilize: This stage is to ensure that all employees are engaged with the new quality scheme.Some adjustment should be flexible. Mozilla needs keep motivating and empowering.Repeat: the first stage is repeated by prepare for more changes needed. After that is doing andstabilizing stages. 10
  12. 12. Lilly-F03093 11 Quality ManagementDuring the process, the communication among manager and employees is very important. Thevision and mission of the Mozilla need to be communicated. Eg: After setting up the vision,goals and values, the CEO of Mozilla will inform them to all employees in the company to makeemployees aware them. He can use memos, meetings and newsletters. Besides, CEO andmanagers can use e-mail, intranets and online newsletters to communicate quickly andeffectively with employees. The CEO and every team leader of Mozilla need communicate withenthusiasm and passion.In the new quality project, empowering is effective. Because employees are more close tocustomers, so their idea will be useful. Mozilla should empower their teams to do some part ofthe quality schemes.4c. Propose new systems or modifications to existing systems that could improve servicequalityTo best delight customer, Mozilla should improve their service quality by upgrade their currentquality system. There are some necessary modifications that Mozilla can consider about: 1. Make commitment toward improvement and leadership from the top Edward Deming-father of quality management laid out 14 points for management, one of them is: “"Create constancy of purpose towards improvement". It means that the company should replace the short term reaction by long term plan."End of month quality is the same as beginning of month. It means that the long term benefit of the organization is not sacrificed to hit quarterly targets. (Morgan, n.d) Mozilla should clearly in their vision and mission and make sure that their staffs are all commit with them. The clear objectives will be the motivation for improvement of Mozilla. Mozillas commitment to quality had to come from the top, and it had to be reinforced over and over again. Unless a business views quality as its single, non-negotiable goal, workers will inevitably feel the need to make tradeoffs and quality will slip. Leadership from the top should be applied. 11
  13. 13. Lilly-F03093 12 Quality Management2. Keep track mistakes by SPC As Mozilla define quality by customer‟s satisfaction, the defects in product are unacceptable. Mozilla should keep track on their mistake and defect products to remove them. Currently, Bugzilla is one useful tool that Mozilla use to identify their bug and problem in products. This tool is operating well, but Mozilla should still upgrade this tool to meet the demand of customers. Some ways to encourage participation of under-represented groups such as language support, open located centers should be applied. From these feedbacks of customers, mistakes of Firefox can be kept track frequently. When applying TQM as quality system, every data about the manufacturing process and business activities needs to be recorded carefully. The Statistical Process Control can be used in this situation.Eg: data about the defect products, data about the improvement, the number of users, the financial data, etc. From these data, Mozilla can compare and contrast to see the constancy improvement and have strategy to adjust the process. Mozilla can apple SPC as following steps: Plan: Mozilla identify the problem in the process (Root cause chart) . Plan corrective action against these problem. Act: If the result is Do: Mozilla makes changes successful, standardize the designed to correct or improve changes and then work on the situation. further improvements or the next prioritized problem Study: Study the effect of these changes on the situation. Evaluate the results and then replicate the change Pic 6: SPC’s process(anon, n.d.) 12
  14. 14. Lilly-F03093 13 Quality Management Voice of customers need to be care about. Mozilla should consider it as a source of idea and information. Some current channels such as: blog, forum, website, IRC, Buggilla should be maintained. Other channel should be develops to meet the sharing demand of customers.3. Invest in training and focus on employees Mozilla has few numbers of employees (250 employees in 2011) but huge number of users. It means that the profit that each employee brings back to Mozilla is very much. Mozilla should care much about their employees. Mozilla should create a comfortable working environment for employees. For example the uniform, slogan, logo of the company. These spirit symbols will make employees close together and commit with Mozilla. If in the past, quality of products is controlled by quality department, nowadays “Quality experts recommend that businesses train workers at all levels to look for ways to improve quality and to ameliorate problems.” (Wiley, 2010). It is suggested that Mozilla should train 100% of their employees about some part of quality management or depend on the position of this employee. For example: the IT man will be trained more than the support staff or the cleaner, etc. However, 100% trained employee will help the company operate well when the entire employee can aware of what they need to do and how they should do. The trained cleaner can identify whether the quality process of Mozilla is operating well or not to report to the higher manager. Moreover, the number of employees of Mozilla isn‟t too much, so the training won‟t cause too much difficulty for the company. Investing into training employees can cost money and effort of Mozilla but the benefit it brings back will be uncountable. Training takes on several dimensions. For starters, Mozilla should set up a new-employee initiation program that trains workers to focus on quality issues from their first day on the job. People learn in many different ways. Thus, Mozilla can use a combination of training systems and tools, such as: video, classroom with and instructor, on the job training with managers and key employees, computer based, Self- study manuals. Beside these methods, the supervisors about quality management also provided to support employees of Mozilla. 13
  15. 15. Lilly-F03093 14 Quality Management “Finally, train workers to see the connection between their actions and, more broadly, their work ethic, and the companys overall performance. By tying individual behavior to an overall system of work, and then showing where that system can, on occasion break down, you will be giving workers the information they need to be good stewards of your business.” (Anon, 2010) 4. Empowering employees and team approach Part of the TQM philosophy is to empower all employees to seek out quality problems and correct them. TQM provides incentives for employees to identify quality problems. Mozilla can reward for the employee who uncovering quality problems, not punished. The empowerment will increase employee‟s involvement, thus motivate employees. TQM stresses that quality is an organizational effort. To facilitate the solving of quality problems, it places great emphasis on teamwork.From these above modifications and the current operating ways, the quality scheme of Mozillawill be best support their service quality. 14
  16. 16. Lilly-F03093 15 Quality Management ConclusionQuality management is very important activities that Mozilla need to do for the two products.These analysis and suggestion above is from the fact and reliable information. It will be veryuseful for quality process of Mozilla and also other companies. 15
  17. 17. Lilly-F03093 16 Quality Management ReferencesAnon, 5 Ways to Improve Quality (2010), 2 Sep, [Online], Available:http://www.inc.com/guides/2010/09/5-ways-to-improve-quality.html [2 Jul 2012].BPP Professional Education (2004) QUality Management.Anon, Bugzilla (2012), [Online], Available: http://www.bugzilla.org/ [4 Jul 2012].ChatZilla (2012), [Online], Available: https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/chatzilla/[3 Jul 2012].Cohen, P. (2010) Demings 14 points, [Online], Available:http://www.hci.com.au/hcisite2/articles/deming.htm [3 Jul 2012].Anon, Define quality in terms of businesses and service provisions (2010), [Online], Available:http://www.universityessays.com/example-essays/management/define-quality-in-terms-of-businesses.php [30 Jun 2012].Anon, How to do Benchmarking Well (2012), [Online], Available:http://www.benchmarkingpartnerships.com.au/wIH_benchmarkingInHouse.htm [3 Jul 2012].Anon, http://www.universityessays.com (2010), [Online], Available:http://www.universityessays.com/example-essays/management/define-quality-in-terms-of-businesses.php [30 Jun 2012].Pratt, M.K. (2009) 6 ways to train your employees on the cheap, 10 Aug, [Online], Available:http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/340583/6_ways_to_train_your_employees_on_the_cheap [2 Jul 2012].Quality Management.Anon,Underrepresented Groups (2011), [Online], Available:http://www.blueprintforchangeonline.net/pages/stakeholders/underrepresented.php [2 Jul 2012].Anon,WHAT IS "VOICE OF THE CUSTOMER" (VOC) AND HOW DOES IT APPLY TO SIXSIGMA? (2011), [Online], Available:http://www.businessknowledgesource.com/manufacturing/what_is_voice_of_the_customer_voc_and_how_does_it_apply_to_six_sigma_021706.html [1 Jul 2012].Anon, Why You Should Avoid Benchmarking Against Other Companies (2011), 3 Jul, [Online],Available: http://www.willsbook.net/2011/03/why-you-should-avoid-benchmarking-against-other-companies.html [2 Jul 2012]. 16
  18. 18. Lilly-F03093 17 Quality ManagementAnon, www.blueprintforchangeonline.net (2010), [Online], Available:http://www.blueprintforchangeonline.net/pages/stakeholders/underrepresented.php [2 Jul 2012].Anon, www.businessknowledgesource.com (2011), [Online], Available:http://www.businessknowledgesource.com/manufacturing/what_is_voice_of_the_customer_voc_and_how_does_it_apply_to_six_sigma_021706.html [1 Jul 2012].Anon, www.ehow.com (2012), 6 Feb, [Online], Available:http://www.ehow.com/facts_6197487_importance-self-assessment-organizational-behavior.html[3 Jul 2012]. 17
  19. 19. Lilly-F03093 18 Quality ManagementAppendix 18