recombinant DNA techolongy

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a basic introduction to Genetic engineering, its applications & Genetically modified food

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recombinant DNA techolongy

  1. 1. Genetic Engineering & GMF Sami 05/26/09
  2. 2. Content 05/26/09 <ul><li>Introduction to Genetic Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Process of GE </li></ul><ul><li>Applications of GE </li></ul><ul><li>Genetically Modified Crop </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of GMC </li></ul><ul><li>Risks of GMC </li></ul><ul><li>Labelling of GMC </li></ul>
  3. 3. Genetic Engineering 05/26/09
  4. 4. 05/26/09 <ul><li>Transgenes are inserted by using vectors like : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacterial Plasmids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biolistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Restriction Enzymes & Plasmids 05/26/09
  6. 6. Gene gun 05/26/09 In Biolistic usage, a microscopic gold beads coated with a transgene & shot into the cell with a pulse of helium. Inside, transgene comes off the bead and integrates into the cell's genome through transcription
  7. 7. Medical Application <ul><ul><li>Production of pharmaceuticals: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment of diseases (human insulin & antibiotics). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disease prevention. (hepatitis B vaccine) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Clonal propagation: a source of tissue or organ for transplantation avoid all problems of immunoin-compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Gene therapy: Artificially replace the disease-causing gene with a normal allele. By using a virus vector to the target tissues. </li></ul>05/26/09
  8. 8. Industrial Applications <ul><li>Use of GM MO to make stone-wash jeans & to produce detergents. </li></ul><ul><li>GM MO with enhanced ability to break down environmental pollutants (E. coli to break down cellulose) </li></ul><ul><li>Fast growing Salmon </li></ul>05/26/09 Tomato cell Fish cell Fish DNA Denucleated fish egg
  9. 9. Agricultural Application <ul><li>Addition of Bt gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, as insecticide. </li></ul><ul><li>First whole GM food (Flavr Savr) </li></ul>05/26/09
  10. 10. GMC <ul><li>Selective breading </li></ul><ul><li>slow </li></ul><ul><li>imprecise </li></ul><ul><li>modification of genes occurs naturally </li></ul><ul><li>uncontrollable crops </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden traits </li></ul><ul><li>GE </li></ul><ul><li>very fast </li></ul><ul><li>precise </li></ul><ul><li>we introduce genes into an organism </li></ul><ul><li>increased food security for growth challenges </li></ul><ul><li>complete coding genome knowledge </li></ul>05/26/09
  11. 11. GMC <ul><li>Increase yields & more efficient use of lands </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the tolerance to adverse growing conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced maturation time & Longer shelf life </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the nutrient composition </li></ul><ul><li>Improved resistance to disease, pests, weeds and herbicides </li></ul><ul><li>Improve sensory attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Improve processing characteristics so as to reduce wastage and environmental bills. </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate allergenicity </li></ul><ul><li>Phytochemicals enhanced </li></ul><ul><li>Saves money and promotes higher profits </li></ul>05/26/09
  12. 12. Effects of GMC <ul><li>Production of toxin in pollen </li></ul><ul><li>Newly formed dangerous pathogens, super weeds & super pests </li></ul><ul><li>Triggering of catastrophic ecological imbalance </li></ul><ul><li>Inevitable out-crossing of transgenics’ with natures’ </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown effect on men. </li></ul><ul><li>Domination of world food production by few companies & rich countries </li></ul><ul><li>Having enough but un fairly distributed </li></ul>05/26/09
  13. 13. Pros and Cons of labeling systems 05/26/09
  14. 14. Bibliography 05/26/09 <ul><li>The National Biotechnology Information Facility, New Mexico State University </li></ul><ul><li>The Science and Environmental Health Network, http:// www.sehn.org </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.Bio-Rad.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.inspection.gc.ca/english/plaveg/pbo/pbobbve.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.bayercropscience.com/bayer/cropscience/cscms.nsf/id/OurCustomers </li></ul><ul><li>http:// allergies.about.com/library/blificbio.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Draper, D. (2002). Our Environment: A Canadian Perspective 2nd Ed . Scarborough: Thompson Canada Lmt. </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>

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