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Igf oecd


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Igf oecd

  1. 1. Lilian Edwards Professor of Internet Law University of Sheffield OECD Workshop IGF September 2010
  2. 2. <ul><li>The policy issues before 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty as to liability for emergent ISP sector from 91/96 on </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cleaning up” the Internet seen as vital both for </li></ul><ul><li>public interests – kids, industry, etc - and consumer confidence in ecommerce and Internet </li></ul><ul><li>ISPs are the natural gatekeepers to the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of effective practical control – volume of material </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of legal control (privacy?) </li></ul><ul><li>Inequity - “shooting the messenger” </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences of unlimited liability – effect on ISP industry? </li></ul><ul><li>See early US Prodigy/Compuserve debate – publishers, distributors or common carriers? Some kind of immunity sought. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Two global model laws emerged </li></ul><ul><li>EC Directive on Electronic Commerce 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Horizontal effect” - exempts ISSP from liability for all types of content, criminal or civil ;applies to Information Society Service providers (ISSPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Cf US Digital Millennium Copyright Act </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright only; complemented by CDA s 230 (c) which gave total immunity from publication torts for service providers </li></ul><ul><li>Both divide liability up by functions - Mere conduit; Caching; Hosting </li></ul><ul><li>Limited liability “notice and take down” paradigm for hosted content became norm </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>As in pre-2000 world, enrolling ISPs to achieve policy goals now seen as increasingly vital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright and downloading – moves to enrol ISPs in notice & disconnection; filtering; and DPI/monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child pornography and other unwanted material (terror, gambling, hate speech) – ISPs capable of stopping it by filtering , blacklisting? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malware – enrolling ISPs to identify, isolate & disinfect bot subscriber computers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In first two cases, state and commercial interests want prior filtering, not just post factum notice and takedown - harder for ISPs/hosts, and more dangerous for human rights/lack of transparency/scope creep </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>“ Shooting the messenger” narrative no longer seen as true – some hosts seen as culpable or complicit in wrongdoing for profit, esp in web 2.0 world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg US Viacom v YouTube litigation – though YT won </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eg eBay as site for selling counterfeit goods – cases vary US/EU/UK as to whether “guilty” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ISP and e-commerce industry no longer seen as needing special protections to thrive? </li></ul><ul><li>Filtering is more, tho not very, practical </li></ul><ul><li>But what of human rights eg privacy from monitoring, freedom from censorship? </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Do we still need special immunities for online intermediaries? </li></ul><ul><li>Is limited liability/NTD still sustainable? </li></ul><ul><li>If not what rules should govern when/how filtering can be mandated? </li></ul><ul><li>Do “one size fits all” regimes like ECD still have a place or do we need separate rules for copyright, porn, gambling etc? </li></ul><ul><li>Are new rules needed for “new” intermediaries eg search engines, SNSs, e-auction sites? </li></ul><ul><li>What human rights scrutiny can be applied to liability rules? Are international guidelines needed? </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>1. Rules of liability on intermediaries for libel/(c) clearly have chilling effect on speech – NTD and kneejerk take down </li></ul><ul><li>2. Graduated response policies for (c) go further, restricting basic right to access to Net on allegation, and possibly legal speech </li></ul><ul><li>Due process often invalidated by both 1 & 2 </li></ul><ul><li>3. Rules mandating intermediaries to block adult or unwelcome content for child safety/public interest clearly invite scope creep & non transparent restrictions on speech </li></ul><ul><li>4. 2 and 3 both likely to involve monitoring obligations via DPI etc => breaches of privacy as well. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Enrolling of intermediaries to police malware may also lead to p rivacy violations. </li></ul>