Oryx Vol 36 No 4 October 2002Meat prices influence the consumption of wildlife by the Tsimane’Amerindians of BoliviaLilian ...
2 L. Apaza et al.in ceremonies and as a village icon for urban families forest (An˜ez, 1992; Rioja, 1992; Gullison, 1995; ...
3Wildlife consumption by the Tsimane’exchange, even when fish traps are rarely if ever traded. about the types of animal pr...
4 L. Apaza et al.prices. The design and administration of the house- studied. To estimate the number of adult equivalents ...
5Wildlife consumption by the Tsimane’Table 1 Mean and standard deviation of the consumption and price of game meat, fish an...
6 L. Apaza et al.game meat and fish, i.e. the higher the price of beef, theReferenceshigher the consumption of game and fish...
7Wildlife consumption by the Tsimane’Howard, A.F., Rice, R.E. & Gullison, R.E. (1996) Simulated Reyes-Garcı´a, V. (2001) I...
ox00001107 28-08-02 11:34:59 Rev 14.05The Charlesworth Group, Huddersfield 01484 517077
ox00001107 28-08-02 11:34:59 Rev 14.05The Charlesworth Group, Huddersfield 01484 517077
ox00001107 28-08-02 11:34:59 Rev 14.05The Charlesworth Group, Huddersfield 01484 517077
ox00001107 28-08-02 11:34:59 Rev 14.05The Charlesworth Group, Huddersfield 01484 517077
ox00001107 28-08-02 11:34:59 Rev 14.05The Charlesworth Group, Huddersfield 01484 517077
ox00001107 28-08-02 11:34:59 Rev 14.05The Charlesworth Group, Huddersfield 01484 517077
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  1. 1. Oryx Vol 36 No 4 October 2002Meat prices influence the consumption of wildlife by the Tsimane’Amerindians of BoliviaLilian Apaza, David Wilkie, Elizabeth Byron, Toma´ s Huanca, William Leonard, Eddy Pe´ rez,Victoria Reyes-Garcı´a, Vincent Vadez and Ricardo GodoyAbstract Wildlife (bushmeat or game) is the primary game. The results indicated that the price of fish andmeat from livestock is positively correlated with con-source of protein for most poor households in tropicalforests, and its consumption is resulting in unsustainable sumption of wildlife, suggesting that policy makers maybe able to reduce the unsustainable hunting of wildlifehunting of large animals, even in isolated regions. Asa result, loss of fauna is often a more immediate and for food by reducing the price of fish and the priceof meat from domesticated animals relative to that ofsignificant threat to the conservation of biological diversityin tropical forests than is deforestation. Although the wildlife. Increasing the production of livestock withoutcausing environmental degradation will require long-potential eCects of the extirpation from tropical forestsof large, seed predating and seed dispersing wild term public investment in agricultural research andextension, and substitution of fish for game meat in theanimals is poorly understood, it is likely that therewill be irrevocable changes in the structure and function absence of sustainable management regimes will resultin over-exploitation of riverine and lacustrine fish stocks.of these ecosystems. We carried out a survey of 510households of Tsimane’ Amerindians in the rainforest ofBolivia to investigate how the prices of game and meat Keywords Bolivia, bushmeat, game, price elasticities,tropical forests, Tsimane’ Amerindians, wildlife.from domesticated animals aCect the consumption ofto species that are hunted for food. Hunting of wildlifeIntroductionfor food, rather than habitat loss, is the most significantthreat to the conservation of biological diversity in theWildlife is the primary source of animal protein forrural and urban households in most forested regions of tropics over the next 15–25 years (Robinson et al., 1999;Wilkie & Carpenter, 1999). Unsustainable hunting maypoor nations (Redford, 1993; Chardonnet, 1995) andprovides higher than average annual incomes to hunters cause the local or global extinction of species unique totropical forests (Bodmer et al., 1988; Bodmer et al., 1997;and to many traders (Dethier, 1995; Ngnegueu & Fotso,1998). In this paper wildlife refers to terrestrial and Winterhalder & Lu, 1997; Barnes, 2002) and the irreversibleloss of value these species confer to rural communitiesaquatic animals other than fish, and game or bushmeatand to the world (Bowen-Jones & Pendry, 1999; Wilkie& Carpenter, 1999). Moreover, loss of frugivorous speciesLilian Apaza Departamento de Biologı´a, Universidad Mayor de San will alter the seed dispersal potential of up to 80% ofAndre´ s, Casilla 10077 – Correo Central Campus Universitario, c/ 27 Cotathe tree species, aCecting seed shadows, seed rain, andCota, La Paz, Bolivia.seedling survival (Peres & van Roosmalen, 2002). Over-David Wilkie (Corresponding author) and Eddy Pe´rez Wildlifeexploitation of wildlife species will alter the dominanceConservation Society, 18 Clark Lane, Waltham, MA 02451–1823, USA.hierarchies of tree species and forest composition, structureE-mail: dwilkie@rcn.comand biomass (Chapman & Chapman, 1997), and willElizabeth Byron and Victoria Reyes-Garcı´a Department of Anthropology,have unknown impacts on rates of succession, regrowthUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA.of fallow fields, accretion of soil nutrients and carbonToma´s Huanca Instituto Cultural Aruwiyiri, Casilla 9628, La Paz, Bolivia.sequestration. Unsustainable hunting will also result inWilliam Leonard Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, declines in carnivores, particularly large cats that relyEvanston, Illinois 60201, USA. on game species as prey (Hart et al., 1996).It has been argued that the eating of bushmeat is aVincent Vadez Agronomy Physiology Laboratory, University of Florida,Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA. deeply rooted cultural preference, and proponents ofthis theory cite the willingness of some consumers toRicardo Godoy Heller School for Social Policy and Management, BrandeisUniversity, Waltham, MA 02454-9110, USA. pay a premium over domestic meat for the pleasureor prestige of eating or serving bushmeat (Rose, 2001).Received 29 October 2001. Revision requested 13 May 2002.Accepted 25 July 2002. Others have pointed to the important role of bushmeat1© 2002 FFI, Oryx, 36(4), 000–000 DOI: 10.1017/S0030605302000000 Printed in the United Kingdomox00001107 28-08-02 11:34:59 Rev 14.05The Charlesworth Group, Huddersfield 01484 517077
  2. 2. 2 L. Apaza et al.in ceremonies and as a village icon for urban families forest (An˜ez, 1992; Rioja, 1992; Gullison, 1995; Howardet al., 1996; Rice et al., 1997). However, the Tsimane’ take(ma Mbalele, 1978; Chardonnet et al., 1995; Njiforti,1996; Trefon & de Maret, 1999). Yet others believe that part in markets in diCerent ways and degrees. Remotevillages are inhabited by monolingual speakers of Tsimane’consumers respond to price, and typically choose themost aCordable meat available in local markets or that who forage and practise slash-and-burn farming. Theircontact with outsiders is limited to bartering rice orwhich can be harvested free from forests and savannahs(Bowen-Jones, 1998; Wilkie & Carpenter, 1999; Fa et al., palm frond thatch for salt, metal tools and alcohol.Villages closer to towns have access to primary schools2000; Wilkie & Godoy, 2000).Like most tropical lowland Amerindian populations, with bilingual teachers, and thus many speak Spanish.This combination of proximity to markets and languagethe Tsimane’ Amerindians of Bolivia practise slash-and-burn agriculture and forage for wild plants and game, skills make it easier for them to sell rice and buycommercial goods. From a research perspective, thetypically in lands within a radius of about 3 km fromthe village. Although largely self-suBcient, the Tsimane’ range of access to markets and of household incomeamong the Tsimane’ provides the variance we need toearn cash from selling thatch palm and agriculturalgoods and from working as unskilled labourers in explore how income and meat prices may influenceconsumption.logging camps, ranches and farms. Chiccho´n (1992), Ellis(1996), Huanca (2000), Godoy (2001) and Reyes-Garcı´a Economic theory (Browning & Zupan, 1999) suggeststhat consumption changes with the price of goods and(2001) provide ethnographic and historical accounts ofthe Tsimane’. the price of close substitutes. Two prices influence theconsumption of wildlife: the price of game meat andOne of the largest indigenous groups of lowlandBolivia, the Tsimane’ live in the plains and rainforests the price of close substitutes. All else being equal,an increase in the price of game will reduce the con-of the Department of Beni, where they occupy anarea of c. 1.2 million ha. They numbered 5,124 in 1995 sumption of game meat, and vice-versa. This relationis the own-price elasticity of consumption, defined as(Government of Bolivia, 1995) and 7,385 in 1999 (ViceMinistry of Indigenous ACairs, 1999). Until the late 19th a percent change in the consumption of game meatbrought about by a percent change in the price of gamecentury they avoided permanent contact with missionaries,traders and other outsiders (Nordenskiold, 1924; Castillo, meat. A decrease in the price of another source of animalprotein, such as fish or beef, ought to decrease game1988; Ellis, 1996), but in the 20th century the Tsimane’started to pan gold, extract quinine, tap rubber, sell rice meat consumption if game meat and meat from livestockor fish are substitutes for each other. The relationand pelts, and work as unskilled labourers (Piland,1991). Contact with outsiders increased from the 1950s between a good and its substitutes is the cross-priceelasticity of consumption, defined in this case as theonward. The Redemptorist missionaries set up a Catholicmission in the upper reaches of the Maniqui river in percent change in the consumption of game meat pro-duced by a percent change in the price of another type1953 (Ellis, 1996), and Protestant missionaries enteredthe region in the late 1950s, setting up schools and a of animal protein. A negative cross-price elasticity ofconsumption means the two goods are complements,clinic, and training many of today’s Tsimane’ politicalleaders. Traders from the towns of Yucumo and San and occurs when an increase in the price of, say, beefresults in a decline in consumption of game meat. ABorja started to enter the Tsimane’ territory in the 1970s,giving credit and alcohol in exchange for rice and forest positive cross-price elasticity of consumption impliesthat the two goods are substitutes, and means, forgoods. Highland colonists also started to settle the areain the 1970s (Riester, 1993). Today, the role of Protestant example, that an increase in the price of beef results inan increase in game meat consumption.missionaries as brokers for the Tsimane’ has waned,overshadowed by the increasing autonomy of the Gran When we refer to price, this does not necessarilyindicate that the item was purchased. Price refers to theConsejo Tsimane’, the governing body of the Tsimane’people, which the missionaries helped to create in 1989. value attributed to the item by the producer or con-sumer. All goods produced in Tsimane’ villages haveMarket contact and acculturation into the largerBolivian society have not resulted in social disorganization, value, even if they are not typically sold. For example,if it takes one week to gather the materials and tonor have they caused the Tsimane’ to take part inmessianic movements, as has happened among the neigh- construct a wicker fish trap, the manufacturer of thetrap would typically demand more goods in exchangebouring Mojen˜o and Yuracare´ Amerindians (Riester,1976; Lehm, 1991). Instead, integration with markets for the trap than for another ‘non-priced’ item that onlytook one day to make. The value or price of the fishseems to have induced Tsimane’ to monocrop, depletegame (Ellis, 1996), reduce the length of fallow, mine trap is reflected in the total price of market goodsthat the manufacturer would be willing to accept inthe soil (Piland,1991), and sell valuable goods from the© 2002 FFI, Oryx, 36(4), 000–000ox00001107 28-08-02 11:34:59 Rev 14.05The Charlesworth Group, Huddersfield 01484 517077
  3. 3. 3Wildlife consumption by the Tsimane’exchange, even when fish traps are rarely if ever traded. about the types of animal protein they consume. For theempirical analysis we use the results of a large cross-By determining the value of market goods with a knownprice that would be demanded in exchange for a locally sectional survey of economic determinants of meat con-sumption in households of Tsimane’ Amerindians inproduced good we can assess the value of such non-priced goods. Wildlife hunted by Tsimane’ for con- villages in the Department of Beni, in the forestedlowlands of Bolivia (Fig. 1).sumption solely within the hunter’s household stillhas a value because hunting requires expenditure ofthe hunter’s time and the purchase or manufacture ofMethodsweapons. Hunters clearly value the game they capturebecause they rarely, if ever, give away game meat A total of 510 households in 59 Tsimane’ villages weresurveyed once each between June and November 2000,without expecting something in return.In this paper we contribute to the empirical analysis to collect information on the consumption of the meatof livestock, wildlife and fish, and on socioeconomicof how household income, and the price of game, fishand meat from livestock, aCects choices consumers make covariates of consumption, particularly income and10°15°20°S65° 60°EBrazilParaguayArgentinaChilePeruDepartment of BeniStudyareaLa PazB o l i v i aFig. 1 Location of the Tsimane’ territory within the Department of Beni, Bolivia.© 2002 FFI, Oryx, 36(4), 000–000ox00001107 28-08-02 11:34:59 Rev 14.05The Charlesworth Group, Huddersfield 01484 517077
  4. 4. 4 L. Apaza et al.prices. The design and administration of the house- studied. To estimate the number of adult equivalents ina household we multiplied the number of individualshold survey benefited from experience gained during ayear of fieldwork in two communities: one close (San in an age-gender class by the average value for theirclass (0.83 for men, 0.67 for women, 0.55 for boys andAntonio) and one far (Yaranda) from the town of SanBorja, Department of Beni (Fig. 1), and by a pilot survey 0.52 for girls). All individuals 18 years or older wereconsidered adult.conducted between May and June 2000 in a sample ofTsimane’ communities close to the town of San Borja. Additional variables included median age and medianeducation level of the adult men in the household,We selected villages from all the main Tsimane’regions, including the Pilo´n-Lajas Reserve, Territorio the straight-line distance in km from the village to thenearest commercial town, household size expressed asMultie´tnico, and Territorio Uno, all in the departmentof Beni. After completing a village census we randomly the total number of adult equivalents, and a separatedummy variable to control for the influence of villageselected 7–10 households in each village. We selected atrandom one of the two household heads to answer the level attributes that are fixed or hard to estimate.Consumption, income, wealth, prices and distance to120 questions in the survey, conducted in Tsimane’ andSpanish. According to a census of lowland Bolivian market were transformed into natural logarithms. Toestimate how prices, income and wealth influence meatIndians (Government of Bolivia, 1995), 76% of indigenoushouseholds are nuclear, and thus having one of the two consumption, ordinary least squares multiple regressionwith robust standard errors was used to estimatehousehold heads answer the survey questions was likelyto capture one of the most important decision makers elasticities of consumption (i.e. the regression coeBcients).This statistical analysis was carried out using STATAof the household. Dependent variables were the quantityof livestock meat, game meat, and fish consumed by a (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA).household in the previous two days, expressed as thenumber of kg consumed per adult equivalent in the twoResultsdays prior to the survey. Explanatory variables were:(1) the village price of game meat expressed as the Summary statistics for the household surveys are givenin Table 1. On average Tsimane’ eat 475 g of game meataverage price of collared peccary Tayassu tajacu, agoutiDasyprocta spp. and red brocket deer Mazama americana per adult equivalent per day compared with 310 g offish and 250 g of beef. Fish is the least expensive meatin Bolivianos per kg, (2) the average village price of threecommon fish species in Bolivianos per kg, and (3) the and livestock the most expensive meat.The price of game meat and its substitutes (fishvillage price of beef in Bolivianos per kg. Householdincome was assessed as the total earnings from wage and beef) influence consumption of game meat (i.e. theown- and cross-price elasticities of demand). The mostlabour, the sale of goods, and the value of all itemsobtained through barter in the two weeks before the important finding is the strong influence that the priceof beef has on the consumption of game meat and fish,survey. Household wealth was assessed by calculatingthe total value of a standard set of items owned by with the regression coeBcient indicating that a doublingin the price of beef increases consumption of gamethe household. These items included modern assets(machete, bicycle, axe, knives, mosquito nets, shotguns, meat by 744% (Table 2), and increases consumption offish by 133%. A doubling in the price of fish increasesrifles and fish hooks) and traditional assets (canoes,cows, bows, ducks, pigs, hens, woven bags and sling- consumption of game by 146%.The consumption of beef and game meat, but not ofshots). Both income and wealth were expressed in termsof adult equivalents. fish, respond to their own prices (Table 2). A doublingin the price of game meat reduces its consumption byAdult equivalents were determined based on esti-mated daily food energy requirements (kcal per day) of 114% and a doubling in the price of livestock reducesconsumption of beef by 382%. Income and wealth appearindividuals of diCerent age and gender. These energyequirements were calculated using the most recent to play a minimal and statistically insignificant role inthe consumption of game meat, fish and beef (Table 2).WHO protocol (James & Schofield, 1990) and the age-and sex-specific anthropometric data we collected on1,329 Tsimane’ in the Department of Beni. The WHODiscussionmethod determines energy need based on body size andtypical activity levels. This approach is preferable to The population of Bolivia has grown from 1.3 millionin 1830 to over 8 million in 2000 (Universiteit Utrecht,other commonly used methods for determining adultequivalents because it provides an index of relative 2002), and the data collected during our censuses suggestthat the Tsimane’ population is increasing at 4.8%,diCerences in biological needs, and it reflects the ageand sex diCerences in the particular population being over twice the national rate of 2.1%. We know that© 2002 FFI, Oryx, 36(4), 000–000ox00001107 28-08-02 11:34:59 Rev 14.05The Charlesworth Group, Huddersfield 01484 517077
  5. 5. 5Wildlife consumption by the Tsimane’Table 1 Mean and standard deviation of the consumption and price of game meat, fish and livestock meat, and attributes of individualhouseholds (number of adults, age of adult men, years of education of adult men, income and wealth) and villages (distance to nearest town)derived from a survey of a total of 510 Tsimane’ households in 59 villages in 2000. See text for explanation of units.Variable Mean SD UnitsGame meat consumption (in last 2 days) 0.95 2.77 kg per adult equivalentFish consumption (in last 2 days) 0.62 3.15 kg per adult equivalentLivestock meat consumption (in last 2 days) 0.50 2.29 kg per adult equivalentPrice of bushmeat 8.23 1.42 Bolivianos per kgPrice of fish 7.44 1.46 Bolivianos per kgPrice of livestock meat 12.79 1.24 Bolivianos per kgHousehold size 4.03 1.86 Number of adult equivalents in householdMedian age 34.40 13.18 Median age of adult men in householdMedian education 1.31 1.95 Median years of education of adult men in householdIncome 25.17 3.93 Bolivianos earned per adult equivalent in last two weeksWealth 485.82 1.90 Value of assets owned per adult equivalent in BolivianosDistance 24.77 3.03 Distance to nearest commercial town in kmthe carrying capacity of forests for people that rely on the Tsimane’ diet, and that increasingly consumption ofbeef, pork and chicken must substitute for game meat,wildlife for food is, even under the most productivecircumstances, unlikely to exceed one person per km2 if wildlife are to remain in the Tsimane’ forests inthe future.(Robinson & Bennett, 2000). If we assume that theTsimane’ population is c. 7,500, then population density The situation is even more striking in Africa, wherethe number of consumers has increased from 100 millionexceeds six people per km2. This suggests that wild-life cannot sustainably supply the bulk of meat in in 1900, to over 800 million in 2000, and is expected toreach 1.6 billion in less than 25 years. Habitat for wildlifein Africa has declined since 1900 and demand for meatTable 2 Results of multiple regression analyses of the influence of has probably increased over 8-fold since that time. Givenprices, income and wealth on meat consumption. All variablesthese combined factors, it is highly unlikely that wildlifewere transformed to natural logarithms prior to analysis. Controlproduction is suBcient today to provide the majority ofvariables were household size, median years of education and ageAfrican households with a significant portion of theirof adult men in the household, distance from village to town, and adummy variable for village (see text for details). animal protein, and wildlife populations are certainlynot growing as rapidly as the demand for meat (WilkieDependent variable – meat consumption& Carpenter, 1999; Barnes, 2002).Human populations in tropical forests and demandExplanatory variable Game meat Fish Livestock meatfor meat are increasing faster than forest wildlife popu-Game meat price b=−1.145 b=−0.058 b=0.332 lations can sustainably supply. Consumption of livestockt=−2.85 t=−0.16 t=0.44 must increase, relative to consumption of game meat, ifP=0.005 P=0.870 P=0.657demand for meat is to be fulfilled without depleting theFish price b=1.464 b=−0.042 b=−0.331 forests of wildlife. It has been argued that persuadingt=2.82 t=−0.18 t=−0.69consumers of game meat to switch to eating the meatP=0.005 P=0.859 P=0.494of livestock will be diBcult if cultural preferencesLivestock meat price b=7.446 b=1.336 b=−3.823 primarily determine consumption patterns and if pricest=5.45 t=2.78 t=−2.07play a minor role in consumption (ma Mbalele, 1978;P=0.000 P=0.006 P=0.041Chardonnet et al., 1995; Njiforti, 1996; Trefon & de Maret,Income b=−0.010 b=0.003 b=−0.1221999). The results of our study suggest that meat pricest=−0.18 t=0.07 t=−2.22are important and that even relatively isolated con-P=0.854 P=0.943 P=0.029sumers who live in close proximity to wildlife, suchWealth b=0.061 b=0.130 b=0.026as the Tsimane’, are sensitive to price changes whent=0.52 t=1.11 t=0.24making decisions about meat consumption. As the priceP=0.603 P=0.270 P=0.809of game meat rises, Tsimane’ curtail their consumptionn 285 297 169of wildlife. More importantly, the price of beef has aR2 0.39 0.41 0.39strong positive correlation with the consumption of© 2002 FFI, Oryx, 36(4), 000–000ox00001107 28-08-02 11:34:59 Rev 14.05The Charlesworth Group, Huddersfield 01484 517077
  6. 6. 6 L. Apaza et al.game meat and fish, i.e. the higher the price of beef, theReferenceshigher the consumption of game and fish.Anderson, J.R., Pardey, P.G. & Roseboom, J. (1994) SustainingThese results suggests that lowering the price of beefgrowth in agriculture – a quantiative review of agriculturalwill have strong, desirable eCects on the consumption ofresearch investments. Agricultural Economics, 10, 107–123.wildlife and fish, both of which are prone to unsustain-An˜ez, J. (1992) The Chimane experience in selling jatata. Inable harvesting. These results bolster preliminary find- Sustainable Harvest and Marketing of Rain Forest Productsings from a study of four Amerindian groups in Bolivia (eds M.J. Plotkin & L. Famolare), pp. 197–198. Island Press,and one in Honduras (Wilkie & Godoy, 2001), and Washington DC, USA.Barnes, R.F.W. (2002) The bushmeat boom and bust in Westsupport the conclusions of studies in Cameroon (Tambi,and Central Africa. Oryx, 36, 236–242.1996; Nzouango & Willcox, 2001) and preliminary findingsBodmer, R.E., Fang, T.G. & Moya, I. (1988) Primates andin Gabon (Nsame ECa, unpub. data).ungulates: a comparison of susceptibility to hunting. PrimateDemonstrating that consumption of game meat isConservation, 9, 79–83.sensitive to the price of meat from livestock has policy Bodmer, R.E., Eisenberg, J.F. & Redford, K.H. (1997) Huntingramifications for curbing or halting the unsustainable and the likelihood of extinction of Amazonian mammals.hunting of wildlife for food. Results strongly suggest Conservation Biology, 11, 460–466.Bowen-Jones, E. (1998) The African Bushmeat Trade – A Recipe forthat increasing consumer access to and reducing theExtinction. Unpublished Report. Ape Alliance/Fauna & Floraprice of livestock meat is likely to diminish demand forInternational, Cambridge, UK.game meat and consequently reduce or halt unsustain-Bowen-Jones, E. & Pendry, S. (1999) The threat to primates andable hunting of wildlife for food. To reduce the priceother mammals from the bushmeat trade in Africa, and howof livestock, governments in developing nations may this threat could be diminished. Oryx, 33, 233–246.need to make greater public investment in primary and Browning, E.K. & Zupan, M.A. (1999) Microeconomic Theory andApplications. Addison Wesley Publishing, Reading, USA.applied research and in extension services to encourageCastillo, F. (1988) Chimanes, Cambas Y Collas. Don Boston,adoption of technologies that allow livestock to fulfillLa Paz, Bolivia.multiple simultaneous roles, i.e. savings, insurance, foodChapman, C.A. & Chapman, L.J. (1997) Forest regeneration inand income. Such technologies will need to increase thelogged and unlogged forests of Kibale National Park,productivity of meat and lower its price for consumers Uganda. Biotropica, 29, 390–412.and at the same time must not have undesirable eCects, Chardonnet, P. (1995) Faune sauvage africaine: la ressource oublie´e.such as increasing deforestation for development of International Game Foundation, CIRAD-EMVT, Luxembourg.Chardonnet, P., Fritz, H., Zorzi, N. & Feron, E. (1995) Currentgrazing lands.importance of traditional hunting and major contrasts inIf agricultural research and extension are to help solvewild meat consumption in sub-saharan Africa. In Integratingthe bushmeat crisis, donors and developing nation govern-People and Wildlife for a Sustainable Future (eds J.A. Bissonettements must reverse the downward trend in agricultural & P.R. Krausman), pp. 304–307. The Wildlife Society,research and development spending. Although the total Bethesda, USA.number of agricultural sector researchers has increased, Chiccho´n, A. (1992) Chimane resource use and market involvementin the Beni Biosphere Reserve, Bolivia. PhD thesis, University ofdependence on expatriates declined, and the educationalFlorida, Gainesville, USA.levels of national researchers has risen in Africa andDethier, M. (1995) Etude chasse. ECOFAC, Yaounde´, Cameroon.other developing regions of the world (Pardey et al.,Ellis, R. (1996) A taste for movement: an exploration of the social1997), total spending on arable and livestock researchethics of the Tsimanes of lowland Bolivia. PhD thesis,and development has declined in most developing St Andrews University, St Andrews, UK.nations in the past 30 years (Anderson et al., 1994). Fa, J.E., Yuste, J.E.G. & Castelo, R. (2000) Bushmeat markets onThis is in contrast to agricultural research spending in Bioko Island as a measure of hunting pressure. ConservationBiology, 14, 1602–1613.developed nations. Since 1960 this has, for example,Godoy, R.A. (2001) Indians, Markets, and Rain Forests: Theory,doubled in relation to the size of the agricultural sectorMethods, Analysis. Columbia University Press, New York,in the US, and risen almost four-fold in Australia (PardeyUSA.& Alston, 1995).Government of Bolivia (1995) Censo Indı´gena del Oriente, Chaco yAmazonı´a. Secretarı´a de Asuntos Etnicos, de Genero yGeneracionales, Ministry of Human Development,Government of Bolivia, La Paz, Bolivia.Acknowledgements Gullison, R.E. (1995) Conservation of tropical forests through thesustainable production of forest products: the case of mahoganyWe would like to thank Carlos Peres and an anonymous(Swietenia macrophylla King) in the Chimanes Forest, Beni,reviewer for their helpful and constructive comments.Bolivia. PhD thesis, Princeton University, USA.This study was financed by the Cultural Anthropology Hart, J.A., Katembo, M. & Punga, K. (1996) Diet, prey selectionProgram of the National Science Foundation, USA and ecological relations of leopard and golden cat in the IturiForest, Zaire. 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