Listening Comprehension Macroskill


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Listening Comprehension Macroskill

  1. 1. LISTENING COMPREHENSION. Prof. Estela N. Braun, UNLPam 2009. Facultad de Ciencias Humanas Universidad Nacional de La Pampa
  2. 2. Class 1:10/22/09 <ul><li>A) Syllabus Analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>B) Recognizing how we listen: TDI Douglas Brown. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives: <ul><li>At the end of this class you will be able to understand: </li></ul><ul><li>What listening is. </li></ul><ul><li>Why it is important in language learning. </li></ul><ul><li>The role of background knowledge and schema. </li></ul><ul><li>Top-down and bottom-up activitities. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is LISTENING? <ul><li>Listening is a complex ability. </li></ul><ul><li>It involves more than just hearing language. </li></ul><ul><li>Listening is the ability to receive, attend to, interpret and respond emotionally to verbal messages. When we listen, we use more than language. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Non-verbal cues. <ul><li>Body language. </li></ul><ul><li>Background knowledge–knowledge about the situation, the speakers, their goals, the topic or activity. </li></ul><ul><li>When we listen, we process language quickly – &quot;in real time&quot; – which is one of the reasons listening can be so challenging for learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Background knowledge. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why is Listening Important? <ul><li>First of all, listening is the most widely used language skill. Some communication researchers estimate that approximately half of the time we spend communicating is listening and that reading, writing, and speaking take up the other 50 per cent. </li></ul><ul><li>Listening also plays an important role in second language learning. Listening provides input – new language in context – so that the learner can figure out how the language works. </li></ul>
  7. 7. SCHEMA/SCHEMATA <ul><li>When we listen to something, we don’t just get meaning from the words and sentences we hear. We have knowledge and experience of many different types of listening situations and texts. We use this knowledge to understand what kind of listening it is, who is talking, and what the situation is. We call this background knowledge, schema. Any task that will help us to understand the schema better is known as a schema building task. Having background knowledge helps us to be more proficient listeners. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Clues about Spoken Language <ul><li>Vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>Intonation and tone of voice. Stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Schema=schemata: mental representation based on background KOL and experience. </li></ul><ul><li>One person’s schema is different from others: Cultural background/Scientific discipline. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Contextual clues <ul><li>  In addition to schematic knowledge, we also use to get a general understanding of what we are listening to. </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual clues when listening include things such as: </li></ul><ul><li>the setting </li></ul><ul><li>facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>gestures and body language </li></ul><ul><li>the tone and volume of voice </li></ul><ul><li>the choice of vocabulary and grammar </li></ul>
  10. 10. Top-Down Processing: <ul><li>How to get MEANING from listening texts? </li></ul><ul><li>Using KOL and building EXPECTATIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>Activating PREDICTIONS:right or wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>Processing information in a way that focuses on GENERAL MEANING. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Bottom-up Processing <ul><li>Processing information in a way that focuses on the listening text itself: individual words. We identify the sounds we hear and try to organize them as words, phrases, grammatical sentences, and intonation patterns to make sense of the text. </li></ul>