Chapter 2, Harmer (2007)
Prof. Estela N. Braun, Adjunto regular a/c (2013)
Describing the English
LANGUAGE IN USE
Task: Analyze the texts provided.
Different kinds of written/oral language
MEDIUM they are operating in.
Which grammar can be used to express those
B. What we want to say
No smoking area. Context/Rules.
GRAMMAR: form, meaning, use.
CO-TEXT (lexis and grammar)
J. l. Austin/Searle (1962). Doing things with
Performatives: I promise, I name you
Indirect Speech Acts
The study of functions and how they are
realised in language has had a profound
effect upon the design of ELT materials.
APPROPRIACY AND REGISTER
Would you like to join us for dinner?
Fancy something to eat?
There are VARIABLES that govern our
choice of language to achieve a
Language is a social construct as much
as it is a mental activity.
Language as TEXT and DICOURSE
COHERENCE: logical line of reasoning.
Lexical (see “Teacher Man”,by Frank Mc
Court)Repetition, theme and rheme.
Grammatical Cohesion: tense agreement.
Linkers or connectors.
Turn taking rules.
Transactional vs. Interactional
Cooperative principle (Grice, 1975)
Make contributions informative
-Make them true
-Make them relevant
-Avoid obscurity and ambiguity
-Be brief and orderly (Polonius, in Hamlet)
Type of written organization that will be
instantly recognized by members of a
discourse community.Goal-oriented social
Analysis of adverts (Page 31)
DISCOURSE:the sentences and utterances
we use are more than a combination of
grammar, morphology, lexis.
GRAMMAR: Parts of speech.
Manuel se corto con un vidrio.
Manuel cut himself with a piece of broken glass.
Discuss: What do non-native learners of English
need to learn?
Grammar: syntax, semantics, morphology.
Words can trigger the grammatical behaviour of
words around them.