Chapter 1 Harmer 2007


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Chapter 1 Harmer 2007

  1. 1. PRACTICE II: Introduction to the Subject. Jeremy Harmer: (2007)The Practice of English Laguage Teaching.
  2. 2. Chapter 1:The changing world of English.Why is English regarded as a linguafranca? Think, pair , share.Braj Kachru’s circles (1985)
  3. 3. What is a LINGUA FRANCA?“ A LANGUAGE WIDELY ADOPTED FORCOMMUNICATION BETWEEN TWOSPEAKERS WHOSE NATIVE LANGUAGESARE DIFFERENT FROM EACH OTHER’S ANDWHERE ONE OR BOTH SPEAKERS AREUSING IT AS AN L2”It is one of the main languages forinternational communication.Spread use of English words.Borrowings by English from other languages.
  4. 4. A Language History Linguistic Imperialism: http://A colonial history.EconomicsInformation exchange  Travel Popular culture
  5. 5. Robert PhillipsonEstela Braun spotted this on the site andthought you should see it.To see this story with its related links on site, go to imperialism alive and kickingUS and UK policy to promote English language teachingexpertise around the world is underminingmultilingualism and education opportunitiesRobert PhillipsonFriday March 16 2012Guardian Weekly
  6. 6. English as a Global Language Kachru’s 1985 circles:EXPANDINGOUTERINNERThe future of English?
  7. 7. VARIETIES OF ENGLISH:American vs. British English.Australian learners dictionary.Barbecue/Barbie. Train /diphthongpronunciation).British English: for Londoners take-away, for Scottish people a carry-out.Different accents within England: love.
  8. 8. Sociolinguistics:Factors such as geography, social class,ethnic grouping and sex affect the languagebeing used. Cockney. RP pronunciation. “It isstill the case that many British people ascribestatus, educational background, and socialposition to a person largely on the basis of theiraccent.”USA: varieties of American English, Bostonand Ohio. Black English, Hispanic English,Chinese English, etc.
  9. 9. APPROPRIATE MODELS OF ENGLISH:What variety should teachers adopt?WORLD ENGLISHES/GLOBALENGLISH.Move from the inner to the outer circle.As the students level of Englishincreases, try to expose them to asmany varieties as possible.
  10. 10. “The safest conclusion to draw isthat teachers should work with thevariety that best reflects their ownlanguage use, always providedthat this will be understood bymost other English speakers inthe world, and the speakers thatthe students are most likely tocome into contact with”.
  11. 11. EFL, ESL, ESOL & ELFGENERAL ENGLISH COURSES VS.SPECIFIC/ACADEMIC (ESP-EAP).ESOL: English to Speakers of otherlanguages.
  12. 12. English as a Lingua Franca (ELF)Non-use of 3rd person present simple:She look very sad.Interchangeable use of WHICH and WHOOmission of articlesUse of only one question tag: Isn’t it?Pluralzation of uncountable nouns
  13. 13. World English Education Immersion colonies. CLIL TKT, CELTA, DELTA exams for teachers Intercultural awareness pluricentrity Prestige varieties Accents Language bound up with identity