DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES JEROME BRUNER Practice II: Didactics of English as EFL Byrne, Laureana Scaricaciottoli, Sofia 2012
JEROME BRUNER Jerome Seymour Bruner (born October 1, 1915) is an American psychologist who has made significant contributions to human cognitive psychology and cognitive learning theory in educational psychology, as well as to history and to the general philosophy of education. Bruner is currently a senior research fellow at the New York University School of Law. He received his B.A. in 1937 from Duke University and his Ph. D. from Harvard University in 1941.
BRUNER’S IDEAS ARE GREATLY INFLUENCED BYPIAGET’S THEORY ABOUT DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES.LANGUAGE IS THE MOST IMPORTANT TOOL FORCOGNITIVE GROWTHBruner’s ideas:ScaffoldingFormats and routinesThe spiral curriculumImportant influences in education and languageteaching.
SCAFFOLDINGA cognitive support that an adult or a more ablepeer can give to a child so that he/she shoulddevelop and grow. E.g.: being a model or simplifyingtasks.Good scaffolding is tuned to the needs of the childand adjusted as the child becomes morecompetent.Scaffolding has been transferred to the classroomand teacher-pupil talk.
SCAFFOLDINGWood (1998) suggests that teachers can scaffoldchildren’s learning in various ways:Teachers can help children to ByAttend to what is relevant Suggesting Praising the significant Provinding focusing activitiesAdopt useful strategies Encouraging rehearsal Being explicit about organizationRemember the whole task and Remaindinggoals Modelling Providing part-whole activities
FORMATS AND ROUTINESThese are features of events that aloud scaffoldingto take place.Useful idea for language teaching: children learnthrough routines.As routines are repeated, children are able togradually assume more control and responsability.A useful example of a routine is of parents readingstories to their children from babyhood onwards.
FORMATS AND ROUTINESThe importance of routines is linked to the role ofstories or narratives in language classrooms.Language use is preditable within the routines.There is a space within which the child can takeover and do the language him/herself.This space for growth matches the child’s Zone ofProximal Development.According to Bruner, these routines and theiradjustments provide an important site for languageand cognitive development and language skills.
ROUTINES IN THE LANGUAGE CLASSROOMRoutines which happen every day may provideopprtunities for language development.The context created by routines provides anopportunity for pupils to predict meaning andintention.Routines offer a way to add variation andnovelty that can involve more complex language.As this occurs, the situation helps children tocontinue understanding.
SPIRAL CURRICULUMAlso called recycling.Bruner believes that children learn when theyare exposed to a subject many times in differentways.In this way, teachers move from basic conceptsto more complex ones over time.This theory is the basis for the way most schoolcurricula and text books are organized.
REFERENCES1.-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerome_Bruner (lastretrieved 30/5/12)2.- Understanding how children learn, Section B:Children development. August, 2010. Harlow:Pearson Education Limited, Longman3.- Cameron, L. (2001). Teaching languages toyoung learners. Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress.