Audio Lingual Method


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Audio Lingual Method

  1. 1. Audio- Lingual Method
  2. 2. <ul><li>Oral- based approach </li></ul><ul><li>based on behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on Stimulus- Response- Reinforcement and controlled practice </li></ul><ul><li>Has a theoretical base in Linguistics (Charles Fries-Michigan University) and Psychology (Behavioral psychology- Skinner) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Relies on drills, Practice patterns and substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Students are taught the language directly, without using the students L1 to explain new words or grammar in the TL or L2 </li></ul><ul><li>The acquisition of the sentence patterns of TL is through CONDITIONING Shaping and Reinforcement </li></ul>
  4. 4. OBSERVATIONS PRINCIPLES <ul><li>T introduces a dialogue. </li></ul><ul><li>T uses L2. Pictures, actions, etc are used to give meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>T introduces drills and corrects mispronunciation (modelling). </li></ul><ul><li>S repeat the dialogue many times. </li></ul><ul><li>S stumble over some lines. T uses a backward build-up drill. </li></ul><ul><li>Language forms occur within a context (not in isolation). </li></ul><ul><li>L1 and L2 have separate linguistic systems. They are kept apart to prevent interference. </li></ul><ul><li>T is the model of TL . </li></ul><ul><li>LL is a process of habit formation. +repetition = stronger habit + greater learning. </li></ul><ul><li>T should prevent S from making errors lead to bad habits. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>T makes a chain drill (S greet one another). </li></ul><ul><li>T uses single and multiple slot substitution drills. </li></ul><ul><li>T gives positive feedback when S answer correctly. </li></ul><ul><li>T uses spoken and pictures cues. </li></ul><ul><li>T conducts transformation and question- answer drills. </li></ul><ul><li>T poses the questions to them rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful LL S should learn how to use it to communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of speech occupy particular slots in sentences. S must learn which part of speech occupies which slot. </li></ul><ul><li>reinforcement helps S to develop correct habits. </li></ul><ul><li>S learn to respond to verbal/non-verbal stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern practice helps S to form habits so, they can use them. </li></ul><ul><li>S should overlearn answer automatically. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>T provides cues, gives encouragement, directs, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>New Vocab. is introduced within the dialogue It is limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar rules. Grammatical points are taught through examples and drills. </li></ul><ul><li>T makes a contrastive analysis between L1 and L2. It helps her to identify where S will have trouble. </li></ul><ul><li>T should be like an orchestra leader. </li></ul><ul><li>1º S should acquire structural patterns ; 2º Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>L1=L2 Grammar rules are figured out and induced from examples. No need of memorization. </li></ul><ul><li>S must overcome habits of their L1. Contrastive analysis will tell the T in which areas S will have more difficulties. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>T writes the dialogue on the blackboard. S do limited written work. </li></ul><ul><li>T prepares a Supermarket game, discussion of American Supermarket and Football. </li></ul><ul><li>Speech is more basic to Language that the written form. The order of the Macroskills is: Listening, Speaking , Reading and Writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Language cannot be separated from Culture. T has to present information about that culture. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>What are the goals of T who use the Audio-Lingual Method? </li></ul><ul><li>T uses TL communicatively. T thinks that the S need to </li></ul><ul><li>overlearn TL and use it automatically. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the role of the T? and the S` role? </li></ul>T is an orchestra leader and she provides a good model for imitation. S are imitators of the T`s model. They follow her instructions. <ul><li>What is the nature of S-T / S-S interaction? </li></ul>Mainly is T-S interaction. T is the initiator. There is S-S interaction in chain drills however, it is T- directed.
  9. 9. <ul><li>What are some characteristics of the teaching/ learning process? </li></ul><ul><li>New vocabulary and structural patterns are presented </li></ul><ul><li>through dialogues (imitation and repetition drills). Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>is induced from examples. Cultural info. is contextualized. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading and Writing are based upon oral work. </li></ul><ul><li>How are the feelings of the S dealt with? </li></ul>There are no principles related to this area. <ul><li>How is the language/ culture viewed ? </li></ul>Language View Descriptive Linguistics. Everyday speech is emphasized and culture consists of everyday behavior and lifestyle of the TL speakers.
  10. 10. <ul><li>What language areas/skills are emphasized? </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary is kept to a minimum while S are mastering the </li></ul><ul><li>sound system and grammatical patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>The natural order of skills is listening, speaking, reading, and </li></ul><ul><li>writing. Pronunciation is taught from the beginning. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the role of S` L1? </li></ul>TL is used all the time instead in order to avoid possible interference of the L1. <ul><li>How is evaluation accomplished? </li></ul>Test would be a discrete-point in nature. Each question on the test would focus on only one point of the language at a time.
  11. 11. BLIBLIOGRAPHY <ul><li>Larsen- Freeman. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford University Press. 2nd Edition </li></ul>