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What Can Data Journalists and Digital Researchers Learn from Each Other?

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Talk given with Jonathan Gray at the Digital Humanities + Data Journalism Symposium at the University of Miami on 30 September 2016. http://dhdj.com.miami.edu/

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What Can Data Journalists and Digital Researchers Learn from Each Other?

  1. 1. What Can Data Journalists and 
 Digital Researchers Learn from Each Other? Liliana Bounegru (@bb_liliana) University of Groningen / Ghent lilianabounegru.org Jonathan Gray (@jwyg) University of Bath jonathangray.org
  2. 2. Data Work in Journalism and Research Areas and Formats of Collaboration
  3. 3. Liliana Jonathan Digital Research Data Journalism tracker.publishwhatyoufund.org usaid.gov wbi.worldbank.org web.worldbank.org worldbank.org wri.org makingallvoicescount.org internationalbudget.org iatistandard.org foiadvocates.net fiscaltransparency.net developmentcheck.org datauy.org data.worldbank.org blogs.worldbank.org blog-pfm.imf.org ati.publishwhatyoufund.org article19.org aidtransparency.net aiddata.org access-info.org whitehouse.gov weforum.org twitter.com twaweza.org transparency.org transparency-initiative.org sida.se right2info.org republiquecitoyenne.fr opensocietyfoundations.org opendemocracy.org.za open-contracting.org one.org okfn.org oecd.org odi.org observingbrazil.com law-democracy.org interaction.org imf.org iatiregistry.org hewlett.org gavi.org gatesfoundation.org freedominfo.org fatf-gafi.org ec.europa.eu dfid.gov.uk cgdev.org tisne.org sunlightfoundation.com soros.org rti-rating.org publishwhatyoufund.org pefa.org openingparliament.org opengovpartnership.org opengovguide.com ogphub.org cabri-sbo.org afdb.org accessinitiative.org
  4. 4. Building bridges between the worlds of
 data journalism and digital research?
  5. 5. Data Journalism MOOC, European Journalism Centre.
  6. 6. There are similarities between data work in data journalism and digital research.
  7. 7. Discussion with Bruno Latour about the use of digital methods for data journalism.
 Tow Center for Digital Journalism, Columbia University, September 2014.
  8. 8. TCAT Issue Crawler60+ tools from the Digital Methods Initiative, 
 the médialab at Sciences Po and Density Design. http://tools.digitalmethods.net http://tools.medialab.sciences-po.fr
  9. 9. Adapting digital methods tools for journalism?
  10. 10. Data tools are attuned to different ways of knowing and ways of working.
  11. 11. There are many different types of “data work”.
  12. 12. Types of Data Work in the Humanities and Social Sciences
  13. 13. Computational Social Science
  14. 14. Cultural Analytics
  15. 15. Culturomics
  16. 16. AltMetrics
  17. 17. Digital Methods
  18. 18. Tracking Ecologies (2015). https://wiki.digitalmethods.net/Dmi/SummerSchool2015TrackingEcologies
  19. 19. Types of Data Work in Journalism
  20. 20. Computer Assisted Reporting
  21. 21. Programmer Journalists
  22. 22. Data Journalists NOTES Total spending, 2010/2011 £691.67bn +0.34%change after inflation on 2009/10 SOURCES: GUARDIAN DATA RESEARCH, DEPARTMENTAL RESOURCE ACCOUNTS, INSTITUTE FOR FISCAL STUDIES, PUBLIC EXPENDITURE STATISTICAL ANALYSES (PESA) RESEARCH: SIMON ROGERS, AMI SEDGHI, GEMMA TETLOW GRAPHIC: JENNY RIDLEY, MICHAEL ROBINSON Public spending by the UK's central government departments, 2010-2011 Cabinet Office £0.570bn -7.47% National school of government (NSG) £0.023bn House of Commons £0.164bn Independent Parliamentary Standards Authority[8] £0.126bn New department Office of communications (Ofcom) [7] from government funding (rest from licence fees) £0.122bn -13.1% UK trade & investment (UKTI) £0.085bn -12.5% House of Lords £0.077bn -22.3% National Audit Office £0.069bn +7.9% Office of fair trading (OFT) £0.058bn -9.2% Revenue & customs Prosecutions office (RCPO) £0.046bn -1.1% Serious fraud office (SFO) £0.036bn -12.5% Charity commission for England and Wales £0.030bn -4.6% Office of rail regulation (ORR) £0.028bn -11.0% Electoral commission £0.022bn -2.2% Government actuary's department (GAD) £0.019bn +17.4% Postal services commission (Postcomm) £0.0082bn -2.1% Attorney general's office (see also LSLO) £0.0049bn -8.7% HM crown prosecution service inspectorate £0.0034bn -27.7% The figures give a picture of major expenditure but exclude local government spending not controlled by central government. We don't have room to show everything — some programmes are just too small to go here, but this gives a flavour of where your tax pounds go. It also excludes government departments that are predominantly financed bytheir income, such as the Crown Estate or the Export Credits Guarantee Department. The totals here add up to more than the total budget, because some of the smaller government departments are funded via the larger ones, such as the Parliamentary Counsel Office, funded via the Cabinet Office. ALL % CHANGES TAKE ACCOUNT OF INFLATION [1] Interest paid on the public debt. [2] Treasury spending in 2008-09 and 2009-10 was dominated by the impact of interventions in the financial sector — the figure shown here is gross spending. In fact, in 2010-11 the net effect of financial stability activities was to yield income to the Treasury. Loans to financial institutions were repaid to the Treasury in 2010-11 and there was no further purchase of shares and other assets in the year — so we have shown the core department spending separately. The increase is due to the provision for Equitable Life. [3] The Rural Payments Agency distributes CAP payments — covered by transfers from EU so do not show up as net spending here. [4] Benefit spending excludes child benefit, guardians' allowance, widows’ pensions, statutory paternity pay, statutory adoption pay — these paid by HMRC, MoD, DBERR respectively. [5] Excludes spending on family health services. GP running cost includes salaries, hospitality budgets, home and overseas accommodation costs. [6] Totals absent from MoD annual report and supplied separately to other figures by the department. [7] The amount of government funding from BIS and DCMS, rest from licence fees from broadcasters and media organisations. [8] MPs’ expenses now administered by the Independent Parliamentary Standards Authority (IPSA). [9] This includes increase of £5bn in est. liabilities for the UK’s nuclear legacy over the 100 years. It is NOT allocated for spending in one year. Excl. this DECC’s total expenditure for 2010/11 is therefore £3.16bn with £1.7bn of that allocated to the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority Main pension schemes are forecasts for 2010-11 Debt interest [1] £43.90bn +36.2% Child trust fund £0.23bn -28.12% Tax credits £28.09bn +23.08% Child benefit £12.05 bn -1.9% HM Revenue & Customs [8] £45.78bn -1.09% Social justice & Local government Environment, sustainability & housing £0.794bn +5.8% Rural affairs £0.134bn -14.7% Heritage £0.183bn -3.8% Health & social services Children, education, lifelong learning & skills £2.19bn +0.8% Economy & transport £1.05bn -40.0% £6.61bn +5.21% £4.47bn -1.73% £15.87bn -3.92% Devolved spending Wales Wales Office (WO) £0.0050bn -12.1% £18.76bn +3.2% £14.09bn +11.5% Higher & further education Universities Further education £24.04bn -11.52% Department for Business, Innovation and Skills £4.67bn -15.8%£3.0bn -5.4% £5.86bn -5.0% Science Innovation & enterprise £1.36bn -16.1% Free & fair markets £0.72bn -7.6% Professional support £0.38bn -2.2% Research councils Roads Rail London £2.77bn+1.3% Local authority £1.17bn +0.5% Supported capital expenditure (Revenue) £0.975bn +5.0% Buses £0.771bn -1.8% Olympics £0.236bn +12.9% Crossrail £0.220bn Admin £0.188bn -5.6% DVLA trading fund £0.187bn -20.4% Coastguard £0.132bn -11.1% Aviation, maritime, security & safety £0.129bn -39.7% Sustainable travel £0.115bn -19.1% Science, research & support functions £0.042bn -60.2% Renewable fuels agency £0.001bn +4.0%£12.32bn -18.3% Department for Transport £3.79bn -18.2% £2.93bn -41.1% UK border agency £1.70bn -3.4% Police pensions £1.44bn -7.2% Office for security & counter-terrorism £0.808bn -3.7% AME charges £0.399bn +367.2% Central services £0.204bn -22.6% Area-based grants £0.071bn -14.5% European solidarity mechanism £0.022bn Government equalities office £0.012bn -19.4% Identity & passport service £0.005bn -94.7% National fraud authority £0.004bn -1.0% £10.45bn +-7.69% Home Office Crime & policing Criminal records bureau £0.001bn +116.5% £5.6bn -3.2% £37.8bn -7.51% Neighbourhoods Localism London governance £0.048bn -2.8% £6.0bn -38.5% £25.9bn -2.5% Spending by local & regional government £3.0bn +90.8% Foreign and Commonwealth Office £2.25bn -3.0% [6] Admin & embassies £1.09bn -3.9% Peacekeeping grants £0.408bn +10.7% UN & other international organisations £0.294bn -0.2% BBC World Service £0.265bn -4.3% British Council £0.189bn -8.7% Conflict prevention programme Grants £0.106bn -6.4% Non-departmental bodies £0.006bn -2.9% Scotland Office (SO) £0.0078bn -5.9% Health & wellbeing Local Government Finance and sustainable growth Education & lifelong learning £2.88bn +0.2% Scottish teachers' & NHS pension schemes £2.52bn -9.2% Justice £1.95bn +2.6% Rural affairs & the Environment £0.517bn -8.1% Office of the first minister £0.267bn -2.1% Admin £0.264bn -6.0% Crown office and procurator fiscal £0.120bn -2.1% Scottish parliament corporate body £0.102bn -4.2% Scottish courts service £0.098bn Forestry commission (Scotland) £0.096bn -0.2% £34.88bn +2.95% Devolved spending Scotland £12.29bn +14.4% £10.52bn -0.8% £3.20bn -8.5% War pensions £0.935bn -7.3% Army Royal Navy Royal Air Force Chief, joint ops £0.047bn -89.9% Operations & peace-keeping Afghanistan Iraq £0.095bn -73.1% Libya £0.022bn Equipment & support Central command Admin £2.03bn -8.1% £22.77bn +31.7% £7.29bn +6.7% £2.84bn -1.9% £2.89bn +4.7%£3.77bn -4.1% £2.31bn +0.7% Defence estates £4.66bn +25.0% £2.63bn -6.2% Ministry of Defence [6] £39.46bn -1.95% Devolved spending Northern Ireland £9.05bn -2.01% £4.5bn -1.1% £2.1bn -5.1% Education Regional development £1.07bn +30.9% Employment and learning £0.837bn -0.02% Social development £0.791bn +1.5% Environment £0.312bn +100.3%Enterprise, trade & investment £0.273bn -7.8% Finance and personnel £0.198bn +5.8% Culture, arts and leisure £0.173bn -8.6% Office of the first minister & deputy first minister £0.090bn -11.1% Northern Ireland Assembly £0.052bn +15.6% Agriculture & rural development £0.051bn -79.9% Other departments £0.022bn -0.6% Northern Ireland Office (NIO) £0.039bn +0.9% Northern Ireland human rights Commission £0.0016bn -4.0% Prisons & probation (National Offender Management Service)Criminal legal aid £1.22bn +7.8% HM Courts Service £0.999bn +25.3% Civil legal aid £0.921bn -6.8% Policy, corporate services & Associated offices £0.917bn +51.1% Youth justice board £0.467bn -6.2% Criminal injuries compensation authority £0.426bn +312.5% Tribunals service £0.279bn -9.8% Top judicial salaries £0.143bn -3.6% Legal services commission administration £0.136bn -0.1% Central funds £0.078bn -14.3% HM courts & tribunals service £0.012bn -93.8% Parole board £0.010bn +11.7% Ministry of Justice £9.46bn +1.0% £4.22bn -11.0% Health protection agency £0.177bn -25.1% Department of Health £105.60bn +0.28% NHS £87.61bn +1.29% [5] Secondary health care (hospitals etc) Primary healthcare GP servicesPrescriptions Dental Opthalmic £0.48bn -0.7% Pharmacy £1.98bn-3.1% Learning difficulties Mental illness Maternity General & acute A & E Community health Other contractual £8.29bn +1.3% £7.68bn -1.6% £21.37bn -0.54% £66.10bn +2.08% £38.91bn +1.9% £2.58bn +0.5% £3.06bn +6.6% £8.37bn +0.7% £8.41bn +2.5% £2.53bn +2.2% £2.22bn +5.3% £2.82bn +0.18% Schools Department for Education £52.81bn +1.12% £58.34bn -0.24% Office for standards In education (Ofsted) £0.182bn -12.5% £5.86bn -13.2 % £6.03bn +2.3% Department for Work & Pensions [4] £160.68bn +0.21% Benefit spending in Great Britain £152.35bn +0.60% State pensions Pension credit Income support Incapacity benefit & employment & support allowance Other Council tax benefit Jobseeker's allowance Winter fuel payments Statutory maternity pay £1.99bn -3.1% £21.61bn +5.0% £17.17bn +0.7% £8.18bn -2.3% £7.78bn -9.8% £7.76bn +12.7% £5.86bn -9.9% £4.97bn +2.8% £4.50bn -6.8% £2.75bn -2.3% £69.78bn +1.31% Disability living allowance & attendance allowance Housing benefit Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs [3] Food standards agency £0.072bn -41.7% Water services regulation authority (Ofwat) £0.017bn -3.4% Environmental risk and emergencies £1.021bn -4.6% Environment agency £0.832bn +4.2% Environment £0.865bn -16.3% Natural England £0.213bn -20.6% Department £0.267bn -15.9% Rural payments agency £0.228bn -40.8% Sustainable consumption & production £0.122bn -40.8% Farming £0.093bn -12.2% Rural communities £0.073bn -10.4% Forestry commission £0.045bn -11.0% Marine management organisation £0.032bn +0.9% Royal botanic gardens, Kew £0.025bn -16.8% Climate change £0.018bn -23.2% Sustainable development £0.008bn +2.9% Food supply £0.003bn -31.2% £2.69bn -15.22% Nuclear Decommissioning Authority Low carbon UK £0.623bn -29.2% Promoting low carbon technologies in developing countries £0.279bn +159.5% Professional support & infrastructure £0.118bn -7.6% Historic energy liabilities £0.104bn -106.8% Energy £0.087bn +3.3% Coal authority £0.071bn +87.0% International agreement on climate change £0.005bn +22.4% Committee on climate change £0.004bn +12.2% £6.93bn +81.1% Department of Energy & Climate Change[9] See note £8.06bn +146.0% Department for International Development Country programmes Africa £1.87bn +10.1% Sub-Saharan Africa £1.76bn +11.1% Americas £0.073bn +8.9% Asia £1.09bn -2.5% Europe £0.018bn -16.8% Pacific £0.003bn +19.6% Commonwealth & overseas territories £1.65bn +14.8% Overseas territories £0.059bn +14.7% World Bank £0.927bn +60.8% Debt relief £0.066bn +24.0% European Commission £1.27bn +3.8%United Nations £0.355bn +59.5% £7.69bn +12.65% £3.18bn -22.1% Equitable Life payment scheme £1.49bn BoE dividend £0.063bn DMO £0.001bn -2.9%Other functions £0.011bn -2.9% Banking & gilts registration services £0.011bn -11.0% UK debt management office (DMO) £0.015bn -9.0% Coinage £0.034bn +17.9% Core treasury & group shared services £0.176bn -14.5% Her Majesty’s Treasury [2] £1.678bn +870.0% Department of Communities and Local Government National savings and investments £0.162bn -1.1% Office for Budget Responsibility £0.0017bn New department Financial stability /financial institutions £13.79bn Money in Money in Constitution group £0.006bn -34.4% Security and intelligence services £1.909bn +1.3% Cabinet Office £0.206bn +2.3% Office for civil society £0.192bn -17.6% General election funding £0.102bn +4.1% Executive non-departmental bodies £0.030bn -22.7% Directgov £0.023bn -15.7% Cabinet Office service concession - DEL £0.011bn +160.2% Cabinet Office utilisation of provisions £0.003bn +1.5% Members of the European parliament (MEP) £0.002bn -54.8% Executive NDPBs (net) £0.002bn -39.9% Independent offices - civil service commissioners £0.001bn -29.5% BBC Lottery grants Museums & galleries £0.427bn -2.6% Tate gallery £0.055bn-5.1% Natural history museum £0.049bn-7.8% British museum £0.046bn-6.9% Victoria & Albert museum £0.044bn-3.8% NM Liverpool £0.024bn-1.9% Olympics £0.362bn -12.7 % Sport £0.193bn-13.4% Sport England £0.121bn-12.3% Broadcasting and media £0.151bn+0.9% S4C £0.100bn-4.5% Libraries sponsored bodies £0.133bn-3.9% British library £0.106bn-6.1% Tourism £0.042bn-14.1% Ceremonial & heritage £0.025bn+25.0% Royal parks £0.019bn -11.5% Department for Culture Media & Sport £7.02bn -0.7% Arts £0.455bn-1.57% Arts council £0.438bn-6.0% £2.96bn -8.7% £1.81bn +0.4% Principal civil service pension scheme Sure Start (including childcare & nursery funding) £2.12bn+10.3% £7.5bn £5.1bn £3.6bn Teachers' pension scheme £6.9bn NHS pension scheme Armed forces pension scheme £1bn Northern Ireland executive pension schemes Judicial pension scheme £0.1bn Investment in school buildings Academies £2.08bn+58.8% School meals £0.006bn-55.2% Free schools £0.006bn Learning and skills council (excluding sixth form funding) Sixth forms (through Learning and skills council) £2.18bn-4.0% Early years £2.14bn+9.0% Admin £0.25bn -28.5% Education, standards, curriculum & qualifications £0.63bn-24.5% Workforce training & development £1.04bn-6.6% Children & families £2.0bn-31.3% UK atomic energy authority pension scheme £0.2bn
  23. 23. Computational Journalists
  24. 24. There are different ways of valorising and evaluating data.
  25. 25. Different forms of data work require different kinds of tools.
  26. 26. Text Mining Scientometrics Web Mining Network Analysis Information Visualisation Médialab tools Other tools Legend Textométrie|Txm Dexter Anta ISI|Web Of Science Elsevier|Scopus Sciencescape Linkfluence|Linkscape Dmi|Issuecrawler Google|Insights Hyphe Dmi|Lippmannian Device Insight Grabber Google|Refine Adobe|Illustrator & Scriptographer Match Tables Spreadsheet Table2Net Gephi Manylines Heatgraph Ibm|Many Eyes Density Design|Raw Density Design|Fineo R - Project D3.js DOCS LIST WORDS LIST URLS LIST DYNAMIC IMAGE STATIC IMAGEDOCS NETWORK WORDS NETWORK URLS NETWORK WORDS TABLE URLS TABLE DOCS TABLE LISTS > TABLES > NETWORKS > IMAGES
  27. 27. california-civic-data-coalition/django-calaccess-raw-data unitedstates/congress-legislators sunlightlabs/openstates wireservice/ffs openelections/dashboard newsapps/django-boundaryservice openaddresses/openaddresses postcss/postcss unitedstates/congress dc-js/dc.js 18f/web-design-standards mail-in-a-box/mailinabox intridea/hashie feross/webtorrent openelections/openelections-core ireapps/first-news-app newsdev/elex caesar0301/awesome-public-datasets ireapps/census caolan/highland tabulapdf/tabula opencivicdata/docs.opencivicdata.org opennews/srccon-datadatadesk/python-googlegeocoder prosemirror/prosemirror efforg/https-everywhere quartz/bad-data-guide ryanpitts/journalists-guide-datasets dwillis/hulse propublica/table-setter shazow/urllib3 leaverou/bliss wireservice/lookup ascheink/nytimes-style propublica/campaign_cash california-civic-data-coalition/django-calaccess-campaign-browser theupshot/statement nytimes/fech datamade/data-making-guidelineswireservice/agate-excel marak/faker.js facebook/relay jamesturk/scrapelib propublica/timeline-setter duckduckgo/duckduckgo nprapps/dailygraphics sunlightlabs/opencongress 18f/analytics-reporter tldr-pages/tldr sunlightlabs/scout datadesk/latimes-table-stacker netflix/falcor L. Bounegru & T. Venturini (forthcoming). “GitHub Journalism: Mapping Code Ecologies for the Valorisation of Data on GitHub”
  28. 28. A single tool can be used in different ways in different contexts.
  29. 29. Text Mining Scientometrics Web Mining Network Analysis Information Visualisation Médialab tools Other tools Legend Textométrie|Txm Dexter Anta ISI|Web Of Science Elsevier|Scopus Sciencescape Linkfluence|Linkscape Dmi|Issuecrawler Google|Insights Hyphe Dmi|Lippmannian Device Insight Grabber Google|Refine Adobe|Illustrator & Scriptographer Match Tables Spreadsheet Table2Net Gephi Manylines Heatgraph Ibm|Many Eyes Density Design|Raw Density Design|Fineo R - Project D3.js DOCS LIST WORDS LIST URLS LIST DYNAMIC IMAGE STATIC IMAGEDOCS NETWORK WORDS NETWORK URLS NETWORK WORDS TABLE URLS TABLE DOCS TABLE LISTS > TABLES > NETWORKS > IMAGES
  30. 30. Collaboration beyond swapping tools?
  31. 31. Data Work in Journalism and Research Areas and Formats of Collaboration
  32. 32. Shaping the future of big data.
  33. 33. Creating “just good enough” data.
  34. 34. ANGING HAT UNTS CHANGING WHAT COUNTS HOW CAN CITIZEN-GENERATED AND CIVIL SOCIETY DATA BE USED AS AN ADVOCACY TOOL TO CHANGE OFFICIAL DATA COLLECTION? Jonathan Gray Danny Lämmerhirt Liliana Bounegru
  35. 35. Aligning data work with broader societal concerns
  36. 36. Archiving data projects.
  37. 37. Expanding visual imagination.
  38. 38. Learning and collaborating through “data sprints”.
  39. 39. “Datasprints”: https://vimeo.com/148249099
  40. 40. “The critic is not the one who debunks, but the one who assembles. The critic is not the one who lifts the rugs from under the feet of the naïve believers, but the one who offers the participants arenas in which to gather” (Bruno Latour, 2004: 246).
  41. 41. Digital Methods Winter School 2016
  42. 42. Co-producing and co-designing tools, methods and data projects?
  43. 43. Future data sprints with journalists and digital researchers.
  44. 44. Areas and Formats of Collaboration 1. Shaping the future of big data. 2. Creating “just good enough” data.
 
 3. Aligning data work with broader societal concerns
 
 4. Archiving data projects. 5. Expanding visual imagination.
 
 6. Learning and collaborating through “data sprints”. Data Work in Journalism and Research 1. There are similarities between data work in data journalism and digital research. 2. Data tools are attuned to different ways of knowing and ways of working. 3. There are many different types of “data work”. 4. There are different ways of valorising and evaluating data. 5. Different forms of data work require different kinds of tools. 6. A single tool can be used in different ways in different contexts.
  45. 45. Image credits • Alan McLean. “Data Driven Journalism - Telling Stories Online”. August 2010. • Digital Humanities at Dartmouth. “Feminism and the Digital Humanities”. May 2016. • Rutwij Devashrayee. Photo of Liliana Bounegru, Jonathan Gray and Bruno Latour at Columbia University. September 2014. • Picture of Bob Woodward by Cliff1066 on Flickr. • The Guardian. Government spending by department, 2010-11. October 2011.

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