SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 65
Download to read offline
C0VID-19 THE PANDEMIC
Likhit Akotkar
M . Pharma I
Department Of Pharmacology
BVDU Poona College Of Pharmacy , Pune.
CORONA VIRUS DISEASE
CONTENTS
• HISTORY
• INTRODUCTION
• SIGN & SYMPTOMS
• EPIDEMIOLOGY
• STRUCTURE OF CORONA VIRUS
• CAUSES
• PATHOPSHYIOLOGY
• DIAGNOSIS
• PREVENTION
• TREATMENT
• HOW CHINA RECOVERED
• ON GOING RESEARCH WORKS
• MYTHS & FACTS
• LOCKDOWN EFFECTS
HISTORY OF PANDEMICS
• The Black Death: 1346-1353
• American polio epidemic: 1916
• Spanish Flu: 1918-1920
• AIDS pandemic and epidemic: 1981
• H1N1 Swine Flu pandemic: 2009-2010
• West African Ebola epidemic: 2014-2016
• Zika Virus epidemic: 2015
PANDEMICS AFTER EVERY 100 YEAR
TERMINOLOGIES
• SARS – Severe acute respiratory syndrome
• MERS- Middle east respiratory syndrome
• TMPRSS- Transmembrane serine protease
• ACE2 – Angiotensin converting enzyme
• NGS – Next Gen sequencing
• CB-NAAT- cartridge based nucleic acid
amplification test.
HISTORY
• Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious
disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome
coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It was first identified in
December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has since spread
globally, resulting in an ongoing pandemic. As of 24 May
2020, more than 5.31 million cases have been reported across
188 countries and territories, resulting in more than 342,000
deaths. More than 2.11 million people have recovered
• A 55-year-old individual from Hubei province in China
may have been the first person to have contracted COVID-
19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus spreading
across the globe. That case dates back to Nov. 17, 2019
HISTORY
• Following the pneumonia cases of unknown cause reported in Wuhan and considering the shared
history of exposure to Huanan seafood market across the patients, an epidemiological alert was
released by the local health authority on Dec 31, 2019, and the market was shut down on Jan 1,
2020. Meanwhile, 59 suspected cases with fever and dry cough were transferred to a designated
hospital starting from Dec 31, 2019. An expert team of physicians, epidemiologists, virologists, and
government officials was soon formed after the alert.
• Since the cause was unknown at the onset of these emerging infections, the diagnosis of pneumonia
of unknown cause in Wuhan was based on clinical characteristics, chest imaging, and the ruling out
of common bacterial and viral pathogens that cause pneumonia. Suspected patients were isolated
using airborne precautions in the designated hospital, Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China), and fit-
tested N95 masks and airborne precautions for aerosol-generating procedures were taken. This study
was approved by the National Health Commission of China and Ethics Commission of Jin Yin-tan
Hospital .
• Local centres for disease control and prevention collected respiratory, blood, and faeces specimens,
then shipped them to designated authoritative laboratories to detect the pathogen A novel
coronavirus, which was named 2019-nCoV, was isolated then from lower respiratory tract specimen
and a diagnostic test for this virus was developed soon after that.14 Of 59 suspected cases, 41 patients
were confirmed to be infected with 2019-nCoV. The presence of 2019-nCoV in respiratory
specimens was detected by next-generation sequencing or real-time RT-PCR methods.
The World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020, has declared the
novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak a global pandemic .WHO Director-
General, Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus,
ACT NO. 3 OF 1897 1 [ 4th February, 1897.] An Act to
provide for the better prevention of the spread of
Dangerous Epidemic Diseases
• The first case of the COVID-19 pandemic in India was
reported on 30 January 2020, As of 24 May 2020,
the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare have
confirmed a total of 131,868 cases.
• Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897 have been invoked, and
educational institutions and many commercial
establishments have been shut down. India has suspended all
tourist visas, as a majority of the confirmed cases were
linked to other countries.
•
INTRODUCTION
1) The word coronavirus is more of an umbrella
term that refers to a group of viruses that cause
diseases like SARS, MERS and COVID-19
2) As is often the case in the scientific world,
coronavirus’ name is Latin. In the ancient language,
corona means crown.
3) As for the new disease caused by the coronavirus,
it was originally called novel coronavirus. In
February, the World Health Organization gave us the
name COVID-19
SIGN AND SYMPTOMS
PREVENTIONS
❖ To cover coughs and sneezes
❖ To wash hands regularly with hot water
❖ To avoid contact with infected people
❖ To maintain an appropriate distance from people
❖ To refrain from touching eyes, nose, and mouth In case of symptoms
❖ To follow advice given by your healthcare provider
❖ Use immune booster Arsenic album 30
❖ Turmeric milk as immune booster
STAY HOME STAY SAFE
To use face masks N95
“N” stands for. “Not resistant to oil,
”95 stands for- respirator blocks at least 95
percent of very small (0.3 micron) test particles.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
(PPE)
Ministry of Textiles and Ministry of Health and
Family Welfare have been working together in
this endeavour. Domestic manufacturers rose to
the occasion and so far 11 manufacturers have
cleared quality tests.
Orders for 21 lakh PPE coveralls have been
placed on them.
Currently they are supplying 6-7,000 coveralls
per day and this is expected to go up to 15,000
per day within the next week.
Synthetic blood penetration resistance test are
performed to check quality
Private Gov Approved PPE MFG Org.
JCT Mills Phagwara,
▪ Arvind Mills,
▪ Amare Safety,
▪ Mumbai based Sure Safety,
▪ Delhi-based Sai Synergy,Manchanda,
▪ Shree Healthcare, Chennai etc,
Government PPE MFG Org.
• DRDO- INMAS
• INDIAN RAILWAYS
• SITRA
• CSIR labs
• From 0, India now produces nearly 4.5 lakh PPE kits every
single day.
• In 60 days, the PPE industry in India has witnessed 56
times growth.
•
EPIDEMIOLOGY
AS ON DATE OF 25 MAY 2020
MALES ARE MORE PRONE TO
AFFECTED DUE TO CORONA
MALES 76%
FEMALES 24%
https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/#countries
CAUSES
Risk factors for COVID-19 appear to include:
•Recent travel from or residence in an area with ongoing community spread of COVID-19 as determined by CDC or WHO
•Close contact (within 6 feet, or 2 meters) with someone who has COVID-19 for more than 5 minutes or being coughed or
sneezed on by an infected person
1. Complications
2. Although most people with COVID-19 have mild to moderate symptoms, the disease can cause severe medical
complications and lead to death in some people. Older adults or people with existing chronic medical conditions are at
greater risk of becoming seriously ill with COVID-19.
3. Complications can include:
4. Pneumonia and trouble breathing
5. Organ failure in several organs
6. Heart problems
7. A severe lung condition that causes a low amount of oxygen to go through your bloodstream to your organs (acute
respiratory distress syndrome)
8. Blood clots
9. Acute kidney injury
10.Additional viral and bacterial infections
11.
VIROLOGY – COVID 19
Corona virus belongs to
Realm -roboviria
Phylum - incertae sedis
Order -nidovirals
Family -coronaviridae
Size -120–140 nm in size
SARS COV- 2 particles
arebosphericle and has
proteins called spikes
S - SPIKE
N- NEUCLEOCAPSID
E- ENVELOPE
M- MEMBRANE
HE- HAEMAGLUTIN ESTERASE
▪ Enveloped virion
▪ Positive sense
▪ Single stranded
▪ Largest RNA virus
▪ 80-160 nanometer in diameter
▪ Genome ranges 26-34kbs
PROPERTIES OF CORONA
probably represent avian species
(III) -coronavirus(deltaCoV),
(IV) -coronavirus (gammaCoV)
There are four genera of CoVs
probably present in bats and rodents
(I) -coronavirus(alphaCoV),
(II) -coronavirus (betaCoV),
CORONAVIRIDAE
DELTA-CORONAGAMMA-CORONABETA-CORONAALPHA-CORONA
Human CoV/NL63
TGEV/PEDV
(gastro/diarrheal
PRCV- Respiratory
SARS-CoV2
MERS-COV
MHV-MOUSE
HEPATITIS COV
IBV- BRONCHITIS PDCV-PORCINE
IBV- BRONCHITIS
PDCV-PORCINE
Human
CoV/NL63
ACE2
TGEV/PEDV
(gastro/diarrheal
APN
PRCV-
Respiratory APN
SARS-CoV2
ACE2
MERS-COV
DPP4
CEACAM
MHV-MOUSE
HEPATITIS COV
SUGAR
SUGAR
VIRUSES & RECEPTORS
CIVET
CAMEL
PANGOLIN
BAT
BAT
BAT
SARS- COV1
2003
SARS- COV2
2019
MERS-COV
2012
In contrast, SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and SARS-
CoV-2 are classified to β coronaviruses.
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
They are largely divided into four genera; α, β, γ, and δ based on their genomic structure. α
and β coronaviruses infect only mammals .
Human coronaviruses such as 229E and NL63 are responsible for common cold and croup and
belong to α coronavirus.
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
S1 – SPIKE PROTEIN
ECTODOMAIN
N TERMINAL DOMAIN
FUNCTION AS HEAD
S2– HAEMAGLUTININ ESTERASE
ENDODOMAIN
C TERMINAL DOMAIN
FUNCTION AS TAIL
BINDING FUSION
ACE2 RECEPTORS LOCATIONS
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY WITH TARGETS
After replication virus invade
alveolar cells in called
pneumocytes - 2
Activation of inflammatory
Mediators
Macrophages, interferons
-Cytokines
-TNF-ALPHA
-IL-1
-IL6
-IL8
-chemokines
Also stimulates nerve endings
For COUGH REFLEX (early
stage)
TNF-ALPHA
-IL-1 - this both are
proinflammatory cytokines
vascular permeability
vascular adhesion
receptor for neutrophile
at site of enjury
IL-8 stimulate neutrophiles
due to vascular permeability
causes leakage of fluid in
interstitial space which
results in Pulmonary
Oedema.
Lead to – DYSPNEA
HYPOXIA
Due to increase in wbc in
serum , neutrophils try to
engulf virus and remove
biproduct as a chemicals
Lead to damage alveolar
cells
Results secretion of surfactant
surface tension of 02-blood
congestion
BREATHLESS OR
TIGHTNESS IN CHEST
FEVERTIGHTNESS IN CHEST
WBC acts on arachidonic acid
pathway
WBC acts on arachidonic acid
pathway
Leukotriens
Bronchoconstriction
Prostaglandins
IL8
TNF-ALPHA
FEVER
HEART
Due to hypoxia decrease O2
blood supply
Sense by chemoreceptor in
aorta
Stimulates cardiorespiratory
centres in brain
TACHYCARDIA
LIVER
IL6
Stimulates hepatocytes
To release CRP
In blood test
Show inflammation in artries
Fibrinogen and hepsidin
KIDNEY
Biliary nitrogen
Creatinine
TREATMENT (DRUGS)
TMPRSS2 INHIBITORS (SERINE PROTEASE)
OR FUSION INHIBITORS
-Nafamostat mesylate (UCT)
-Camostat mesylate (APPROVED)
ACE-2 INHIBITORS
OR BINDING INHIBITORS
-SSAA09E2 (UCT)
V-ATPase INHIBITORS
OR LYSOZOMAL INHIBITORS
- Hydroxychlorquine (HCQ)
RNA DEPENDENT RNA
POLYMERASE INHIBITORS
-Remdesvir
-Favipiravir
PROTEASE INHIBITORS
-Ritonavir
-Lopinavir
ACE-2 INHIBITORS
OR BINDING INHIBITORS
-SSAA09E2 (UCT)
Aquilegia chrysantha
Phytopharmaceutical
drug (UCT)-2020
IMMNOSUPPRESSANT
-TOCILIZUMAB
-LENZILUMAB
AQCH is derived from tropical,
climbing shrub cocculus hirsutus, which
is used in Asia for its apparent medicinal
properties.
AQCH, which is being developed
for dengue, has shown broad
antiviral effect in in-vitro studies
and hence is being tested as a
potential treatment option for
COVID-19
Sun Pharma received approval from
the Drugs Controller General of
India (DCGI) for the AQCH trial in
April,
AQCH
Phyto
pharmaceutical
drug
(UCT)-2020
PLASMA CONVALESCENT THERAPY
VACCINES
IISC Banglore
PUNE
GURGAON
AHMEDABAD
HYDERABAD
HYDERABAD
PUNE
AHMEDABAD
MUMBAI
All vaccnies under clinical trial
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19,
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19
vaccine
DIAGNOSIS- RTPCR
COVID GUN
B) Development of new, faster more sensitive and cheaper diagnostic
test: CRISPR/ Cas based paper diagnostic test (FELUDA) FNCAS9 Editor-Linked
Uniform Detection Assay: A CRISPR/ Cas -based paper diagnostic test has been developed by
CSIR. The FELUDA methodology has been developed in CSIR-IGIB for detecting single
nucleotide variants in RNA or DNA.
C) Development of RT-LAMP diagnostic kit:CSIR-IIIM has partnered with Reliance
Industries Limited (RIL) to develop and scale-up a new Reverse Transcriptase-Loop Mediated
Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP).
D) Large scale sample testing using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS): Next-
generation sequencing (NGS) allows for analyzing a large number of viral sequences from infected
patients. CSIR- SYNGENE
E) Serology based Diagnostic Tests : CSIR-CCMB and CSIR-IICB are working towards
developing these tests.
F) Shipping Container-based Diagnostic Labs: To increase the testing capacity in the country, along with
HP, Shipping Container-based Diagnostic Labs (Self Contained, -ve pressure, TrueNat MicroPCR, etc.)
have been developed and are being deployed in Delhi (2 nos) and Chennai (2 nos).
G) Bio-repositories for SARS-CoV-2: Three CSIR labs, CSIR-CCMB in Hyderabad, CSIR-IGIB in Delhi and
CSIR-IMTech Chandigarh have been designated bio-repositories for SARS-CoV-2 viral samples. This will
help in the development of indigenous diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines and research to better
understand the COVID19 disease in the Indian scenario. .
H) IR TEMPRATURE SENSOR GUN WORKS ON IR EMMISSION OF POINTING OBJECT
AND NOT AFFCTED BY SURROUNDING, TEMP MANY OF THE SUSPECTS BY COVID
CHECKED FEVER BY THIS DEVICE
ICMR APPROVED TRUENAT FOR
DIAGNOSIS OF COVID19
ICMR APPROVED CB-NAAT FOR
DIAGNOSIS OF COVID19 Cartridge based Nucleic
acid amplification test
WHO IS AT MORE RISK ?
Death due to covid19
Death 27%
Death 73%
• XX chromosome contains "a
large number of immune-
related genes." And since
women have two of these,
• More estrogen level to show
anti-inflammatory property.
• Less Smoking
• Less social exposure
• Less ACE-2 Expression
• Less alcohol consumptions
• XY chromosome contains "a
LESS number of immune-
related genes.
• LOW estrogen level to show
anti-inflammatory property.
• MORE Smoking
• MORE social exposure
• MORE ACE-2 Expression
• MORE alcohol consumptions
DISEASE RELATED DEATHS
BIRTH RATE DEATH RATE
26 932 586 births per
year
9 778 073 deaths per
year
19.3 births/1,000
population
7.3 deaths/1,000
population
73,787 births per day 26,789 deaths per day
3,074 births each hour 1,116 deaths each hour
51 births each minute 19 deaths each minute
8 lakh deaths in
india every month
Due to any reason
heart
Lungs
cancer
Road accident
suicide
2,666 APPROX deaths in
india every month
Only one Reason
COVID19
Elisa granato in uk was the first patient
to inject covid vaccine for trial
On going research works
IIT Delhi and @AIST Japan, working on
natural compounds from Ashwagandha and
propolis for last several years, explored the
possibility of some of their bio-actives to
interact with SARS-CoV-2
NIPER- GUWAHATI 3D ANTIMICROBIAL
FACE SHIELD.
CSIR and Cadila have received regulatory approval for
clinical trials to evaluate efficacy of an existing gram-
negative sepsis drug, called Sepisvac for COVID19 patients.
COMPLICATIONS
Israel's biological institute claims to have found antidote to coronavirus
The Los Alamos team, assisted by scientists at Duke University and the
University of Sheffield in England, identified 14 mutations. Those mutations
occurred among the nearly 30,000 base pairs of RNA that other scientists say
make up the coronavirus’s genome. The report authors focused on a mutation
called D614G, which is responsible for the change in the virus’ spikes.
1)Difficult to differentiate symptoms of pneumonia and covid 19
2)Spreading is more effective than treatment
3)No available drug , vaccines .
EFFECT ON PREGNANCY
•A study of nine pregnant women who were infected with COVID-19
and had symptoms showed that none of their babies was affected by
the virus. The virus was not present in amniotic fluid, the babies’
throats, or in breast milk.
•Another study of 38 women infected with COVID-19 found that none of
the newborns tested positive for the disease.
•Two case reports of infants born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2
demonstrated that the infants had elevated levels of antibodies to the
virus but did not demonstrate any clinical evidence of infection with the
virus
The risk of passing the infection to a fetus appears to be very low.
Currently there is no evidence of any fetal malformations or effects due
to maternal infection with COVID-19.
GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES
IN RESEARCH
MYTHS AND FACTS
in March found no signs it had been
engineered. "By comparing the available
genome sequence data for known coronavirus
strains, we can firmly determine that Sars-
CoV-2 originated through natural processes,"
MYTHS THAT CORONA VIRUS CAME FROM
SCIENTIFIC AND RESEARCH PROCEDURES IN LAB
HOW CHINA RECOVERED
76 DAYS OF STRICT
LOCKDOWN
THERMAL
SENSOR TO ALL
HOME GUARDS
DEPLOYED DRONES
ALL OVER CHINA
MAINLY IN
CONTAINMENT
TECHNICAL
ASSOCIATION
WITH
ALIBABA
CLOSE
CONTACT
APP
HOSPITAL
IN JUST 10
DAYS
Q & A discussions
REFERENCES
1) Ye Yi, Philip N.P. Lagniton, Sen Ye, Enqin Li and Ren-He Xu
International Journal of Biological Sciences
2020; 16(10): 1753-1766. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.45134
1) Wikipedia/covid19
2) Yu-Tao Xiang 1, Wen Li 2, Qinge Zhang 3, Yu Jin 2, Wen-Wang
Rao 2, Liang-Nan Zeng 4, Grace K I Lok 5, Ines H I
Chow 2, Teris Cheung 6, Brian J Hall 7 ncbi
https://www.medindia.net/patients/calcul
ators/pop_clock.asp
THANK YOU

More Related Content

What's hot

2019 novel corona virus wuhan, china
2019 novel corona virus wuhan, china2019 novel corona virus wuhan, china
2019 novel corona virus wuhan, chinaDr Ahmed Sayeed
 
Corona
Corona Corona
Corona Priya
 
Biology & pathophysiology of covid 19 in humans
Biology & pathophysiology of covid 19 in humans Biology & pathophysiology of covid 19 in humans
Biology & pathophysiology of covid 19 in humans ChetanNishad
 
COVID-19 reviews- By Sabnam Khatun
COVID-19 reviews- By Sabnam KhatunCOVID-19 reviews- By Sabnam Khatun
COVID-19 reviews- By Sabnam KhatunMD SHORAB ALAM
 
Covid 19 (corona virus)
Covid 19 (corona virus)Covid 19 (corona virus)
Covid 19 (corona virus)Amar joseph
 
Covid 19-book
Covid 19-bookCovid 19-book
Covid 19-bookimranndj
 
Cornovirus Microbiology and Management
Cornovirus Microbiology and Management Cornovirus Microbiology and Management
Cornovirus Microbiology and Management DrShrey Bhatia
 
Coronavirus Disease (COVID- 19)
Coronavirus Disease (COVID- 19)Coronavirus Disease (COVID- 19)
Coronavirus Disease (COVID- 19)Saurabh Kedar
 
emerging infectious diseases
emerging infectious diseasesemerging infectious diseases
emerging infectious diseasesAdoniJehuKwari
 
COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) update
COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) updateCOVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) update
COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) updateSun Yai-Cheng
 
Coronavirus epidemiology, COVID, COVID & intestinal involvement, Hypoxia in C...
Coronavirus epidemiology, COVID, COVID & intestinal involvement, Hypoxia in C...Coronavirus epidemiology, COVID, COVID & intestinal involvement, Hypoxia in C...
Coronavirus epidemiology, COVID, COVID & intestinal involvement, Hypoxia in C...Pallav Singhal
 
Corona virus and hbs.dr quiyum
Corona virus and hbs.dr quiyumCorona virus and hbs.dr quiyum
Corona virus and hbs.dr quiyumMD Quiyumm
 
Innovative Solutions to Combat Spread & Management of Covid-19
Innovative Solutions to Combat Spread & Management of Covid-19Innovative Solutions to Combat Spread & Management of Covid-19
Innovative Solutions to Combat Spread & Management of Covid-19Sidharth Mehta
 
Covid 19 lecture for under graduate students
Covid 19 lecture for under graduate students Covid 19 lecture for under graduate students
Covid 19 lecture for under graduate students Dr.Farhana Yasmin
 
An overview on coronavirus (COVID-19)
An overview on coronavirus (COVID-19)An overview on coronavirus (COVID-19)
An overview on coronavirus (COVID-19)Steffi Thomas
 
COVID-19 ( A Report of 2019 )
COVID-19 ( A Report of 2019 )COVID-19 ( A Report of 2019 )
COVID-19 ( A Report of 2019 )VivekKumar3314
 

What's hot (20)

Coronavirus Pandemic
Coronavirus PandemicCoronavirus Pandemic
Coronavirus Pandemic
 
2019 novel corona virus wuhan, china
2019 novel corona virus wuhan, china2019 novel corona virus wuhan, china
2019 novel corona virus wuhan, china
 
Corona virus disease 2019
Corona virus disease 2019Corona virus disease 2019
Corona virus disease 2019
 
Corona
Corona Corona
Corona
 
Biology & pathophysiology of covid 19 in humans
Biology & pathophysiology of covid 19 in humans Biology & pathophysiology of covid 19 in humans
Biology & pathophysiology of covid 19 in humans
 
COVID-19 reviews- By Sabnam Khatun
COVID-19 reviews- By Sabnam KhatunCOVID-19 reviews- By Sabnam Khatun
COVID-19 reviews- By Sabnam Khatun
 
Covid 19 (corona virus)
Covid 19 (corona virus)Covid 19 (corona virus)
Covid 19 (corona virus)
 
Covid 19-book
Covid 19-bookCovid 19-book
Covid 19-book
 
Cornovirus Microbiology and Management
Cornovirus Microbiology and Management Cornovirus Microbiology and Management
Cornovirus Microbiology and Management
 
Coronavirus disease (covid 19)
Coronavirus disease (covid 19)Coronavirus disease (covid 19)
Coronavirus disease (covid 19)
 
Coronavirus Disease (COVID- 19)
Coronavirus Disease (COVID- 19)Coronavirus Disease (COVID- 19)
Coronavirus Disease (COVID- 19)
 
emerging infectious diseases
emerging infectious diseasesemerging infectious diseases
emerging infectious diseases
 
COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) update
COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) updateCOVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) update
COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) update
 
Coronavirus epidemiology, COVID, COVID & intestinal involvement, Hypoxia in C...
Coronavirus epidemiology, COVID, COVID & intestinal involvement, Hypoxia in C...Coronavirus epidemiology, COVID, COVID & intestinal involvement, Hypoxia in C...
Coronavirus epidemiology, COVID, COVID & intestinal involvement, Hypoxia in C...
 
Corona virus and hbs.dr quiyum
Corona virus and hbs.dr quiyumCorona virus and hbs.dr quiyum
Corona virus and hbs.dr quiyum
 
Innovative Solutions to Combat Spread & Management of Covid-19
Innovative Solutions to Combat Spread & Management of Covid-19Innovative Solutions to Combat Spread & Management of Covid-19
Innovative Solutions to Combat Spread & Management of Covid-19
 
Covid 19 lecture for under graduate students
Covid 19 lecture for under graduate students Covid 19 lecture for under graduate students
Covid 19 lecture for under graduate students
 
Corona virus COVID19
Corona virus COVID19Corona virus COVID19
Corona virus COVID19
 
An overview on coronavirus (COVID-19)
An overview on coronavirus (COVID-19)An overview on coronavirus (COVID-19)
An overview on coronavirus (COVID-19)
 
COVID-19 ( A Report of 2019 )
COVID-19 ( A Report of 2019 )COVID-19 ( A Report of 2019 )
COVID-19 ( A Report of 2019 )
 

Similar to COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review of the History, Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment

COVID-19 & DENTISTRY
COVID-19 & DENTISTRY COVID-19 & DENTISTRY
COVID-19 & DENTISTRY rashmi kurup
 
CORONA VIRUS & it’s effect on daily life
CORONA VIRUS & it’s effect on  daily lifeCORONA VIRUS & it’s effect on  daily life
CORONA VIRUS & it’s effect on daily lifeDanao Maibam
 
Novel coronavirus (covid-19) A Pandemic disease
Novel coronavirus (covid-19) A Pandemic disease Novel coronavirus (covid-19) A Pandemic disease
Novel coronavirus (covid-19) A Pandemic disease KarunaRaghuwanshi1
 
Covid 19--EMERGING AND FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR DENTAL SURGEON
Covid 19--EMERGING AND FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR DENTAL SURGEONCovid 19--EMERGING AND FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR DENTAL SURGEON
Covid 19--EMERGING AND FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR DENTAL SURGEONSOUMENDU KARAK
 
Orthodontic management of patients during covid 19
Orthodontic management of patients during covid  19Orthodontic management of patients during covid  19
Orthodontic management of patients during covid 19Shrutika Chand
 
Emphasis on wellness, education and prevention of covid 19
Emphasis on wellness, education and prevention of covid 19Emphasis on wellness, education and prevention of covid 19
Emphasis on wellness, education and prevention of covid 19shamil C.B
 
Novel Coronavirus COVID-19
Novel Coronavirus COVID-19Novel Coronavirus COVID-19
Novel Coronavirus COVID-19Avinandan Jana
 
History, general features, mode of transmission and prevention of COVID-19
History, general features, mode of transmission and prevention of COVID-19History, general features, mode of transmission and prevention of COVID-19
History, general features, mode of transmission and prevention of COVID-19SIHAS
 
Introduction to coronavirus diseases
Introduction to coronavirus diseasesIntroduction to coronavirus diseases
Introduction to coronavirus diseasesruchirabalvir
 
All you (never) wanted to know about COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2
All you (never) wanted to know about COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2All you (never) wanted to know about COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2
All you (never) wanted to know about COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2Edward Rybicki
 
COVID 19-De pope.pdf
COVID 19-De pope.pdfCOVID 19-De pope.pdf
COVID 19-De pope.pdfmusayansa
 

Similar to COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review of the History, Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment (20)

COVID-19 seminar.pptx
COVID-19 seminar.pptxCOVID-19 seminar.pptx
COVID-19 seminar.pptx
 
COVID-19 & DENTISTRY
COVID-19 & DENTISTRY COVID-19 & DENTISTRY
COVID-19 & DENTISTRY
 
Introduction to covid 19
Introduction to covid 19 Introduction to covid 19
Introduction to covid 19
 
Covid-19
Covid-19Covid-19
Covid-19
 
Covid 19 presentation
Covid 19 presentationCovid 19 presentation
Covid 19 presentation
 
CORONA VIRUS & it’s effect on daily life
CORONA VIRUS & it’s effect on  daily lifeCORONA VIRUS & it’s effect on  daily life
CORONA VIRUS & it’s effect on daily life
 
Novel coronavirus (covid-19) A Pandemic disease
Novel coronavirus (covid-19) A Pandemic disease Novel coronavirus (covid-19) A Pandemic disease
Novel coronavirus (covid-19) A Pandemic disease
 
Clinical presentation of Covid 19
Clinical presentation of Covid 19Clinical presentation of Covid 19
Clinical presentation of Covid 19
 
Covid 19--EMERGING AND FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR DENTAL SURGEON
Covid 19--EMERGING AND FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR DENTAL SURGEONCovid 19--EMERGING AND FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR DENTAL SURGEON
Covid 19--EMERGING AND FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR DENTAL SURGEON
 
Orthodontic management of patients during covid 19
Orthodontic management of patients during covid  19Orthodontic management of patients during covid  19
Orthodontic management of patients during covid 19
 
Novel corona virus (n cov 2019)
Novel corona virus (n cov  2019)Novel corona virus (n cov  2019)
Novel corona virus (n cov 2019)
 
Emphasis on wellness, education and prevention of covid 19
Emphasis on wellness, education and prevention of covid 19Emphasis on wellness, education and prevention of covid 19
Emphasis on wellness, education and prevention of covid 19
 
Novel Coronavirus COVID-19
Novel Coronavirus COVID-19Novel Coronavirus COVID-19
Novel Coronavirus COVID-19
 
History, general features, mode of transmission and prevention of COVID-19
History, general features, mode of transmission and prevention of COVID-19History, general features, mode of transmission and prevention of COVID-19
History, general features, mode of transmission and prevention of COVID-19
 
Covid 19 update
Covid 19 updateCovid 19 update
Covid 19 update
 
Introduction to coronavirus diseases
Introduction to coronavirus diseasesIntroduction to coronavirus diseases
Introduction to coronavirus diseases
 
Covid 19-ppt
Covid 19-pptCovid 19-ppt
Covid 19-ppt
 
Covid
CovidCovid
Covid
 
All you (never) wanted to know about COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2
All you (never) wanted to know about COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2All you (never) wanted to know about COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2
All you (never) wanted to know about COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2
 
COVID 19-De pope.pdf
COVID 19-De pope.pdfCOVID 19-De pope.pdf
COVID 19-De pope.pdf
 

Recently uploaded

medico legal aspects of wound - forensic medicine
medico legal aspects of wound - forensic medicinemedico legal aspects of wound - forensic medicine
medico legal aspects of wound - forensic medicinethanaram patel
 
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdfBasic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdfDivya Kanojiya
 
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)Mohamed Rizk Khodair
 
HERBS AS HEALTH FOOD - Brief introduction and therapeutic applications of: N...
HERBS AS HEALTH FOOD - Brief introduction and therapeutic applications of:  N...HERBS AS HEALTH FOOD - Brief introduction and therapeutic applications of:  N...
HERBS AS HEALTH FOOD - Brief introduction and therapeutic applications of: N...Divya Kanojiya
 
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous SystemPresentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous SystemPrerana Jadhav
 
SHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptx
SHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptxSHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptx
SHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptxAbhishek943418
 
Study on the Impact of FOCUS-PDCA Management Model on the Disinfection Qualit...
Study on the Impact of FOCUS-PDCA Management Model on the Disinfection Qualit...Study on the Impact of FOCUS-PDCA Management Model on the Disinfection Qualit...
Study on the Impact of FOCUS-PDCA Management Model on the Disinfection Qualit...MehranMouzam
 
Giftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-Knowledge
Giftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-KnowledgeGiftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-Knowledge
Giftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-Knowledgeassessoriafabianodea
 
Music Therapy's Impact in Palliative Care| IAPCON2024| Dr. Tara Rajendran
Music Therapy's Impact in Palliative Care| IAPCON2024| Dr. Tara RajendranMusic Therapy's Impact in Palliative Care| IAPCON2024| Dr. Tara Rajendran
Music Therapy's Impact in Palliative Care| IAPCON2024| Dr. Tara RajendranTara Rajendran
 
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptxPresentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptxpdamico1
 
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaur
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaurMETHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaur
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaurNavdeep Kaur
 
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptxepilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptxMohamed Rizk Khodair
 
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdfPULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdfDolisha Warbi
 
SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES.pptx made by Sapna Thakur
SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES.pptx made by Sapna ThakurSCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES.pptx made by Sapna Thakur
SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES.pptx made by Sapna ThakurSapna Thakur
 
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!ibtesaam huma
 
Valproic Acid. (VPA). Antiseizure medication
Valproic Acid.  (VPA). Antiseizure medicationValproic Acid.  (VPA). Antiseizure medication
Valproic Acid. (VPA). Antiseizure medicationMohamadAlhes
 
Introduction to Sports Injuries by- Dr. Anjali Rai
Introduction to Sports Injuries by- Dr. Anjali RaiIntroduction to Sports Injuries by- Dr. Anjali Rai
Introduction to Sports Injuries by- Dr. Anjali RaiGoogle
 
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom KidanemariamANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom KidanemariamAkebom Gebremichael
 
Apiculture Chapter 1. Introduction 2.ppt
Apiculture Chapter 1. Introduction 2.pptApiculture Chapter 1. Introduction 2.ppt
Apiculture Chapter 1. Introduction 2.pptkedirjemalharun
 
World-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptx
World-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptxWorld-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptx
World-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptxEx WHO/USAID
 

Recently uploaded (20)

medico legal aspects of wound - forensic medicine
medico legal aspects of wound - forensic medicinemedico legal aspects of wound - forensic medicine
medico legal aspects of wound - forensic medicine
 
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdfBasic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
Basic principles involved in the traditional systems of medicine PDF.pdf
 
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
Primary headache and facial pain. (2024)
 
HERBS AS HEALTH FOOD - Brief introduction and therapeutic applications of: N...
HERBS AS HEALTH FOOD - Brief introduction and therapeutic applications of:  N...HERBS AS HEALTH FOOD - Brief introduction and therapeutic applications of:  N...
HERBS AS HEALTH FOOD - Brief introduction and therapeutic applications of: N...
 
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous SystemPresentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
 
SHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptx
SHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptxSHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptx
SHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptx
 
Study on the Impact of FOCUS-PDCA Management Model on the Disinfection Qualit...
Study on the Impact of FOCUS-PDCA Management Model on the Disinfection Qualit...Study on the Impact of FOCUS-PDCA Management Model on the Disinfection Qualit...
Study on the Impact of FOCUS-PDCA Management Model on the Disinfection Qualit...
 
Giftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-Knowledge
Giftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-KnowledgeGiftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-Knowledge
Giftedness: Understanding Everyday Neurobiology for Self-Knowledge
 
Music Therapy's Impact in Palliative Care| IAPCON2024| Dr. Tara Rajendran
Music Therapy's Impact in Palliative Care| IAPCON2024| Dr. Tara RajendranMusic Therapy's Impact in Palliative Care| IAPCON2024| Dr. Tara Rajendran
Music Therapy's Impact in Palliative Care| IAPCON2024| Dr. Tara Rajendran
 
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptxPresentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
 
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaur
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaurMETHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaur
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE IN NURSING.pptx by navdeep kaur
 
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptxepilepsy and status epilepticus  for undergraduate.pptx
epilepsy and status epilepticus for undergraduate.pptx
 
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdfPULMONARY EDEMA AND  ITS  MANAGEMENT.pdf
PULMONARY EDEMA AND ITS MANAGEMENT.pdf
 
SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES.pptx made by Sapna Thakur
SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES.pptx made by Sapna ThakurSCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES.pptx made by Sapna Thakur
SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES.pptx made by Sapna Thakur
 
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
 
Valproic Acid. (VPA). Antiseizure medication
Valproic Acid.  (VPA). Antiseizure medicationValproic Acid.  (VPA). Antiseizure medication
Valproic Acid. (VPA). Antiseizure medication
 
Introduction to Sports Injuries by- Dr. Anjali Rai
Introduction to Sports Injuries by- Dr. Anjali RaiIntroduction to Sports Injuries by- Dr. Anjali Rai
Introduction to Sports Injuries by- Dr. Anjali Rai
 
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom KidanemariamANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
ANEMIA IN PREGNANCY by Dr. Akebom Kidanemariam
 
Apiculture Chapter 1. Introduction 2.ppt
Apiculture Chapter 1. Introduction 2.pptApiculture Chapter 1. Introduction 2.ppt
Apiculture Chapter 1. Introduction 2.ppt
 
World-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptx
World-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptxWorld-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptx
World-Health-Day-2024-My-Health-My-Right.pptx
 

COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review of the History, Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment

  • 1. C0VID-19 THE PANDEMIC Likhit Akotkar M . Pharma I Department Of Pharmacology BVDU Poona College Of Pharmacy , Pune. CORONA VIRUS DISEASE
  • 2. CONTENTS • HISTORY • INTRODUCTION • SIGN & SYMPTOMS • EPIDEMIOLOGY • STRUCTURE OF CORONA VIRUS • CAUSES • PATHOPSHYIOLOGY • DIAGNOSIS • PREVENTION • TREATMENT • HOW CHINA RECOVERED • ON GOING RESEARCH WORKS • MYTHS & FACTS • LOCKDOWN EFFECTS
  • 3. HISTORY OF PANDEMICS • The Black Death: 1346-1353 • American polio epidemic: 1916 • Spanish Flu: 1918-1920 • AIDS pandemic and epidemic: 1981 • H1N1 Swine Flu pandemic: 2009-2010 • West African Ebola epidemic: 2014-2016 • Zika Virus epidemic: 2015
  • 5. TERMINOLOGIES • SARS – Severe acute respiratory syndrome • MERS- Middle east respiratory syndrome • TMPRSS- Transmembrane serine protease • ACE2 – Angiotensin converting enzyme • NGS – Next Gen sequencing • CB-NAAT- cartridge based nucleic acid amplification test.
  • 6. HISTORY • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has since spread globally, resulting in an ongoing pandemic. As of 24 May 2020, more than 5.31 million cases have been reported across 188 countries and territories, resulting in more than 342,000 deaths. More than 2.11 million people have recovered • A 55-year-old individual from Hubei province in China may have been the first person to have contracted COVID- 19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus spreading across the globe. That case dates back to Nov. 17, 2019
  • 7. HISTORY • Following the pneumonia cases of unknown cause reported in Wuhan and considering the shared history of exposure to Huanan seafood market across the patients, an epidemiological alert was released by the local health authority on Dec 31, 2019, and the market was shut down on Jan 1, 2020. Meanwhile, 59 suspected cases with fever and dry cough were transferred to a designated hospital starting from Dec 31, 2019. An expert team of physicians, epidemiologists, virologists, and government officials was soon formed after the alert. • Since the cause was unknown at the onset of these emerging infections, the diagnosis of pneumonia of unknown cause in Wuhan was based on clinical characteristics, chest imaging, and the ruling out of common bacterial and viral pathogens that cause pneumonia. Suspected patients were isolated using airborne precautions in the designated hospital, Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China), and fit- tested N95 masks and airborne precautions for aerosol-generating procedures were taken. This study was approved by the National Health Commission of China and Ethics Commission of Jin Yin-tan Hospital . • Local centres for disease control and prevention collected respiratory, blood, and faeces specimens, then shipped them to designated authoritative laboratories to detect the pathogen A novel coronavirus, which was named 2019-nCoV, was isolated then from lower respiratory tract specimen and a diagnostic test for this virus was developed soon after that.14 Of 59 suspected cases, 41 patients were confirmed to be infected with 2019-nCoV. The presence of 2019-nCoV in respiratory specimens was detected by next-generation sequencing or real-time RT-PCR methods.
  • 8.
  • 9. The World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020, has declared the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak a global pandemic .WHO Director- General, Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, ACT NO. 3 OF 1897 1 [ 4th February, 1897.] An Act to provide for the better prevention of the spread of Dangerous Epidemic Diseases • The first case of the COVID-19 pandemic in India was reported on 30 January 2020, As of 24 May 2020, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare have confirmed a total of 131,868 cases. • Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897 have been invoked, and educational institutions and many commercial establishments have been shut down. India has suspended all tourist visas, as a majority of the confirmed cases were linked to other countries. •
  • 10. INTRODUCTION 1) The word coronavirus is more of an umbrella term that refers to a group of viruses that cause diseases like SARS, MERS and COVID-19 2) As is often the case in the scientific world, coronavirus’ name is Latin. In the ancient language, corona means crown. 3) As for the new disease caused by the coronavirus, it was originally called novel coronavirus. In February, the World Health Organization gave us the name COVID-19
  • 12. PREVENTIONS ❖ To cover coughs and sneezes ❖ To wash hands regularly with hot water ❖ To avoid contact with infected people ❖ To maintain an appropriate distance from people ❖ To refrain from touching eyes, nose, and mouth In case of symptoms ❖ To follow advice given by your healthcare provider ❖ Use immune booster Arsenic album 30 ❖ Turmeric milk as immune booster STAY HOME STAY SAFE To use face masks N95 “N” stands for. “Not resistant to oil, ”95 stands for- respirator blocks at least 95 percent of very small (0.3 micron) test particles.
  • 13. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE) Ministry of Textiles and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare have been working together in this endeavour. Domestic manufacturers rose to the occasion and so far 11 manufacturers have cleared quality tests. Orders for 21 lakh PPE coveralls have been placed on them. Currently they are supplying 6-7,000 coveralls per day and this is expected to go up to 15,000 per day within the next week. Synthetic blood penetration resistance test are performed to check quality
  • 14. Private Gov Approved PPE MFG Org. JCT Mills Phagwara, ▪ Arvind Mills, ▪ Amare Safety, ▪ Mumbai based Sure Safety, ▪ Delhi-based Sai Synergy,Manchanda, ▪ Shree Healthcare, Chennai etc, Government PPE MFG Org. • DRDO- INMAS • INDIAN RAILWAYS • SITRA • CSIR labs • From 0, India now produces nearly 4.5 lakh PPE kits every single day. • In 60 days, the PPE industry in India has witnessed 56 times growth. •
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17. EPIDEMIOLOGY AS ON DATE OF 25 MAY 2020 MALES ARE MORE PRONE TO AFFECTED DUE TO CORONA MALES 76% FEMALES 24% https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/#countries
  • 18.
  • 19. CAUSES Risk factors for COVID-19 appear to include: •Recent travel from or residence in an area with ongoing community spread of COVID-19 as determined by CDC or WHO •Close contact (within 6 feet, or 2 meters) with someone who has COVID-19 for more than 5 minutes or being coughed or sneezed on by an infected person 1. Complications 2. Although most people with COVID-19 have mild to moderate symptoms, the disease can cause severe medical complications and lead to death in some people. Older adults or people with existing chronic medical conditions are at greater risk of becoming seriously ill with COVID-19. 3. Complications can include: 4. Pneumonia and trouble breathing 5. Organ failure in several organs 6. Heart problems 7. A severe lung condition that causes a low amount of oxygen to go through your bloodstream to your organs (acute respiratory distress syndrome) 8. Blood clots 9. Acute kidney injury 10.Additional viral and bacterial infections 11.
  • 20. VIROLOGY – COVID 19 Corona virus belongs to Realm -roboviria Phylum - incertae sedis Order -nidovirals Family -coronaviridae Size -120–140 nm in size SARS COV- 2 particles arebosphericle and has proteins called spikes S - SPIKE N- NEUCLEOCAPSID E- ENVELOPE M- MEMBRANE HE- HAEMAGLUTIN ESTERASE
  • 21.
  • 22. ▪ Enveloped virion ▪ Positive sense ▪ Single stranded ▪ Largest RNA virus ▪ 80-160 nanometer in diameter ▪ Genome ranges 26-34kbs PROPERTIES OF CORONA probably represent avian species (III) -coronavirus(deltaCoV), (IV) -coronavirus (gammaCoV) There are four genera of CoVs probably present in bats and rodents (I) -coronavirus(alphaCoV), (II) -coronavirus (betaCoV),
  • 26.
  • 27. In contrast, SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and SARS- CoV-2 are classified to β coronaviruses. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY They are largely divided into four genera; α, β, γ, and δ based on their genomic structure. α and β coronaviruses infect only mammals . Human coronaviruses such as 229E and NL63 are responsible for common cold and croup and belong to α coronavirus.
  • 29. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY S1 – SPIKE PROTEIN ECTODOMAIN N TERMINAL DOMAIN FUNCTION AS HEAD S2– HAEMAGLUTININ ESTERASE ENDODOMAIN C TERMINAL DOMAIN FUNCTION AS TAIL BINDING FUSION ACE2 RECEPTORS LOCATIONS
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34. After replication virus invade alveolar cells in called pneumocytes - 2 Activation of inflammatory Mediators Macrophages, interferons -Cytokines -TNF-ALPHA -IL-1 -IL6 -IL8 -chemokines Also stimulates nerve endings For COUGH REFLEX (early stage) TNF-ALPHA -IL-1 - this both are proinflammatory cytokines vascular permeability vascular adhesion receptor for neutrophile at site of enjury IL-8 stimulate neutrophiles due to vascular permeability causes leakage of fluid in interstitial space which results in Pulmonary Oedema. Lead to – DYSPNEA HYPOXIA
  • 35. Due to increase in wbc in serum , neutrophils try to engulf virus and remove biproduct as a chemicals Lead to damage alveolar cells Results secretion of surfactant surface tension of 02-blood congestion BREATHLESS OR TIGHTNESS IN CHEST FEVERTIGHTNESS IN CHEST WBC acts on arachidonic acid pathway WBC acts on arachidonic acid pathway Leukotriens Bronchoconstriction Prostaglandins IL8 TNF-ALPHA FEVER
  • 36. HEART Due to hypoxia decrease O2 blood supply Sense by chemoreceptor in aorta Stimulates cardiorespiratory centres in brain TACHYCARDIA LIVER IL6 Stimulates hepatocytes To release CRP In blood test Show inflammation in artries Fibrinogen and hepsidin KIDNEY Biliary nitrogen Creatinine
  • 37. TREATMENT (DRUGS) TMPRSS2 INHIBITORS (SERINE PROTEASE) OR FUSION INHIBITORS -Nafamostat mesylate (UCT) -Camostat mesylate (APPROVED) ACE-2 INHIBITORS OR BINDING INHIBITORS -SSAA09E2 (UCT) V-ATPase INHIBITORS OR LYSOZOMAL INHIBITORS - Hydroxychlorquine (HCQ) RNA DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE INHIBITORS -Remdesvir -Favipiravir PROTEASE INHIBITORS -Ritonavir -Lopinavir ACE-2 INHIBITORS OR BINDING INHIBITORS -SSAA09E2 (UCT) Aquilegia chrysantha Phytopharmaceutical drug (UCT)-2020 IMMNOSUPPRESSANT -TOCILIZUMAB -LENZILUMAB
  • 38. AQCH is derived from tropical, climbing shrub cocculus hirsutus, which is used in Asia for its apparent medicinal properties. AQCH, which is being developed for dengue, has shown broad antiviral effect in in-vitro studies and hence is being tested as a potential treatment option for COVID-19 Sun Pharma received approval from the Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) for the AQCH trial in April, AQCH Phyto pharmaceutical drug (UCT)-2020
  • 43. COVID GUN B) Development of new, faster more sensitive and cheaper diagnostic test: CRISPR/ Cas based paper diagnostic test (FELUDA) FNCAS9 Editor-Linked Uniform Detection Assay: A CRISPR/ Cas -based paper diagnostic test has been developed by CSIR. The FELUDA methodology has been developed in CSIR-IGIB for detecting single nucleotide variants in RNA or DNA. C) Development of RT-LAMP diagnostic kit:CSIR-IIIM has partnered with Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) to develop and scale-up a new Reverse Transcriptase-Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP). D) Large scale sample testing using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS): Next- generation sequencing (NGS) allows for analyzing a large number of viral sequences from infected patients. CSIR- SYNGENE E) Serology based Diagnostic Tests : CSIR-CCMB and CSIR-IICB are working towards developing these tests.
  • 44. F) Shipping Container-based Diagnostic Labs: To increase the testing capacity in the country, along with HP, Shipping Container-based Diagnostic Labs (Self Contained, -ve pressure, TrueNat MicroPCR, etc.) have been developed and are being deployed in Delhi (2 nos) and Chennai (2 nos). G) Bio-repositories for SARS-CoV-2: Three CSIR labs, CSIR-CCMB in Hyderabad, CSIR-IGIB in Delhi and CSIR-IMTech Chandigarh have been designated bio-repositories for SARS-CoV-2 viral samples. This will help in the development of indigenous diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines and research to better understand the COVID19 disease in the Indian scenario. . H) IR TEMPRATURE SENSOR GUN WORKS ON IR EMMISSION OF POINTING OBJECT AND NOT AFFCTED BY SURROUNDING, TEMP MANY OF THE SUSPECTS BY COVID CHECKED FEVER BY THIS DEVICE
  • 45. ICMR APPROVED TRUENAT FOR DIAGNOSIS OF COVID19 ICMR APPROVED CB-NAAT FOR DIAGNOSIS OF COVID19 Cartridge based Nucleic acid amplification test
  • 46.
  • 47. WHO IS AT MORE RISK ? Death due to covid19 Death 27% Death 73% • XX chromosome contains "a large number of immune- related genes." And since women have two of these, • More estrogen level to show anti-inflammatory property. • Less Smoking • Less social exposure • Less ACE-2 Expression • Less alcohol consumptions • XY chromosome contains "a LESS number of immune- related genes. • LOW estrogen level to show anti-inflammatory property. • MORE Smoking • MORE social exposure • MORE ACE-2 Expression • MORE alcohol consumptions
  • 48. DISEASE RELATED DEATHS BIRTH RATE DEATH RATE 26 932 586 births per year 9 778 073 deaths per year 19.3 births/1,000 population 7.3 deaths/1,000 population 73,787 births per day 26,789 deaths per day 3,074 births each hour 1,116 deaths each hour 51 births each minute 19 deaths each minute 8 lakh deaths in india every month Due to any reason heart Lungs cancer Road accident suicide 2,666 APPROX deaths in india every month Only one Reason COVID19
  • 49. Elisa granato in uk was the first patient to inject covid vaccine for trial
  • 50. On going research works IIT Delhi and @AIST Japan, working on natural compounds from Ashwagandha and propolis for last several years, explored the possibility of some of their bio-actives to interact with SARS-CoV-2 NIPER- GUWAHATI 3D ANTIMICROBIAL FACE SHIELD.
  • 51. CSIR and Cadila have received regulatory approval for clinical trials to evaluate efficacy of an existing gram- negative sepsis drug, called Sepisvac for COVID19 patients.
  • 52.
  • 53. COMPLICATIONS Israel's biological institute claims to have found antidote to coronavirus The Los Alamos team, assisted by scientists at Duke University and the University of Sheffield in England, identified 14 mutations. Those mutations occurred among the nearly 30,000 base pairs of RNA that other scientists say make up the coronavirus’s genome. The report authors focused on a mutation called D614G, which is responsible for the change in the virus’ spikes. 1)Difficult to differentiate symptoms of pneumonia and covid 19 2)Spreading is more effective than treatment 3)No available drug , vaccines .
  • 54. EFFECT ON PREGNANCY •A study of nine pregnant women who were infected with COVID-19 and had symptoms showed that none of their babies was affected by the virus. The virus was not present in amniotic fluid, the babies’ throats, or in breast milk. •Another study of 38 women infected with COVID-19 found that none of the newborns tested positive for the disease. •Two case reports of infants born to mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated that the infants had elevated levels of antibodies to the virus but did not demonstrate any clinical evidence of infection with the virus The risk of passing the infection to a fetus appears to be very low. Currently there is no evidence of any fetal malformations or effects due to maternal infection with COVID-19.
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 59.
  • 60.
  • 61. in March found no signs it had been engineered. "By comparing the available genome sequence data for known coronavirus strains, we can firmly determine that Sars- CoV-2 originated through natural processes," MYTHS THAT CORONA VIRUS CAME FROM SCIENTIFIC AND RESEARCH PROCEDURES IN LAB
  • 62. HOW CHINA RECOVERED 76 DAYS OF STRICT LOCKDOWN THERMAL SENSOR TO ALL HOME GUARDS DEPLOYED DRONES ALL OVER CHINA MAINLY IN CONTAINMENT TECHNICAL ASSOCIATION WITH ALIBABA CLOSE CONTACT APP HOSPITAL IN JUST 10 DAYS
  • 63. Q & A discussions
  • 64. REFERENCES 1) Ye Yi, Philip N.P. Lagniton, Sen Ye, Enqin Li and Ren-He Xu International Journal of Biological Sciences 2020; 16(10): 1753-1766. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.45134 1) Wikipedia/covid19 2) Yu-Tao Xiang 1, Wen Li 2, Qinge Zhang 3, Yu Jin 2, Wen-Wang Rao 2, Liang-Nan Zeng 4, Grace K I Lok 5, Ines H I Chow 2, Teris Cheung 6, Brian J Hall 7 ncbi https://www.medindia.net/patients/calcul ators/pop_clock.asp