Buddhism Per 4


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  • I like this title page image.  Mr. Gehl   Michael Hamp
  • Michael Hamp
  • simplfy.  Are there any stories or myths from his life that might be good to share? Mr. Gehl   Michael Hamp    
  • Michael Hamp
  • Michael Hamp
  • Michael Hamp
  • Michael Hamp
  • I like the format of this slide with the map.  Perhaps something similar could be done with the other branches of Buddhism.  Mr. Gehl     Richard Brooks   
  • Richard Brooks
  • too wordy. Mr. Gehl
  • I assume you are still working on this slide Mr. Gehl  
  • too wordy Mr. Gehl
  • simplify.  Mr. Gehl
  • Michael Hamp
  • Richard Brooks
  • Richard Brooks
  • Michael Hamp
  • Michael Hamp
  • Richard Brooks
  • Richard Brooks
  • Richard Brooks
  • Richard Brooks
  • Michael Hamp
  • Michael Hamp
  • Michael Hamp
  • Michael Hamp
  • Michael Hamp
  • Michael Hamp
  • Michael Cobler
  • Michael Cobler
  •   Michael Cobler
  • Michael Cobler
  • Michael Hamp
  • Michael Hamp
  • Buddhism Per 4

    1. 1. Buddhism By Richard Brooks, Nicholas Iacuzzo, Michael Hamp, Michael Cobler and Chris Naylon
    2. 2. Everything started with...                          Siddhartha Gautama (more commonly known as the Buddha)
    3. 3. His Birth <ul><ul><li>Born in Southern Nepal to Shuddodana Gautama and his wife Mahamaya  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Born fully awake and could also speak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Told his mother he had come to free mankind from all suffering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Named Siddhartha, which means &quot;he who has attained his goals&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Story of Asita the soothsayer </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Leaving his Palace Life <ul><ul><li>Eventually, Siddhartha wants to leave the palace and see what is outside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Finds out about the death and suffering that surrounds him </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At age 29, he no longer be happy living his previous life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Leaves the palace and goes with a group of ascetic monks to practice austerity and self-mortification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not find secret to ending suffering so doubles efforts, places himself near death. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little girl saves him, ends his practice, and decides meditation will help him find the way to end suffering </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Meditation and Teaching <ul><ul><li>Decides to sit under a fig tree (now known as a bodhi tree) and meditate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the full moon of May,  Siddhartha finally understood the answer to the question of suffering and became the Buddha, which means “he who is awake.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Story of Mara and the temptations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similarity to 40 days and Jesus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brahma persuades Buddha to teach to others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets the ascetics he practiced with, explains the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path to them </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. His Late Life and Death <ul><ul><li>His son becomes a monk, and his father a layman, but sons now not allowed to join Buddhism without parent's permission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wife and aunt asks to become members, first women to be Buddhist nuns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Buddha says all are capable of enlightenment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Achieves enlightenment at 35 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaches throughout northeast India for another 45 years  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Story of his death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Again, similarity to Jesus </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. The Three Main Kinds of Buddhism Theraveda, Mahayana, and Varjayana
    8. 8. Theravada Buddhism <ul><ul><li>Currently prevails in: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cambodia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myanmar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thailand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literally means &quot;way of the elders&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively Conservative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to early Buddhism </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Theravada Buddhism <ul><ul><li>The Buddha is forever beyond the reach of humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pased into the internal peace of the nirvana </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong focus on teachings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>participation in the Noble Eightfold Path </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>especially meditation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main goal is to enter the nirvana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monks hold the most prominent position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>males required to serve as a monk in some regions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Mahayana Buddhism <ul><li>-Main adherents are located in China, Japan, and Korea </li></ul><ul><li>-Northern branch of Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>-Literally means &quot;Greater Ox Cart&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>-Emerged in 1st century as a liberal interpretation of Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>-Main focuses are meditation, Divine Buddha, the Four Noble Truths, and Bodhisattvas, or enlightened saints who unselfishly delay nirvana to help others attain nirvana as well </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    11. 11. Mahayana Buddhism continued <ul><li>-Available to all walks of life, not just monks </li></ul><ul><li>-Strict adherents to the teachings of Buddha </li></ul><ul><li>-Believes that one life is enough to achieve nirvana or enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>-Enlightenment is achieved through a </li></ul><ul><li>normal life with some spiritual involvement </li></ul><ul><li>-Compassion is the highest virtue </li></ul><ul><li>-Emphasizes intuition and practice </li></ul><ul><li>-Developed as a result of Theraveda Buddhism </li></ul>
    12. 12. Vajrayana Buddhism <ul><ul><li>Gets its name from the Sanskrit word vajra , which represents the thunderbolt wielded by Indra, the god of war and weather. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The principles of Vajrayana Buddhism are considered the closest to what Buddha practiced to achieve dharmakaya, or true enlightenment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vajrayana is based on tantric doctrines, which may be accessed by practicing sadhanas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A sadhana can consist of controlled breathing, meditation, yoga, and the repetition of  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>      prayers known as mantras. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    13. 13. Vajrayana Buddhism (continued) <ul><ul><li>Vajrayana does not believe in Nirvana, but believes the practicer should want to achieve pure enlightenment but also be willing to reincarnate to assist others on Earth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike the other forms of Buddhism, Vajrayana Buddhism believes that pure enlightenment can be achieved in one lifetime, so it is often called the &quot;Short Path&quot;. </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Symbols, Rituals, and Teahcings (Dharma) of Buddhism
    15. 15. Nirvana and Samsara <ul><ul><li>Samsara </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;wheel of rebirth&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>continual act of being reborn </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>considered the ordinary realm of suffering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>people can escape the cycle of rebirth by achieving Nirvana </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nirvana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;blowing out&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>end result of spiritual perfection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one must follow the Eightfold Path </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>achieved with the full understanding of Buddha's teachings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>anatta </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can't be understood until experienced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the end of suffering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if anything is experienced it is joyful </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Cosmology <ul><ul><li>eternal cyclical time scheme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ages of creation and destruction follow one after the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>believed that Buddism has come and gone many times in a cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many worlds exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>there are many heavens and many hells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>between them are the middle realms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>humans and animals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. The Four Noble Truths <ul><li>Buddha developed the Four Noble Truths while he was meditating under the Fig (bodhi) tree. They are the method to end suffering in the world. They are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life means suffering and must be understood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The origin of Suffering is attachment to the material world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ending of suffering is attainable in this life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The way to end suffering is the Eightfold Path </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. The Eightfold Path <ul><li>The Eightfold path was created by Buddha as the method to attaining enlightenment. It is the method to ending suffering in this life, as stated in the Four noble truths. The common symbol for it is the Wheel of Life, in which each spoke respresents a different part. They are as follows in clockwise order: </li></ul>
    19. 19. The Three Marks of Existence <ul><ul><li>summarize the changing nature of reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Three Marks of Existence: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  anatta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;no self&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>there is no ultimate reality or essence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  anicca </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  &quot;impermanence&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  people are constantly changing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  dukkha </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;suffering&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  natural result of anatta and anicca </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Dukkha <ul><ul><li>things in life are not what they should be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the experience of pain or discomfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people will always experience unpleasant things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no pleasant things can last </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>attatchement to pleasant things causes suffering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buddha condemned attachments even between family </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>human life is naturally subject to dukkha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>everyhting is finite </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Karma <ul><ul><li>moral law of cause and effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personal identity depends entirely on karma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when a person dies their karma continues in the same path it was </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eventually bringing rebirth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the newborn person is possessed by the karma of the previous life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>karma is constantly affected by the morality of one's actions </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. The Five Precepts <ul><ul><li>Rules one should follow to live a moral life and achieve good karma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to the Christian Ten Commandments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five Precepts apply to all Buddhists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not take life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not take what is not given </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not engage in sensuous misconduct </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use false speech </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not drink intoxicants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The following precepts apply only to monks and nuns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not eat after noon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not watch dancing or shows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not use garlands, perfumes, or ornaments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>do not use a high or soft bed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>do not accept gold or silver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddgist morality is based on intention </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>Meditation is one of the most important aspects of Buddhism, as it is used to achieve complete enlightenment (Nirvana). There are three major kinds of meditation in Buddhism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traquility meditation ( Samatha ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to calm the mind and train it to concentrate on a specific item( kammatthana) which are usually: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>devices (like color or light) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>repulsive things (like a corpse) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>recollections (such as sayings of the Buddha) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>or virtues (like loving-kindness) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insight Meditation ( Vipassana ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in the realization of important truths in one's life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Considered superior to Tranquility meditation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of concentration, uses mindfulness of a certain subject or item </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  2 most common methods of this meditation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Walking mindfulness - all of your being is focused on walking and your mind will not stray to other things </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  Sitting meditation - similar to walking, but mindfulness is on breathing instead of on walking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Meditation
    24. 24. Meditation continued <ul><li>3. Loving-Kindness Meditation ( Metta Bhavana ) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  Seen as supplemental or complementary to other forms of Meditation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  Purpose is to develop the mental habit of love for one's self and others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>achieved through three stages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific pervasion - the meditator focuses on sending loving-kindness to specific people </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directional pervasion - the meditator projects feelings of loving-kindness in all geographical directions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-specific pervasion - radiating feelings of universal, unconditional love in everyday life </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. The Eight Auspiscious Symbols <ul><ul><li>Although there are many symbols in Buddhism, the Eight Auspiscious Symbols, otherwise known in Sanskrit as &quot;Ashtamangala&quot; (ashta meaning eight and mangala meaning auspicious) are the most popular symbols in Buddhism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each of the eight symbols is associated with the physical form of the Buddha. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. The Eight Auspiscious Symbols <ul><ul><li>Umbrella or parasol (chhatra) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Golden Fish (matsya) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treasure Vase (bumpa) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lotus (padma)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conch (shankha) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auspicious or Endless Knot (shrivatsa) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victory Banner (dhvaja) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dharma-Wheel (Dharmachakra) </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. The Eight Auspiscious Symbols
    28. 28. The Swastika The Swastika is a well-know good-luck symbol from India. Unfortunately, it is too well known in the west, as the Nazis chose it as their main symbol. In Sanskrit, swastika means &quot;conducive to well-being&quot;. In the Buddhist tradition, the swastika symbolizes the feet or footprints of the Buddha and is often used to mark the beginning of texts. Modern Tibetan Buddhism uses it as a clothing decoration. With the spread of Buddhism, it has passed into the cultures of China and Japan where it has been used to symbolize plenty, abundance, prosperity and long life.
    29. 29. Dimensions of Buddhism <ul><li>Experiential </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal of Buddhism to achieve Nirvana </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfection, mysticism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perfect enlightenment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhahood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 stages of enlightenment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Mythic </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Myths not like Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More like stories showing the way of life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Monkey king </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;I'm awake&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ananda's Enlightenment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Go with the flow style of life showed in the myths </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    30. 30. Dimensions of Buddhism <ul><li>Doctrinal </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Many strong doctrines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impermanence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebirth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pratityasamutpada </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Karma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatta </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethical </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Karma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical code </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;What goes around comes around&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued into next life </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Dimensions of Buddhism <ul><li>Ritual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  Meditation=strong role in Buddhism  involves special symbols=Golden Buddha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic hand gestures (Mudras)  important.  5 main gestures            </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prayers wheels involve reciting special Buddhist mantras, or sacred sounds? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four main pilgramage sites for Buddhists: Lumbini, Bodh Gaya, Sarnath, and Kusinara. 4  minor pilgramage sites where the Buddha performed miracles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  No generally heirarchy like in Christianity except for Tibetan Buddhism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  Dali Lama>Panchen Lama>lamas (general monks)>laypeople </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of first religions to include women in monasteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can achieve complete enlightenment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women relatively equal to men.  Buddha hesitated slighted for their protection </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Dimensions of Buddhism <ul><li>Material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Materialistic beliefs are believed to be wrong </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Said it is dangerous and self-destructive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases attatchement to the natural world->more suffering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are a few important idols for meditation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This includes a special string of 108 beads used by devout Buddhists while meditating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monasteries have a ban on wealth, although some get quite large </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Buddhism Today <ul><li>Most followers of Buddhism are in China and the surrounding countries, and few large percentages of Buddhists are outside of that area. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Bibliography <ul><ul><li>&quot;Buddhist Meditation.&quot; Buddhism . ReligionFacts, n.p. Web. 27 Feb. 2010. http://www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/practices/meditation.htm . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;General Buddhist Symbols.&quot; A View on Buddhism . 3 Oct. 2009. Web. 27 Feb. 2010. http://www.viewonbuddhism.org/general_symbols_buddhism.html . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boeree, Dr. George C. The Life Of Siddhartha Gautama . n.p. Web. 28 Feb. 2010. http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/siddhartha.html . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hooker, Richard. &quot;Theraveda Buddhism.&quot; World Civilizations . 1996. Web. 27 Feb. 2010. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/BUDDHISM/THERA.HTM . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hooker, Richard. &quot;Mahayana Buddhism.&quot; World Civilizations . 1996. Web. 27 Feb. 2010. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/BUDDHISM/MAHAYANA.HTM . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kazlev, Alan M. Vajryana (Tantric Buddhism) . 12 July 2004. Web. 27 Feb. 2010. <http://www.kheper.net/topics/Buddhism/Vajrayana.htm>. </li></ul></ul>