4th generation mobile_communication

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4th generation mobile_communication

  1. 1. FOURTH GENERATION MOBILE COMMUNICATION TO PERVASIVE COMMUNICATION
  2. 2. Elements of Mobile Cellular Communication Network cell BS Mobile Unit The Cell MSC HLR VLR
  3. 3. <ul><li>MAC layer </li></ul><ul><li>Packets from higher layer small sub packets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop-and-wait ARQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go-back N ARQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective-repeat ARQ </li></ul></ul>ARQ - Automatic Retransmission and Fragmentation Mechanism TYPES OF ARQ SYSTEM
  4. 4. Stop-and-wait ARQ Go-back N ARQ
  5. 5. Selective-repeat ARQ
  6. 6. 1st Generation Standard 5th Generation Fig-5: 3D Model Representing Mobile Communication Syste Radio Frerquency Bit rate 4th Generation 2nd Generation 2.5th Generation 3rd Generation TDMA FDMA TDMA, CDMA CDMA LA CDMA, WCDMA multirate CDMA UTRA GPRS GSM, IS-54, TDMA AMPS, TACS, NMT Target 2-5GHz 100Mbps to 1Gbps 2000Mhz to 2200Mhz 2Mbps 1800Mhzto1900MH z 171 to 384Kbps 800MHz to 900MHz 9.6 to 14.4Kbps 935 Mhz to 950 Mhz 2.4 to 30Kbps On the way. With high frequency mobile extension, accompanying a variety of new techniques having a data rate 260 times of 3G. DSP ASP Packet Switching ISP, WCDMA, CDMA uP GPS Proposal for AMC OFDM DrivenTechnique MultiaddressTechnique
  7. 7. Introduction to Pervasive communication
  8. 8. <ul><li>All these existing and upcoming networks, combined together, are promising a global scale distributed infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>for </li></ul><ul><li>“ all-time everywhere” communication , </li></ul><ul><li>known as </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasive Communication , </li></ul><ul><li>that seamlessly and ubiquitously aids users in accomplishing their tasks effortlessly. </li></ul>Pervasive Communication
  9. 9. Network View WIRED BACKBOME NETWORK WIRED over WIRELESS NETWORK PERVASIVE NETWORK PERVASIVE COMPUTING SYSTEM WIRELESS ACCESS PERVASIVENESS MANAGEMENT MIDDLEWARE SUPPORT
  10. 10. <ul><li>An overall infrastructural support to provide proactively a rich set of computing capabilities and services to a user (may be a nomad) every time everywhere in a transparent, integrated and convenient way . </li></ul>Pervasive Computing (PerCom)
  11. 11. PerCom Components <ul><li>Pervasive computation </li></ul><ul><li>embeded computers and sensors “everywhere” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in devices, appliances, equipment, in homes, workplaces and factories, and even in clothing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pervasive communication </li></ul><ul><li>everywhere”a high degree communication </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>through a ubiquitous and secure network infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>with a wired core and wireless adjuncts (shell) that communicate with the core. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Computing will be everywhere: pens, cans, pads, boards, coffee machines, alarm watches , etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invisible and sublime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication will be everywhere: among all devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wired and/or wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-hop or multi-hop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some of the devices (like refrigerators, ovens, etc.) already have computers incorporated, but without the capability of communicating among each other </li></ul>Pervasiveness
  13. 13. Intelligent Refrigerator <ul><li>Take out last can of milk </li></ul><ul><li>Swipe can’s UPC label, which adds milk to your shopping list for Friday afternoon </li></ul><ul><li>Make a note that you need milk for the guests you are having over this weekend </li></ul>Intelligent Refrigerator
  14. 14. <ul><li>Friday rolls around and you have not bought milk </li></ul><ul><li>You are on your way back from office </li></ul><ul><li>Deadline-based reminder is sent by the refrigerator to your pager </li></ul>Reminder to Pager
  15. 15. <ul><li>AutoPC informs you that you are now near a supermarket </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunistic reminder: “If it is convenient, stop to buy milk” </li></ul>Helpful AutoPC
  16. 16. Pervasive Network (PerNet)
  17. 17. PerCom Architecture <ul><li>PerCom architecture can be framed into three broad areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PerNet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>networking, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PerWare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>middleware, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PerApp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>To implement this architecture, all the three sets of technologies must be used judiciously </li></ul>
  18. 18. PerCom Model Applications Middlewares Network (PerNet) user user user user
  19. 19. <ul><li>Smartness involves accurate sensing (input) followed by intelligent control or action (output) between two worlds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>namely machine and human </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E.g., a pervasive computing system that automatically adjusts heating, cooling, and lighting levels in a room depending on an occupant’s electronic profile must have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some form of perception to track the person and also </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some form of control to adjust the ventilation and lighting systems </li></ul></ul>Smartness
  20. 21. Conclusion
  21. 22. Thank You !!!

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