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Natalie Barnhart pd. 5


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Natalie Barnhart pd. 5

  1. 1. Riparian Zone Retreat and Population Studies Natalie Barnhart, Honors Biology II, Period 5
  2. 3. Niche of Wild Turkey Meleagris gallopavo <ul><li>In the warmer months of the year the wild turkey is living within hayfields, pastures and grass fields. It is important that these fields are close to wooded areas for cover, roosting trees and food. Winter keeps the turkey close to its area of cover with enough food to last even in the most extreme cold. It usually nests beneath a tree or log. </li></ul><ul><li>The summer and fall food course includes corn, oats, small grain and fruits. During the colder months the turkey will feed on the nuts from oak, hickory, and beech trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Wild turkey are omnivorous. A field with grass cover and bushes provides the wild turkey with insects to eat and protection from. They eat a variety of insects including grasshoppers, spiders, millipedes, slugs and ticks. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Factors which Affect Birth Rate of the Wild Turkey <ul><li>By the time the tom or male turkey is a year old he will start to reproduce with the female in early spring. </li></ul><ul><li>A gobbler will mate with numerous hens but have no part in the family. </li></ul><ul><li>The female can expect to lay eggs by the fourth week of pregnancy. Everyday the hen will lay an egg until the clutch or nest ranges from 8-15. </li></ul><ul><li>After an incubation in a month’s time, the eggs hatch and will follow the mother away from the nest. </li></ul><ul><li>The young turkeys are named poults. They make easy targets for predators and depend on the hen for survival. When it is feeding time and danger is suspected, the hen will give a call for the poults to freeze their motion. This is their only act of defense. </li></ul><ul><li>The poults become independent at the age of six months. By this time their flying skills are proficient and they can fend for themselves which is perfect because in the winter the flocks will separate. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Factors Which Affect the Death Rate of the Wild Turkey <ul><li>Raccoons, foxes, large birds and snakes will eat the eggs of the nest or the poults. </li></ul><ul><li>Most turkeys last about a 1.5 years. However, a few outliers have been found to survive 10 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Turkeys do a lot of traveling in their daily routine. This makes them susceptible to ticks and flees. The land where they find their food may also be contaminated with ringworms. </li></ul><ul><li>The turkey is a natural trekker and overpopulation would cause the turkey to round up its young and move. </li></ul><ul><li>Hunting in the fall and spring also affects the death rate. With major changes to bag limits and harvesting times, the Pa Game Commission was able to restrict hunters from devastating the population. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Food Chain of Turkey Producer Autotroph Primary Consumer Omnivore Secondary Consumer Carnivore I forget Consumer Omnivore Tertiary Consumer Omnivore
  6. 7. Food web of the Turkey Draw and explain a possible food web for your researched animal. Include description of the trophic level(s) in which each organism is found. Herbivore Producer Omnivore Carnivore Carnivore Producer Carnivore Herbivore Herbivore Omnivore Producer
  7. 8. Population Sampling Techniques <ul><li>A simple random sample (SRS) from a stream is a great way to infer about the stream life. Higher numbers of Class I organisms are typical for the higher quality streams like Powdermill Run. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pa Game Commission produces annual reports on wild turkey by the harvested numbers from fall and spring seasons and by population sampling of a manageable habitat. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Stream Quality Data & Analysis <ul><li>Overall, Powdermill proves to have a high quality stream due to the high number of Class I organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Streams work better with Class I organisms because they are pollution-intolerant. </li></ul><ul><li>With a quality stream like Powdermill Run, wild turkey can flourish will a plentiful and clean water supply for themselves, their poults and the food they consume. </li></ul><ul><li>A higher number of Class III organism in a stream would signify a low quality water source and the wild turkey could become ill or deceased with a habitat beside it. With continued pollution of a stream, the wild turkey will move to a more secure area for water. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Water Testing Data & Analysis <ul><li>A high quality stream has a large volume of dissolved oxygen, little to no phosphates and nitrates, and a neutral pH of 7. </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrates and phosphates are good for soil, but directly and indirectly damage the stream. Dissolved oxygen is a positive factor. This means that there is plenty air getting through the gills of fish and breathable air for organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>The wild turkey would die if located by a mine. The water would be far to acidic to drink or consume insects from. The marsh has an outrageously high level of nitrates. That would cause an overgrowth of plants and limit photosynthesis beneath the water’s surface. A turkey needs clean water and they need to consume clean bugs </li></ul><ul><li>Do not forget to include how temperature and turbidity affects the ecosystem. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Soil Testing & Analysis <ul><li>An acidic level of ph </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally, nitrogen and phosphorous levels should at a moderate volume. </li></ul><ul><li>Out of range levels of nitrates and phosphates may increase the vegetation or have no effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizers have these high levels to promote growth and too much runoff could poison the ground water. </li></ul><ul><li>A medium level for potash is suggestible since it has a the potassium for the soil however, it is taken from mines. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Positive and Negative Factors <ul><li>The wild turkey feeds off a large variation of plant life (oats, nuts, grasses) and insects (grasshoppers, spiders). </li></ul><ul><li>If the soil quality is poor, the turkey will indirectly be affected at meal time and supplying enough nutrients for poults will be difficult </li></ul><ul><li>A buffer zone is a positive factor for the riparian zone. They filter potential fertilizer chemicals from entering the stream. A negative factor is a location near a danger zone like a mine or industry that pollutes the habitat. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Conclusion <ul><li>The ecosystem cannot continue to be violated with pollution and endangered organisms. People need to open their minds and eyes to what is really happening to planet earth. </li></ul><ul><li>The riparian zone proves to be a great function within wildlife and a recognizable staple of the American outdoors. </li></ul><ul><li>With more responsibility over abandoned mines and fertilizer run-off, the restoration effort for a cleaner habitat can . </li></ul>
  13. 14. Works Cited Steil, Mark. &quot;Controlling Farm Runoff Could Have Multiple Benefits.&quot; MPR News . Minnesota Public Radio, 5 Aug. 2009. Web. 2 May 2010. < 04/controlled-drainage/>.   &quot;Science of Acid Mine Drainage and Passive Treatment.&quot; Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection . N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2010.     &quot;Pennsylvania to Commit Federal Abandoned Mine Lands Funding to Mine Drainage Cleanup.&quot; Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection . 18 July 2008. Web. 30 Apr. 2010. <>.   &quot;Watershed.&quot; Encyclopedia Britannica . N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2010. < basin>.