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Brandon Campbell Pd. 5


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Brandon Campbell Pd. 5

  1. 1. Riparian Zone Retreat and population studies Brandon Campbell Honors Bio II Period 5
  2. 3. Niche White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) <ul><li>The white-tailed deer can survive in various types of terrestrial habitats such as big woods, thick underbrush, swamps, very desolate areas, and farmland. </li></ul><ul><li>When the white-tail feeds in feeds early in the morning and in the evening then rests during the day. The White-tail feeds upon grass, various buds and leaves off of trees such as maple, oak, and etc, apples, acorns, and a variety of shrubs. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Niche Continued White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) <ul><li>The predators that depend on the White-tail as a food source are coyotes, mountain lions, bears, wolves, and the jaguar (only in the south). The White-tail is a very hard animal for them to catch because of its ability to run and bound into thick brush, they also have very good sense of smell, sight, and hearing which helps them escape from predators quickly. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Factors on the Birth Rate of the White-tailed Deer <ul><li>The White-tail reproduces from October to December, then gives birth during the spring months. </li></ul><ul><li>The White-tail gives birth once a year and when the doe gives birth she can have from 1 to 3 fawns. </li></ul><ul><li>The gestation period of the white-tailed deer is on average 6 ½ months. </li></ul><ul><li>Both bucks and does are ready to reproduce by 2 years old but they don’t stop reproduction until their death. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Factors of Birth Rate continued <ul><li>The does are very protective of their offspring. She will leave them in thick cover while she forages for food until they are 4 weeks old then she takes them with her. 8 to 10 weeks later the fawns are completely weaned off their mothers milk. After one year the young males will leave their mothers and the females stick with their mothers for around 2 years. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Factors that affected the death rate of White-tailed Deer <ul><li>The white-tail can live on average 2 to 4 years. </li></ul><ul><li>The maximum lifespan of the white-tail is around 20 years but they normally don’t live past 10 years. </li></ul><ul><li>The white-tail provides food for large predators, they are also responsible for damage of trees during the winter months, and they are a main consumer of plant communities. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Factors of Death Rate continued <ul><li>The common tick affects the white-tail by sometimes giving them lime disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Over population causes the white-tail to do damage to various forest vegetation and causes car accidents. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Food Chain Primary Consumer Herbivore Rhododendron White-tailed Deer Producer Autotroph Black Bear Secondary Consumer Carnivore Bacteria Decomposer
  9. 10. Food web of White-tailed Deer Herbivore Producer Omnivore Carnivore Carnivore Producer Carnivore Herbivore Herbivore Omnivore Producer
  10. 11. Population Sampling <ul><li>One of the most common was of population sampling is radio tagging animals then later finding them and counting the organisms. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Stream Quality Data & Analysis <ul><li>The Graph represents a very healthy stream and ecosystem surrounding the stream. </li></ul><ul><li>If you have a lot of Class I organism the stream is healthy but if you have a lot of Class III is polluted. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor stream quality will drive the White-tail from that area since it needs water to drink. </li></ul><ul><li>If there was a lot of Class III organism in the stream and the ecosystem would drive most of the animals away to an area where the stream health is better. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Water Testing Data & Analysis <ul><li>The Ideal Dissolved Oxygen level is 6 -10 and the pH level is 6.5-7.5. The ideal levels for potash and nitrates is zero. </li></ul><ul><li>If the ideal levels for Powdermill is the same as above. If these levels change drastically it would kill off life in the stream and around it. </li></ul><ul><li>The white-tail lives near the streams and marshes of PA and survives by drinking clean water but if it was around a polluted stream the white-tail might die off or move away from that area in search of clean water. </li></ul><ul><li>If the water is too turbid the clingers and animals in the stream will die off and affect the predator and prey relationship. The ideal water temperature is cold because the colder water contains more oxygen. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Soil Testing & Analysis <ul><li>Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and pH are the three most important soil factors. Phosphorus is important to root growth. Plants need the soil’s pH level to be as neutral as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal range for pH level in soil is 7.5 to 8. The potash, nitrogen, and phosphorous levels should be around medium (10). </li></ul><ul><li>If the levels in the soil aren’t correct the plants will die of f and it would effect the riparian zone and the process of photosynthesis. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Positive and Negative Factors <ul><li>The 3 different type of water sources have a direct impact on the white-tail deer, poor water quality would kill off the population of deer. </li></ul><ul><li>If the soil levels aren’t good, it would kill off the plant life which the white-tail depends on as a source of food. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Conclusion <ul><li>I learned that many animals and various other organisms are effected by stream pollution and etc. </li></ul><ul><li>I found how complex some of the food webs of the riparian zone are and how much organisms rely on each other. </li></ul><ul><li>I’d like to do more research and work on the pollution of PA streams. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Work Cited <ul><li>Moen, Ronald A. &quot;Deer.&quot; The New Book of Knowledge® . 2010. Grolier Online. 12 May 2010 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Odocoileus virginianus.&quot; Animal Diversity Web . N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2010. <>. </li></ul>