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Shaw Caitlin


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Shaw Caitlin

  1. 1. Riparian Zone Retreat and population studies Caitlin Shaw Biology II Pd. 1
  2. 3. Niche of Coyote (Canis Lantrans) <ul><li>The coyote can adapt very well to many environments including forest, grasslands, swamps, and deserts. They also are very tolerant of humans allowing them to make homes in riparian, urban, and agricultural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the coyote is 90% carnivorous, they are able to eat just about anything. In the wild they eat fresh meat such as chipmunks, snakes, birds, mice, and squirrels. They are also scavengers and eat some household pets and livestock if they are around humans. They will go after deer when in packs. In the winter and fall seasons, coyotes often rely on vegetation to sustain their diet. </li></ul><ul><li>When hunting mice, the coyote silently stalks the prey listening to the movements. Suddenly it becomes very still and then leaps up in the air and pounces on its prey. When hunting deer, they rely on different members of their pack to take turns running after the deer until it tires and easily gives in. They will also eat peoples’ garbage allowing them to easily adapt to suburban areas. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Factors which Affect Birth Rate of Coyote <ul><ul><li>Courtship between a couple lasts about 2 to 3 months and the female goes into heat anytime in late January to early March. These couples can last for multiple years, but not necessary for life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They only reproduce once a year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual maturity is reached at between 9 and 10 months of age in the coyote and lasts the whole life. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Factors which Affect Birth Rate of Coyote (continued) <ul><ul><li>The gestation period of a pregnant female coyote is usually between 60 to 63 days. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The litter size can range from 1 to as many as 19 pups; however, the average litter size is between 6 and 7. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Females nurse and care for their young in the first days of their life in the den. After the pups are weaned, they begin to venture out of the den. In this stage of their life, both the mother and the father take care of the pups along with the rest of the coyote pack. Because they can not fully digest food, they are fed regurgitated meat from their adult caretakers. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Factors Which Affect the Death Rate of Coyote <ul><li>Coyotes have mostly predator-prey relationship with their prey. They regulate the population of mice and rabbits. In doing this they prevent over-population and the destruction of the habitat of these animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Coyotes have a relatively long life span. In the wild they live up to 14 years, in captivity they can live to 21. </li></ul><ul><li>Ticks and Fleas are very common in coyotes. Both gorge themselves of the coyote’s blood, embedding in the skin and hair of the animal. Worms are also common in coyotes, heart worms being very common. Mites can also inhabit the fur and skin of the coyote causing mange. Mange is a skin and hair condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Over-population has less of an effect on the coyote than other animals because it is able to eat just about anything; however, if the area becomes to over populated than the coyote’s source of prey diminishes. This can cause them to leave the area, die off, or if they are around humans, kill livestock and pets. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Food Chain of Assigned Organism Producer Autotroph Primary Consumer Omnivore Secondary Consumer Carnivore Tertiary Consumer Carnivore The oak trees acorn serve as the producer and base of the food chain. The mouse, which is an omnivore, then will eat the acorn as the primary consumer. The black snake then eats the mouse as a carnivore and secondary consumer and then the coyote completes the food chain by eating the black snake as the carnivorous tertiary consumer.
  7. 8. Food web of Coyote Carnivore Decomposer Producer Omnivore Herbivore Producer Carnivore Carnivore Carnivore
  8. 9. Population Sampling Techniques <ul><li>Mark and Recapture is used by collecting animals and marking them in some way to distinguished that they were already caught. They are then let go and then a recapture takes place. </li></ul><ul><li>Predator prey is used by estimating the population by finding the number of prey in a region. If the number of prey is high that means the predator population is low, and vise versa. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientist use Predator-prey techniques to find the population of the coyote. But the most common technique is Mark and Recapture in which they tag the animal’s ears/ fit it with a radio collar to study it’s life. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Stream Quality Data & Analysis <ul><li>The graph represents a very good stream quality because the most organisms are living in it are in the first class. </li></ul><ul><li>The animals in the first class are very intolerant to pollution and the stream must have good quality for them to survive. Because the third class is very low, that means that the stream is good enough for the class one for the to thrive. </li></ul><ul><li>The good stream quality allows for many invertebrates organisms to survive allowing many of the animals that consume them survive. These consumers in turn provide food for the coyote. Because they have food, the coyotes do not have to move out of the area or rely on humans for food. </li></ul><ul><li>If the organisms were mostly class three and the stream was of bad quality, the coyote would be indirectly affected. Animals such as frogs that eat the Class I organisms then do not have a food source. Snakes that eat the frogs then do not have food and the coyote who would usually eat the snake is down a food source. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Water Testing Data & Analysis <ul><li>Low nitrate and phosphate allow for healthier water bodies that are not clogged by too many plants. High dissolved oxygen content provides enough oxygen to sustain life and the pH levels are in the middle so it is not too acidic or basic. </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal ranges would be: </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrates and Phosphates should be at or very close to zero. The Dissolved Oxygen level should be between 6 and 10 mg/L.The pH levels should be around 6.5 and 7.5. </li></ul><ul><li>If the factors went outside the ranges, it would damage the stream area and the life currently in the water would be unable to survive. If they were unable to survive many other creatures would be need to find a new food source. </li></ul><ul><li>The temperature level is also important. The colder the water the more oxygen in the water and also more class one organisms cannot survive in warm waters. The turbity level should be very clear. If the water is very unclear, animals will not be able to survive. Gills would become clogged, they would not be able to cling to rocks, and predators would not be able to see their prey. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the coyote is adaptable to almost all environments, would easily adapt to these habitats. In fact it is likely that they are already living in this habitat. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Soil Testing & Analysis <ul><li>pH is needed in the soil because it helps plants utilize the nutrients in the soil. Nitrogen gives plants the dark green color and helps stimulate leaf and stem growth. Phosphorous is essential for plant growth, it also helps the flowering process and seed production. Finally Potash is needed for flowering and in photosynthesis to make sugars. </li></ul><ul><li>pH 6-8, and medium ranges for the rest of the chemicals in the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>If the chemical levels are out of their ideal range it could damage the ecosystem. It could change what plants are able to survive in the soil. If the plants of the area change some animals will not have a food source. The soil could also leach into streams and if the chemical ranges are off, it could damage the stream and the organisms living with in it. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Positive and Negative Factors <ul><li>The stream, marsh, and mine waters will help the coyote add to it’s diet. Because the water is so clear and healthy frogs are able to live in the water and off the life with in it. This creates another food source for not only the coyote’s other food sources but it will also eat the frogs. </li></ul><ul><li>The soil conditions would allow for certain plants to grow. Because these plants grow they give food to organisms that the coyote eats. </li></ul><ul><li>The biggest negative factor affecting the ecosystem is human pollution. Septic tanks and fertilizer can leach into streams. Also, mine drainage can contaminate water supplies. On the opposite side, trees near the stream can positively affect the water by preventing negative factors from leaching in. By planting trees, the ecosystem will become stronger. Also putting limestone in areas subject to mine drainage can help clean the water. The coyote is affected by damaged ecosystems because their habitat can be lost and food sources depleted. If we take care of the environment we can help the coyote population thrive and if their food sources are not depleted, then they will be less likely to kill livestock. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Conclusion <ul><li>I learned that the temperature of the water can also tell how healthy the stream is and that the colder the water the higher the dissolved oxygen content. I also never knew what Potash was, nor had I heard of it. </li></ul><ul><li>The effects of the temperature of the water again was very interesting. Also, I found the coyote’s life span very interesting, I thought it would be much shorter. It also surprised me how large their litters can be. </li></ul><ul><li>I would like to study the effects that humans have had on the coyote and their population. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Works Cited Brewer, Duncan. Coyotes and Jackels. Manson Crest Publishers. 2003. web. Fritts, Steven H. &quot;coyote.&quot; Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia . 2009. Grolier Online. 6 May 2009 <> Tokar, Eric. “Coyote.” Animal Diversity Web. 6 May 2009. <> “ Coyotes.” Overland Park Kansas. 6 May 2009. < #disease.>