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Engineering Sustainability into Design David F. Taggart Cal Poly Materials Engineering 85’ November 1, 2003
outline <ul><li>state of industry </li></ul><ul><li>what is “sustainability” </li></ul><ul><li>sustainable design </li></u...
state of industry <ul><li>Human productivity has reached new heights… of WASTE! </li></ul><ul><li>Americans waste or cause...
state of society <ul><li>the top 10% of Americans enjoy 29% of the wealth, while the bottom 10% receive less than 2% </li>...
the cost of progress <ul><li>Industries have achieved incredible efficiency in terms of  production cost </li></ul><ul><li...
what is sustainability?
what is sustainability <ul><li>Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to ...
what is sustainability <ul><li>The pursuit of long-term viability and progress of a business while taking responsibility f...
efficiency… <ul><li>Efficient building design: </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize air leakage w/ fixed windows </li></ul><ul><li>E...
…or reuse/recycling <ul><li>Only 2% of today's solid waste is recycled </li></ul><ul><li>Recycled materials and their embo...
…is not enough <ul><li>Improved efficiency, more reuse and recycling are all steps in the right direction, but simply put ...
sustainable design
product life cycle <ul><li>Resources (capital) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul>...
sustainable design starts with <ul><li>a clear understanding/shaping of product requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is...
sustainable design <ul><li>Effective design must include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An awareness of the interdependence betwee...
nature as design inspiration <ul><li>Kevlar:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input: petroleum derived molecules, sulfuric acid, hig...
bio and techno metabolism <ul><li>There is no waste in nature, it’s a complete cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Biosphere: the cycl...
material considerations <ul><li>Source, extraction, local impact </li></ul><ul><li>Embodied energy </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic...
design perspectives
designing for renewable energy <ul><li>Powerlight effectively packaged solar power for commercial buildings </li></ul><ul>...
design for bio nutrients <ul><li>New upholstery fabric for Steelcase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8,000 chemicals were considered...
design for techno nutrients <ul><li>Xerox’s digital docucenter copier family </li></ul><ul><li>Designed with a “zero to la...
design for service <ul><li>Interface has produced over 5 billion pounds of carpet now residing in landfills where they wil...
design for… <ul><li>Repair </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum consumables and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrading </li></ul><ul...
systemic sustainability
Hypercar SUV Crossover <ul><li>Does the same job as current Ford Explorer but with half the mass, increased safety, 4x eff...
flip the problem <ul><li>Conventional design:  from fuel to wheels </li></ul><ul><li>~7 units of fuel are used to deliver ...
<ul><li>Conventional design:  save fuel as specific goal </li></ul><ul><li>Trade off and compromise other design goals (si...
<ul><li>Conventional design:  stamped/welded steel </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap material/lb, but costly to manufacture </li></u...
sustainable design tool Environment Economy Society Is eco strategy also good for economy Profitability Living wage Mutual...
y(our) future
y(our) future <ul><li>Earth is a closed system: energy and mass </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce, reuse, and recycle is not enough...
what it takes <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork </li...
relevant reading <ul><li>“ Cradle to Cradle”, McDonough & Braungart </li></ul><ul><li>“ Natural Capitalism”, Paul Hawken e...
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Engineering Sustainability into the Design Process

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Presentation to the Engineering College of Cal Poly San Luis Obispo in 2003 on incorporating sustainability principles into the product development process

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Engineering Sustainability into the Design Process

  1. 1. Engineering Sustainability into Design David F. Taggart Cal Poly Materials Engineering 85’ November 1, 2003
  2. 2. outline <ul><li>state of industry </li></ul><ul><li>what is “sustainability” </li></ul><ul><li>sustainable design </li></ul><ul><li>design perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>systemic sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>sustainable design tool </li></ul><ul><li>y(our) future </li></ul>
  3. 3. state of industry <ul><li>Human productivity has reached new heights… of WASTE! </li></ul><ul><li>Americans waste or cause to be wasted nearly 1 million pounds of materials per person per year including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>920 million square yards of carpet landfill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.3 trillion pounds of carbon in CO2 gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19 billion pounds of polystyrene peanuts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28 billion pounds of discarded food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>360 billion pounds of organic and inorganic chemicals used in manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>710 billion pounds of hazardous waste via chemical production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.7 trillion pounds of construction debris </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In sum, over 50 trillion pounds of American resources are transformed into nonproductive solids and gases annually </li></ul><ul><li>These numbers do not include wastewater nor waste in other countries producing products for import to the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Developing nations are sure to follow our example </li></ul>
  4. 4. state of society <ul><li>the top 10% of Americans enjoy 29% of the wealth, while the bottom 10% receive less than 2% </li></ul><ul><li>1 billion people worldwide (30% of total labor force) either cannot work or do not make a living wage </li></ul><ul><li>In 1996, Fordham’s index of social health was 44% of its 1973 level </li></ul><ul><li>$150 billion per year is spent on traffic accidents </li></ul><ul><li>$250 billion in inefficient medical care overhead </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden costs related to driving exceed $1 trillion annually </li></ul><ul><li>$50 billion per year is spent guarding oil sea lanes </li></ul><ul><li>$100 billion on health costs related to poor air quality </li></ul><ul><li>$450 billion is spent on crime related costs </li></ul><ul><li>In 2001, air pollution took more lives than murder, AIDS, and traffic accidents combined </li></ul>
  5. 5. the cost of progress <ul><li>Industries have achieved incredible efficiency in terms of production cost </li></ul><ul><li>However, the focus of industry’s top managers on productivity and the efficiency of labor and financial resources have missed something… </li></ul><ul><li>We have created possibly the most inefficient system of production in human history… when the other costs are included! </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental and societal costs must be factored into product design and production to arrive at sustainable solutions </li></ul>
  6. 6. what is sustainability?
  7. 7. what is sustainability <ul><li>Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs </li></ul>World Commission on Environment and Development
  8. 8. what is sustainability <ul><li>The pursuit of long-term viability and progress of a business while taking responsibility for listing, calculating, and improving the environmental, social, and economic consequences of that enterprise </li></ul>
  9. 9. efficiency… <ul><li>Efficient building design: </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize air leakage w/ fixed windows </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive use of fluorescent lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Tinted windows to reduce solar input and thus cooling requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Design saves money, energy, and reduces pollutants from the power plant </li></ul><ul><li>Effective building design: </li></ul><ul><li>Daytime light pours via large untinted windows </li></ul><ul><li>Windows open to tailor temperature to personal desires </li></ul><ul><li>Nighttime cool air flushes the building of heat, stale air, and toxins </li></ul><ul><li>Grass covered roof reduces solar input, extends its life, catches runoff, and invites biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy affordable food is served in café open to a sun-drenched atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Herman Miller example demonstrated: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>effective building was at least as “efficient” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>elements did cost more, system cost was less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatic improvements in productivity, product quality, air quality, employee retention and morale </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. …or reuse/recycling <ul><li>Only 2% of today's solid waste is recycled </li></ul><ul><li>Recycled materials and their embodied energy and value are typically put into less valuable, less performing materials </li></ul><ul><li>Products are typically not designed from the start with recycling in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Harmful compounds in these materials can simply be transferred to other products </li></ul><ul><li>Can often require as much energy and waste as for the original product </li></ul>
  11. 11. …is not enough <ul><li>Improved efficiency, more reuse and recycling are all steps in the right direction, but simply put off the inevitable… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extracted mass, often ten times the amount required to make a product, returns to nature as fill, in forms harmful to people and the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products during service often give off mass in the form of toxic or damaging compounds and gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy required to transform the mass into products still ends up lost in the landfill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued reliance on oil as primary energy source has resulted in reduced societal health and national security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The impact of enormous waste on the environment and society contribute to a reduction in quality of life </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. sustainable design
  13. 13. product life cycle <ul><li>Resources (capital) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This product contains hundreds of different materials including: </li></ul><ul><li>toxic gases and metals </li></ul><ul><li>acids </li></ul><ul><li>chlorinated and brominated substances </li></ul><ul><li>In service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Societal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer wants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profit targets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrap </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales </li></ul></ul><ul><li>End of life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landfill </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beginning of life… via sustainable design </li></ul>
  14. 14. sustainable design starts with <ul><li>a clear understanding/shaping of product requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is effectively offered vs. what is wanted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ chlorine free” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does the product need to last decades? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worst case scenario-based design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it a product or should it be a service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Service enables recapture of value rather than landfill, as well as alternate solutions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the appropriate metrics of success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Profitability? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li># pounds of product per # pounds of waste? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Identifying the “right” design and making it more efficient, reusable, recyclable etc. </li></ul>
  15. 15. sustainable design <ul><li>Effective design must include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An awareness of the interdependence between the product and the environment including both short and long term consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intention regarding whether the product will be reused, recycled, or used as “food” for other processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Striving for the elimination of waste altogether </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consideration of natural energy flows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studying natural processes for design inspiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciation of local implications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing the value of products per unit of all the resources employed in its production </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. nature as design inspiration <ul><li>Kevlar: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input: petroleum derived molecules, sulfuric acid, high pressure, several hundred degrees Fahrenheit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output: bullet proof fiber, toxic byproducts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spider silk: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input: ambient temperature and pressure, insects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output: even tougher and stronger fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><li>opportunity for bioengineered product design </li></ul>
  17. 17. bio and techno metabolism <ul><li>There is no waste in nature, it’s a complete cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Biosphere: the cycles of nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic packaging (~50% of local waste) could degrade to release its compounds as fertilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technosphere: cycles of industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic components could be disassembled to serve as high quality feedstocks for new products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy metals could be retrieved for high value materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainable products must feed either or both processes </li></ul><ul><li>Care must be taken to avoid cross-contamination </li></ul>
  18. 18. material considerations <ul><li>Source, extraction, local impact </li></ul><ul><li>Embodied energy </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Off-gassing </li></ul><ul><li>Finish </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Recyclability </li></ul><ul><li>Its use and value to the overall system </li></ul>
  19. 19. design perspectives
  20. 20. designing for renewable energy <ul><li>Powerlight effectively packaged solar power for commercial buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major obstacle to the use of solar power is cost and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerlight packages solar cells on interconnecting foam tiles that eliminate the need for “attachment” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increases downforce with increasing wind speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provide R20 insulation to roof reducing energy costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>extend lifetime of roof reducing maintenance costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provides off-grid power when needed most </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. design for bio nutrients <ul><li>New upholstery fabric for Steelcase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8,000 chemicals were considered for production of the fabric which needed to be durable, attractive, compostible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elimination of materials containing mutagens, carcinogens, heavy metals, endocrine disruptors, persistent toxic substances resulted in only thirty eight chemicals being used in the entire line of fabrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End product line was less expensive to produce, resulted in factory effluent as clean as the water coming in, and fed the biosphere upon its end of life </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. design for techno nutrients <ul><li>Xerox’s digital docucenter copier family </li></ul><ul><li>Designed with a “zero to landfill” goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>95% of components are recyclable as technical nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100% of system is remanufacturable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emits less noise, ozone, heat, and dirt than any comparable machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can use 100% recycled paper without jamming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production is built to order and direct delivered removing additional waste from product life cycle </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. design for service <ul><li>Interface has produced over 5 billion pounds of carpet now residing in landfills where they will occupy space for ~ 20,000 years </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than sell carpet that needs to be replaced every 10 years, they decided to lease a floor covering service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They occasionally replace the 20% of “tiles” that represent 80% of the wear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solenium carpets can be taken apart and recycled back into identical, fresh, high value product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production is simpler, produces 99% less waste, and the floor covering is superior to conventional carpet in every respect </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. design for… <ul><li>Repair </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum consumables and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrading </li></ul><ul><li>Remanufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Upcycling </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely long life </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced life expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Bio or techno nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>(use your imagination) </li></ul>
  25. 25. systemic sustainability
  26. 26. Hypercar SUV Crossover <ul><li>Does the same job as current Ford Explorer but with half the mass, increased safety, 4x efficiency, zero emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle design lasts longer, uses less “consumables” and is upgradeable </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates paint operations </li></ul><ul><li>All composite structure and plastic body uses consistent materials to enable effective reuse and recyclability as high grade technical nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Interior components designed as bio nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>All vehicle components designed for digital dismantling </li></ul>
  27. 27. flip the problem <ul><li>Conventional design: from fuel to wheels </li></ul><ul><li>~7 units of fuel are used to deliver 1 unit of energy to the wheels yielding compounding losses </li></ul><ul><li>Since ~85% of the fuel energy is lost in the engine, en route to the wheels, and in accessories, focus on incremental reductions in those losses </li></ul><ul><li>Hypercar design : from wheels back to fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Radically cut the car’s mass and energy drag first </li></ul><ul><li>Each unit of energy saved at the wheels saves ~7 units of fuel up front yielding compounding savings </li></ul><ul><li>This makes several times improvements in efficiency do-able </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Conventional design: save fuel as specific goal </li></ul><ul><li>Trade off and compromise other design goals (size, performance, safety) </li></ul><ul><li>Rely on government intervention (efficiency standards, gasoline taxes, subsidies, mandates) to induce people to buy the resulting less attractive cars </li></ul><ul><li>Hypercar design: make the car superior , yet comparably priced, so people want it </li></ul><ul><li>The more purchased, the more fuel saved </li></ul><ul><li>Ultralight and low system drag enables synergistic design opportunities, snowballing weight savings </li></ul><ul><li>This enables use of hybrid drive in an overall lighter, simpler, and more functional vehicle </li></ul>don’t save fuel to save fuel
  29. 29. <ul><li>Conventional design: stamped/welded steel </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap material/lb, but costly to manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Two years to design & make ~1,000 steel dies </li></ul><ul><li>High capital intensity, breakeven volume, and financial risk per model </li></ul><ul><li>Long product cycle time increases risk/reward </li></ul><ul><li>Hypercar design: stamped and bonded advanced composite structure </li></ul><ul><li>Costly material/lb, but use less of to reduce system mass </li></ul><ul><li>~20 easy to produce dies </li></ul><ul><li>Self-fixturing assembly </li></ul><ul><li>~90% less capital, assembly, parts, time </li></ul><ul><li>Less expensive (smaller) propulsion system </li></ul><ul><li>Very low breakeven volume and risk/reward </li></ul>affordable cars via costly materials
  30. 30. sustainable design tool Environment Economy Society Is eco strategy also good for economy Profitability Living wage Mutual respect Future generations Labor cost Safe working environment Does waste = food efficiency
  31. 31. y(our) future
  32. 32. y(our) future <ul><li>Earth is a closed system: energy and mass </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce, reuse, and recycle is not enough </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability insures necessary resources for future generations </li></ul><ul><li>The thing that needs to change is our perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think “someone else will solve this” </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of world do we want our children to live in? </li></ul><ul><li>How many graduates from Cal Poly in 2004? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering: 1,140 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture: 443 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture: 906 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business: 631 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A total of 3120 Voices… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… that’s 3 new perspectives for each Fortune 1000 company </li></ul></ul><ul><li> This is the next industrial revolution! </li></ul>
  33. 33. what it takes <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>Boldness… taking a stand </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whatever you can do, or dream you can, begin it… …Boldness has genius, power, and magic in it” </li></ul><ul><li> Goethe </li></ul>
  34. 34. relevant reading <ul><li>“ Cradle to Cradle”, McDonough & Braungart </li></ul><ul><li>“ Natural Capitalism”, Paul Hawken et al </li></ul><ul><li>“ What we Learned in the Rainforest”, Berrett et al </li></ul>“ Whatever you can do, or dream you can, begin it… …Boldness has genius, power, and magic in it” Goethe

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